TOXIC EMISSION REDUCTION EFFORTS IN NEW JERSEY
has a three-pronged approach to decreasing air toxic emissions
in our state. Use these links to learn more about our
specific activities to reduce air toxic emissions from
Point Sources, Area Sources, and Mobile Sources, and to
find out about the goals and objectives of our overall
air toxics program and how we plan to measure its success:
Review: A combination of control technology and
risk assessment requirements employed in the permitting
Reductions: Company initiatives implementing Pollution
Prevention opportunities, and resulting Right-to-Know
and similar disclosure and compliance assistance programs.
Pollutant Control Programs: Air toxics reductions
that result as a side-benefit of control programs
that address ozone precursors, particulate matter,
and other pollutants.
Jersey's permitting process includes control
technology review and risk assessment for some air
toxics. This process addresses both point sources and
of past and present activities
(SOTA) technology requirements for new and modified
sources require that air toxic emissions be minimized.
incinerators, dry cleaners, gas stations and other
types of sources have upgraded their air pollution
controls to comply with SOTA.
assessments are part of the permitting process for specific
sources of special concern, including hazardous
waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerators,
and municipal waste combustors, must prepare a risk
assessment in support of their air permit applications.
1989, a routine risk screening review was instituted
for all air permit applications containing emissions
of any of 56 carcinogens which are of potential
concern, In April 2000, the risk screening review
was expanded to include over a 100 carcinogens.
A method for screening noncarcinogens was also added.
All of the substances identified as air
toxics of special concern in New Jersey are
included in the screening process.
1996, the Department adopted new regulations requiring
Municipal Waste Combustors (MWCs) to decrease their
mercury emissions by 96% by the year 2000.
of our MWCs have reached this goal through a combination
of add-on controls and reducing the amount of mercury
entering their units through discarded batteries
and other mercury-containing waste.
January 2001 the New Jersey Mercury Task Force submitted
its recommendations for reducing mercury emissions to
air through add-on controls, source separation, and
elimination of mercury from products.These are being
reviewed by the Department in order to set priorities
and develop workplans. Some of the recommendations are
already being addressed. For example, revisions to the
Universal Waste Rules have been proposed which will
make it easier to recycle products containing mercury
instead of simply throwing them in the trash. The Department
is working with the NJ Treasury Department to purchase
part of the Performance Partnership agreement, NJDEP
will develop General Permits for dry cleaners and halogenated
solvent cleaners, and Compliance Plans for area sources,
to reduce air toxics. Also, NJDEP will work with USEPA
to implement the Urban
Air Toxics Strategy for air toxics in urban areas.
NJDEP continues its work with USEPA to implement federal
programs such as Maximum Achievable Control Technology
(MACT) Standards for point sources to reduce air toxic
the Clean Air portion of NJDEP's Strategic Plan, two
new strategies are highlighted which will help the Department
to identify air toxic sources of particular concern:
risk assessment: Risk assessment tools will be developed
to help identify facilities where total air emissions
result in peak exposures to air toxics at levels
that may be of concern. Once identified, pollution
prevention and control measures will be developed
and implemented to reduce emissions which lead to
risk assessment: A pilot project will be developed
to evaluate, in a comprehensive manner, air emissions
from point, area and mobile sources within a single
community. The purpose of this pilot project is
to develop an approach for determining cumulative
health risks from inhalation of toxic emissions
within a community.
January 2003, revisions to the DEP Emissions Statement
program were promulgated. These revisions will result
in the reporting of additional facility-wide information
on the emissions of 36 air toxics, beginning in
and similar disclosure and compliance assistance programs
encourage voluntary reductions from Point Sources and
from Area Sources.
Right-to-know (CRTK) - This regulation requires manufacturing
and select non-manufacturing facilities to report the
use, storage or production of hazardous substances. In
addition, large quantity manufacturers or users are required
to report the amounts of hazardous substances released
to the environment.
1988 to 1999, total reported air emissions of certain
air toxics from some sources have been reduced by 77.5%
(from 32.5 to 7.3 million pounds).
in 2000, the reporting thresholds were lowered for several
substances that are persistent, bioaccumulative, or
toxic in the environment (known as PBTs). These lower
thresholds will give the DEP and the public more information
about emissions of these very toxic substances, such
as mercury and dioxin. Click here to view PBTs
and their new reporting thresholds.
