COMPLYING WITH THE
CLEAN AIR ACT:
IMPACTS AND STRATEGIES
The 1998 NJ Clean Air Council (Council) public hearing sought
comment and information on the progress that the State has made
regarding compliance with the Clean Air Act and the future direction
the State should follow to insure compliance. On December 12,
1997 the USEPA disapproved New Jersey's rate of progress, State
Implementation Plan (SIP), because of the State's delay in implementing
the Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) program for motor
The hearing included testimony on the current status of the
I/M program, the continued impact of ozone transport on New
Jersey air quality, the possible effect of electric deregulation
on air quality control and progress made in the Operating Permit
New Jersey currently has a comprehensive air quality program.
This program has enabled the State to comply with much of the
Clean Air Act. Great progress has been made in the areas of
acid rain, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
particulates and lead. For this significant and widespread progress
the NJDEP is to be commended. However, in the area of ozone
the State remains deficient. The NJ Clean Air Council supports
additional measures to control the precursors of ozone and makes
the following recommendations to correct the SIP deficiency
and to bring the State into compliance with the Clean Air Act
1. The Council continues to support the rapid implementation
of the Enhanced I/M program for automobiles.
2. The Council recommends that the NJDEP adopt future emergency
measures in the event that the I/M program is not implemented,
so that the SIP will not be violated and reductions from other
sources will be adequate to replace the anticipated I/M reductions
and protect the public health.
3. The Council recommends that a study be made of a possible
incentive program for Enhanced I/M private inspection facilities
to encourage private facilities to participate early and continually
in the Enhanced I/M program.
4. The Council recommends that "green power," offered for
sale to consumers after electric industry deregulation, be narrowly
defined to include only those providers who adhere to rigid
air pollution standards. Further, the Council recommends that
the Commissioner support public disclosure of the environmental
impact of power sources.
5. The Council supports the Ozone Transport Assessment Group's
(OTAG) regionwide NOx plan. Developing consensus for the control
of emissions from coal-fired power plants is critical to New
Jersey's compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Council recognizes
the importance of enforcement of regional strategies for control
of interstate ozone transport.
6. The Council supports the NJDEP's Operating Permit Program
including the electronic application system, AIMS/RADIUS. However,
the Council recommends field audits of sources and of emissions
which will help substantiate and validate the Operating Permit
7. The Council supports the early introduction of the National
Low Emission Vehicle (NLEV) program into New Jersey. These vehicles
are 75% cleaner for NOx than the current Tier I vehicle.
8. The Council recommends a continued emphasis on the importance
of Enhanced I/M in the NJDEP's public awareness programs.
9. The Council recommends the formation an interagency taskforce
with participation of interested stakeholders to review air
pollution public education and how the NJDEP can make recommendations
for improved outreach. The Council is interested in participating
in the taskforce should one be created.
10. The Council recommends evaluating the decentralization
of the air pollution program. The resulting air pollution program
structures appear to constrain the flexibility of the department
in utilizing limited resources in the most programmatic effective
and efficient manner.
The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the current
national air pollution program is actually based on the 1970
version of law. In 1990 the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)
revised the 1970 law and set new standards for ambient air quality
in the United States. Each state was directed to write a State
Implementation Plan (SIP) describing its strategy for meeting
these federal standards. When an area does not meet the Clean
Air Act air quality standards, it is said to be "not in attainment."
Currently, New Jersey is not in attainment for ozone, which
is formed from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen
VOCs are carbon-based chemicals which evaporate easily. They
include such hazardous air pollutants as benzene, formaldehyde
and 1,3 butadiene. They cause cancer and other adverse health
effects. They create toxic depositions in lakes and coastal
waters. NOx, a family of gases including nitrogen dioxide and
nitric oxide, irritate the lung, lower resistance to respiratory
infection and contribute to ozone formation. They can also react
chemically in the air to form nitric acid. VOCs and NOx from
motor vehicles contribute to ozone formation in the presence
of sunlight. Ozone is a respiratory irritant that adversely
affects lung function.
There are over five million cars in New Jersey producing tons
of VOCs and NOx each year. New Jersey has more motor vehicles
per square mile than any state in the nation. They represent
the single largest source of air pollution in New Jersey, emitting
about 30 percent of our VOCs, 30 percent of NOx and 60 percent
of our carbon monoxide inventory.
