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Proposed State Implementation Plan Revision for the Attainment and Maintenance of the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards

This proposed State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision presents the Request for Redesignation of the New Jersey portion of the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island moderate carbon monoxide nonattainment area from nonattainment to attainment for the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). This area comprises counties in Northern New Jersey, downstate New York, and Southwestern Connecticut. The New Jersey portion of the area includes Hudson, Essex, Bergen, and Union counties and several municipalities in Passaic County. The Connecticut portion of the area was redesignated to attainment on March 10, 1999. The New York request for redesignation was submitted to the USEPA in May of 2001. On November 22, 1999, the USEPA determined that the entire multi-state nonattainment area had attained the carbon monoxide NAAQS. On August 30, 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) proposed to redesignate the New York portion of the area to attainment.


A public hearing on the proposal will be held at 10:00 am on December 18, 2001, in the Board of Public Utitlies Building, Newark, NJ 07102.

As part of this Request for Redesignation, this proposed SIP revision presents the carbon monoxide Maintenance Plan for the New Jersey portion of the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island carbon monoxide nonattainment area. Implementation of the Maintenance Plan will ensure that the carbon monoxide NAAQS are maintained for at least ten years after a USEPA redesignation.

The proposed redesignation action is a major milestone in New Jersey's clean air effort. All of New Jersey has now attained the carbon monoxide health standard. Attainment of the carbon monoxide health standard represents a significant health benefit to the citizens of New Jersey. Carbon monoxide has significant health effects when present in levels above the standard. An odorless, colorless gas, carbon monoxide is readily absorbed by the body through the lungs and can reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the heart, brain, and other tissues. Exposure to elevated carbon monoxide levels has been linked to adverse health effects and can be especially harmful to children, people with heart disease, and pregnant women. At moderate levels, carbon monoxide exposure has been linked to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue, poor vision and concentration, headaches, and heart pains. Exposure to high levels of carbon monoxide may result in unconsciousness and death.

This proposed SIP revision presents the data and information that the USEPA requires in order to redesignate the area to attainment. Specifically, the document contains: (1) updated air quality monitoring data that demonstrate that measured carbon monoxide levels continue to remain below standards; (2) a Maintenance Plan that includes control measures, transportation conformity budgets, and a Contingency Plan; and (3) other information that supports the Request for Redesignation. The air quality monitoring data shows attainment with the health-based carbon monoxide NAAQS since 1996, while the carbon monoxide inventory projections for the years 2007 and 2014 that are included in the Maintenance Plan show reductions in emissions relative to the emissions estimated for 1996. Therefore, since future carbon monoxide emissions are expected to be lower than during 1996, there is every reason to conclude that attainment of the standard will continue through 2014.

It should also be noted that such a request for redesignation requires full approval of the State's Carbon Monoxide SIP. All portions have been approved, except for the Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Program, and that element was proposed for approval by the USEPA on September 11, 2001.

The Federal Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq., as amended by the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990, Public Law 101-549 (Pub. L. 101-549), November 15, 1990, requires all areas of the nation to attain and maintain compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards. These NAAQS are designed to protect public health and welfare from specific pollutants. As elaborated in USEPA Guidance, an area can be redesignated to attainment if:

  1. the USEPA has determined that the NAAQS have been attained,
  2. the applicable implementation plan has been fully approved by the USEPA under section 110(k) of the Clean Air Act,
  3. the USEPA has determined that the improvement in air quality is due to permanent and enforceable reductions in emissions,
  4. the State has met all applicable requirements for the area under section 110 and Part D of the Clean Air Act, and
  5. the USEPA has fully approved a maintenance plan, including a contingency plan, for the area under section 175A of the Clean Air Act.

For carbon monoxide, there are two primary NAAQS: an average 1-hour standard of 35 parts per million (ppm) and a non-overlapping average 8-hour standard of 9 ppm. Carbon monoxide concentrations in New Jersey have not exceeded the 1-hour standard since the late 1970s. Typical 1-hour maximum concentrations in New Jersey in recent years have been less than 12 ppm, well below the 35 ppm level. New Jersey's noncompliance with the 8-hour carbon monoxide NAAQS prior to 1996 was due primarily to highway sources and had been limited to specific areas during stagnating meteorological conditions. An area is in violation of the 8-hour standard if it experiences two or more exceedences of the 9 ppm standard within any two consecutive calendar years. The 9 ppm standard is exceeded when measured data values equal or exceed 9.5 ppm.

The only area in New Jersey that remains designated as nonattainment for carbon monoxide is located in the northeastern portion of the State. This area is the New Jersey portion of the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island carbon monoxide nonattainment area and includes Bergen, Essex, Hudson, and Union Counties, and the Passaic County municipalities of Clifton, Passaic, and Paterson. This nonattainment area is subsequently referred to in this document as the "northeastern" carbon monoxide nonattainment area. Figure 1 depicts the northeastern carbon monoxide nonattainment area and the carbon monoxide maintenance areas throughout the State.

The Connecticut portion of the nonattainment area was redesignated to attainment on March 10, 1999. New York submitted its request for redesignation of its affected counties in May of 2001. The USEPA proposed approval of the New York request on August 30, 2001.

SIP Revision New Jersey State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the
Attainment and Maintenance of the Carbon Monoxide
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
CO SIP.wpd
Appendix I Appendix I: 1996 Carbon Monoxide Emissions Inventory

Appendix I Atachments: A-I

App-I ZIP file

Appendix II Appendix II: Inventory Projections for 2007 and 2014

Appendix II Atachments: A-I

App-II ZIP file