Catastrophe Prevention Act (TCPA) - Established the
accidental release prevention program. This program encourages
facilities to reduce inventories or switch to inherently
safer chemicals and processes.
the fourteen years since the TCPA rules were adopted,
the number of sites storing threshold quantities of
toxic and flammable extraordinarily hazardous substances
has decreased by 80%.
the remaining 114 sites, all but two have approved risk
management programs designed to reduce the potential
for a catastrophic release of their extraordinarily
hazardous substances into the community. The last two
plans will be completed soon.
Prevention - While the 1991 rules do not mandate air
toxic emission reductions, there has been a reduction
of 50% in production related wastes since 1987. The Pollution
Prevention Act of 1991 requires facilities in certain
industrial sectors to prepare Pollution Prevention Plans
and submit Plan Summaries that contain 5 year reduction
goals for both use and Nonproduct Output (NPO). Plan summaries
are submitted to the Department every 5 years. Progress
reports towards those 5-year reduction goals are submitted
of the specific findings as a result of Pollution Prevention
Planning (from Hampshire Research Associates, inc. "Evaluation
of the Effectiveness of Pollution Prevention Planning
in New Jersey," May 1996.) include:
Permit - The process of preparing the new Operating
Permit application has resulted in voluntary reductions
and compliance by companies. The Operating Permit program
was created by Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
to consolidate air pollution control requirements for large
facilities into a single permit.
majority of facilities appear to have set higher reduction
goals, on average, than they would have without the
facilities found planning worthwhile and discovered
benefits beyond reduction goals and fulfilling regulatory
Prevention opportunities continue to be plentiful even
for facilities with previous reductions, and planning
was a useful approach to identify them.
level materials accounting was a successful planning
tool for identifying reduction opportunities.
384 Operating Permit applications have been received
thus far, covering 23,000 source operations, many of
which emit air toxics.
Greenhouse Gas Reduction Action Plan, (which is still
under development) will encourage voluntary improvements
in energy efficiency and will track resulting emission
reductions, including estimates of air toxic reductions.
enforcement of incinerator rules resulted in the shutdown
of most small incinerators (in apartment buildings, for
example) in the early 1990s.
Greenstart program is designed to help small businesses
and municipalities to understand and comply with environmental
regulations. At the request of a facility or municipality,
NJDEP will visit and review facility operations and applicable
requirements, and make recommendations for solving any
POLLUTANT CONTROL PROGRAMS
of ozone precursors, carbon monoxide, particulate matter
and other pollutants may also result in air toxic reductions.
These programs address all types of sources: Point, Area,
offset requirements for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
have assisted in the reduction of air toxic emissions.
limits on municipal solid waste incineration resulted
in the shutdown of remaining small municipal waste incinerators
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) emission limitations
Coating rules were phased in between 1990 and 1993,
resulting in a reduction of VOCs in paints. New
rules with further reductions in VOC content are
and control of landfill gases reduces air toxic
Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Program
adoption of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990,
Federal emission standards for newly manufactured
vehicles were made more stringent starting with
the 1994 model year, cutting emissions of hydrocarbons
(many of which are air toxics) by about 40%. New
Jersey has signed on to the National Low Emission
Vehicle (NLEV) Program which started with the 1999
Reformulated Gas (Phase 1) in January 1995 reduced
toxics from gasoline-fueled vehicles by 15% or more
over 1990 levels. This rule limited the benzene
content of gasoline to 1%. Phase 2 standards will
reduce emissions by another 10%.
fuel standards, implemented nationally in 1993,
lowered sulfur content and controlled the octane
rating of diesel fuel, effectively limiting emissions
of aromatics (such as benzene).
sulfur in gasoline rules are about to be proposed.
Requirements would be phased in between 2004 and
Tier 2 standards for light-duty trucks (including
Sport Utility Vehicles) will be proposed later this
year, adopted sometime next year, and take effect
as early as Model year 2004.
Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Program
part of the current Inspection and Maintenance program,
Gas Cap Inspection was added in 1996 to control
evaporative emissions which contain hazardous air
pollutants (benzene, etc.). The complete Enhanced
Inspection and Maintenance program will begin before
December 1999, reducing air toxic emissions still
1998, New Jersey implemented enforcement of visible
(or soot) emissions standards for diesel trucks
and buses. Diesel particulate emissions are a prime
contributor to particulate air toxics.