Most of the State, 18 of our of 21 counties, are classified
as serious or worse for ozone non-attainment. It has been shown
that Enhanced I/M can reduce vehicle emissions by 28 percent.
Enhanced I/M will include tests for evaporative emissions as
well as tailpipe exhaust. Evaporative emissions consist of vapors
which escape from various points in the vehicle's fuel system
and are a greater source of reactive hydrocarbon emissions than
Interstate transport into New Jersey causes higher levels
of ozone in our atmosphere. This problem will be exacerbated
by the deregulation of the power industry. Midwest utilities,
many of which are coal-fired, will be producing more electricity
and hence more pollution. Since 1995 the Ozone Transport Assessment
Group (OTAG) has been working to develop consensus recommendation
regarding implementation of the CAAA related to ground-level
ozone problems in the eastern United States.
New Jersey's rate-of-progress State Implementation Plan was
disapproved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) on December 12, 1997. This disapproval was brought about
by New Jersey's delay in implementing the Enhanced Inspection
and Maintenance program.
New Jersey now faces several federal actions and sanctions,
namely restrictions on State planning flexibility for New Jersey
transportation projects, tougher emission offset requirements
for new and expanded sources and ultimately, if the SIP is not
approved, a federal funding freeze for certain New Jersey transportation
SUMMARIES OF TESTIMONY
ROBERT SHINN - NJDEP COMMISSIONER
I would like to present an update concerning the clean air program
by addressing three separate topics.
- Complying with the National Ambient Air quality Standards
- Complying with the State Implementation Plan (SIP)
- Complying with the Operating Permit Requirements.
First, air quality levels of the six criteria pollutants:
sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), lead,
nitrogen dioxide, ozone and acid rain continue to improve. This
improvement is widespread throughout the state, especially for
acid rain, SO2, CO and lead. Problem areas still exist for nitrogen
dioxide and ozone. Since 1990 there has been an improvement
of more that two percent per year, a rate of performance greater
than the national average. Unfortunately, the north central
counties have increased ozone levels because they are downwind
of the greater Philadelphia Metropolitan area. Regarding ozone,
at least 50 percent of our ozone precursors come from transport.
CO compliance has been greatly improved and we are awaiting
the USEPA redesignation in that area. This represents one of
our best achievements. The State has reached attainment with
CO standards and the effectiveness of our I/M program has played
a major role in CO improvements. The success of that program
is also attributable to oxygenated fuel programs and lower emissions
from new car manufacturers and the high percentage of new car
population that New Jersey enjoys. Lead has been reduced because
of reformulated fuels.
We look to improvements in ozone and NOx because the improvements
in motor vehicle emission technology is one of the most positive
signs for air quality in New Jersey. We are finalizing recommendations
currently for the NLEV, which will be introduced two years earlier
than in the rest of the country as a result of our NLEV agreement.
These vehicles are 75 percent cleaner for NOx. We are supporting
new technologies especially those hybrid vehicles that are battery
operated but with different forms of battery charging capabilities.
The fact that there are electric vehicles that can be recharged
while they are utilized will make a dramatic reduction in emissions.
Fuel cells and solar power are also being investigated as some
of the technologies that are of interest to American manufacturers.
Because New Jersey is a state with one of the highest new car
populations we carve into the backlog very quickly on automotive
technology and with current incentives we will be particularly
successful in New Jersey relative to applying the new technology.
Although New Jersey has accomplished much regarding air pollution,
there is still much to do. The Enhanced I/M program will be
a big part of the equation for reducing volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) and NOx and it will be a part of our CO maintenance program.
Motor vehicles are still the single largest source of air pollution
in New Jersey with emissions of 30 percent VOCs, 30 percent
NOx and 60 percent CO. We have more motor vehicles per square
mile than any other state in the nation. Enhanced I/M is essential
since 18 out of 21 counties are classified as serious or worse
for ozone non-attainment.
On November 5, 1992 the USEPA promulgated its final rule for
I/M requirements. This established a performance based standard
which called for a fully centralized test on the I/M program
using the I/M 240 tests procedure. This rule called for implementation
by January 1, 1995. In December 1994 the Governor reached an
agreement on the conceptual framework of New Jersey's Enhanced
I/M program design which provided the State with greater flexibility
in implementing this program. This extended New Jersey's deadline
for Enhanced I/M inspection. Allowing New Jersey credit for
decentralized programs also increased flexibility for compliance.
However, in early 1997 New Jersey failed to obtain a valid bid
for implementation of the Enhanced I/M programs. By December
1997 the USEPA disapproved of the SIP since the benefits claimed
would not be attained prior to November 15, 1999.
This disapproval has resulted in the following sanctions:
- On April 12, 1998 transportation conformity was frozen.
- On June 12, 1999 a two to one emission offset will be required
for new or modified stationary sources. For every one ton
of new emissions that come into the State, the State is responsible
for offsetting two tons of existing source inventory.
- On December 12, 1999 there will be a transportation funding
freeze and implementation of Federal Implementation Plan requirements.
In response to these sanctions New Jersey issued a new RFP
(Request for Proposal) for a contractor to design, build and
possibly operate and maintain the centralized portion of the
Enhanced I/M program. Bids are due on June 12, 1998 with a contract
start date of July 27, 1998. The RFP also contains a $3,000,000
incentive award if the contractor can accelerate the construction
program to be completed prior to the withholding of federal
Because of New Jersey's failure to implement the Enhanced
I/M program, the State must find VOC emission reductions amounting
to 45 tons per day. This might be accomplished by accelerating
the mandatory date of the I/M program. That is the purpose of
the three million dollar acceleration fee that was included
in the bid. Another possible reduction of emissions might result
from relying on the federal emission standards for auto body
refinishing and architectural and industrial maintenance coating
. These changes will provide VOC credits. We are confident that
the I/M program will be implemented and the SIP deficiency corrected
before sanctions are imposed on New Jersey.
The third part of the Clean Air Program that will result in
progress toward cleaner air in New Jersey involves the Operating
Permit Program. This is a program required by the federal Clean
Air Act that requires states to issue and enforce comprehensive
facility-wide air pollution control permits to existing major
facilities. Most states in the past did not issue comprehensive
air pollution permits. This resulted in confusion as to which
regulations apply to facilities and many instances of noncompliance
and degraded air quality. The operating permit issuance process
has a mandatory public comment procedure which most states,
including New Jersey, did not have in the past.
The advantage of the Operating Permit Program is that it brings
new operational flexibilities to the facilities, including Smart
permits, which anticipate a wide range of operating scenarios
and Seven Day Notices, which allow for operational changes not
anticipated by providing a seven day notice if emissions would
not exceed the allowable limits. This program is currently operating
under the USEPA's interim approval expiring October 1998. In
order to obtain final approval it needs to be demonstrated that
the department has the funding and resources to administer the
program. About 5,000 facilities will apply for operating permits
and 300 have applied to date. The last 200 will apply using
the new AIMS/RADIUS electronic system. Self-auditing during
the application preparation is creating environmental benefits.
2,497 separate sources of non-compliance were revealed during
permit applications. Non-compliance included problems with emission
control rules and a need for emission reduction. Even facilities
not previously identified as air pollution sources are sending
in major source permit applications. Some facilities have reduced
emissions to avoid being a major facility.
MARK BROWSTEIN - PUBLIC SERVICE GAS & ELECTRIC COMPANY
Soon after the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, PSE&G
recognized the tremendous challenge this law presented for an
electric utility. In 1992 PSE&G made a
corporate commitment to voluntarily reduce NOx emissions.
The goal was to achieve a 60 percent reduction from 1990 levels
by 1995 and an 80 percent reduction by the year 2000. It was
the first and only voluntary NOx control commitment made by
any electric utility in the United States.
A broad range of actions was implemented in order to achieve
this goal. A significant portion of our generation fleet was
retrofitted with gas-fired technology and key units were equipped
with advance NOx control technology. In some instances PSE&G
switched our coal fired plants to natural gas. These changes
have cost nearly one billion dollars but PSE&G has achieved
a 70 percent NOx reduction. Our total contribution to the statewide
NOx emission inventory has gone from 27 percent in 1990 to less
than 5 percent today and our NOx emission rate is now the sixth
lowest of the 50 largest energy producers in the eastern half
of the United States. PSE&G power plants account for less
that 1/4 of one percent of the total NOx affecting northeast
Although PSE&G has made progress reducing air pollutants,
transport remains a major problem. Even if New Jersey closed
down all industries and stopped transportation in the state,
it would still be in non-compliance for ozone. Data from the
National Academy of Science and the North American Research
Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) has established the
link between regional NOx emissions, prevailing winds and the
formation of ozone throughout the eastern half of the United
States. Complex modeling conducted by OTAG demonstrates that
deep NOx reductions from power plants located in the heart of
the OTAG region are highly effective in reducing the ozone concentration
throughout the eastern half of the United States included non-attainment
areas like New Jersey.
PSE&G was an active participant in the OTAG process and
sees two steps as essential for ozone relief.
1. New Jersey must actively support the USEPA's plan for reducing
ozone transport. The USEPA's action is based on establishing
a uniform 0.15 parts per million BTU NOx emission rate for all
power plants in the 22 state region. In the past we have tried
to remedy the effects of out-of-state pollution through increasingly
costly local measures.
2. New Jersey must insure that electric industry restructuring
does not harm air quality. Power plants in the Midwest and South
operate with tall stacks and little or no environmental controls.
They enjoy a competitive advantage over power plants in New
Jersey which have advanced pollution control technology. If
consumers choose the cheapest source of power, this competitive
advantage will lead to more polluting power plants and more
pollution transported to New Jersey on prevailing winds. It
is important to support federal legislation which will condition
national electric carriers by capping power plant emission through
uniform air quality performance standards. It is important also
to support a uniform environmental performance standard for
anyone selling power in New Jersey. This will insure that power
sold in new Jersey is not generated at the expense of the state's
air quality. All power providers, whether they are located here
or out of state should meet the same standards. Enforcement
of the standard would need to be investigated. Through environmental
disclosure the consumer is empowered to make choices by knowing
were the power is coming from. It is also important to be able
to identify false or misleading claims by those pretending to
sell green power. Some marketers segment off a very small portion
of their portfolio of power and call it green. Therefore, there
needs to be some regulatory
language which makes clear and discloses the emission characteristics
of the entire portfolio. In addition to controlling stationary
sources of air pollution, mobile sources also play an important
role. Enhanced I/M will lessen the contribution from mobile
sources and should be implemented rapidly. New Jersey's credibility
in arguing for regional emission reductions is compromised by
its failure to implement Enhanced I/M. If further air quality
improvements are required, we strongly urge the State to use
economic incentive techniques, such as emissions trading to
accomplish that end. The NJDEP's open market emissions trading
rule represents an important tool for both the State and New
Jersey's regulated community to maximize cost effective reductions
for ozone precursors. We encourage the NJDEP to revise the existing
rule consistent with PSE&G recommendations to the blue ribbon
RUSSELL CERCHIARO - NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIAL GROUP
A regulatory legislative work group investigating the NJDEP's
Operating Permit Program was formed in 1993. It was composed
of six of the major industries and industry associations within
the State including the New Jersey Business and Industry Association,
the State Chamber of Commerce, the New Jersey R&D Council,
New Jersey Petroleum Council, the New Jersey Chemical Industry
Council, as well as the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Environmental
Committee. We were concerned with the rules the department was
developing and whether or not they would represent a level playing
field federally. The work group was not looking to compromise
environmental standards but to help streamline the program.
Computerizing the department was also of great interest to
our work group so much so that we were willing to spend $2,000,000
to accomplish that. We were concerned with the complexity of
the rules, the cost of the program and its consistency with
RACT and other federal programs. Another area of concern was
R & D flexibility. R & D represents a 16 billion dollar
a year industry in New Jersey. One dollar out of every ten that
is spent in the United States on R & D is spent in New Jersey.
As a result of our efforts, industry agreed to pay a two-year
surcharge and to fund four different areas. These included the
development of the AIMS/RADIUS system, the development of state-of-the-art
manuals (SOTA), development of general permits and the development
of a standard permit conditions library. Many of these projects
will be described or set forth in the May 4th New Jersey Register.
JAMES SINCLAIR - NEW JERSEY BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
The competition from other states puts New Jersey at a disadvantage
in air pollution control. The reality is that New Jersey is
not a black box, separate and alone, but is impacted by pollution
from other states. Transport is a major problem and Commissioner
Shinn has recognized that fact. The only way that problem will
be addressed is if there is a level playing field so that the
standards that New Jersey has to meet will be the same nationwide.
New Jersey has made progress in improving air quality. We
have reduced air pollution from 350,000 tons per year of criteria
pollutants (VOC, NOx, SO2) to 138,711 tons per year. But, even
with all this progress made, New Jersey ranks 41st in pollution
generated compared to other states.
The Operating Permit Program should help New Jersey discover
fugitive emissions and unregulated operations. This will result
from industry looking at itself with a uniform microscope. The
department's amnesty program has also helped with self-auditing.
This appears to be a better enforcement program. Prudent use
of resources is critical to the funding of the Operating Permit
A recent issue of Scientific American discussed indoor pollution
and asserted that the
exposure to toxic pollutants is far higher inside than outside.
The article specifically mentioned Bayonne and Elizabeth. This
problem should also be addressed by the NJ Clean Air Council.
JAMES SHISSIAS - NEW JERSEY CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
As New Jersey moves forward to meet clean air goals, it
is important to be mindful of the intense competition globally
that exists for industries that reside in the state. It is critical
to keep industries competitive while they adhere to New Jersey's
clean air requirements.
The business community is concerned with the issue of atmospheric
deposition, the issue of transport of pollutants. We hope the
Commissioner will encourage the USEPA to continue to be vigilant
on the issue of enforcement of the OTAG settlements so that
significant reductions from those states upwind of us can be
accomplished. The business community also supports the Commissioner
and the Governor with respect to emissions trading. If Enhanced
I/M does bring the reductions needed emissions trading should
On the issue of fees, the fee work group discussed a set of
principles that should apply to whatever permanent formula is
determined for fees. The fee structure should first provide
adequate funding to support an efficient major source air program.
Secondly, it should be fair, equitable allocated among the Title
V facilities and reasonable related to the cost of administering
the Title V permit program. Third it should encourage pollution
reductions where practical. Fourth, it should minimize funding
instability and fifth it should be competitive when compared
to other states.
Finally, regarding the issue of fine particulates, the business
community believes that the measurements are not well characterized
or understood. We need to understand the biologically active
fraction of the mass and the chemical composition of PM 2.5.
Transport models need to be evaluated and all of the data necessary
to determine whether the proposed standard is truly protective
or just overly stringent relative to public health needs. The
fact that the PM 2.5 standard will not require action regarding
the SIPs until 2002 gives ample time to fill in important information
gaps and determine what is scientifically defensive in terms
MICHAEL EGENTON - STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
When the air pollution sources are examined in New Jersey there
are gaps in our understanding of where the pollution is coming
from. These gaps can only be explained by considering the non-point
sources of air pollution. These are lawn mowers, gas grills,
jet skis, fireplaces, gas chain saws, even the emissions from
the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Not that these things need to be
regulated, but we need to recognize that they are part of the
The area where gains can be made is certainly in Enhanced
I/M. The Baker's Basin site is working well and the Chamber
is dedicated to educating the public about the necessity of
Enhanced I/M and its benefit for all New Jerseyans.
RICK FERBER - AUTOMOTIVE REPAIR INDUSTRY OF NEW JERSEY
- PROFESSIONAL OIL TECHNICIAN ASSOCIATION - AUTOMOTIVE SERVICE
ASSOCIATION OF NEW JERSEY
Our organizations believe that the proposed biennial inspection
element in the Enhanced I/M program will not produce safer vehicles.
Also, the lack of annual emission inspections will not improve
New Jersey's air quality. Vehicles manufactured in the early
1980s require more emissions monitoring, not less. It would
make sense to keep the annual emissions inspection for three
to four more years. By that time, the New Jersey vehicle fleet
will have been updated enough to proceed with a biennial emissions
inspection without loss of air quality in our state. This time
frame would also provide an incentive for the private inspection
center to become a private inspection facility. If the private
inspection facility plans to participate in Enhanced I/M the
cost is between $35,000 and $60,000. Couple this with the cost
of certified automotive emission technicians and inspectors
and the private facility will need to charge $55 to $59 per
car for New Jersey emissions and safety inspection. When compared
to the centralized facility the private inspection facility
would not be competitive.
By implementing a voucher program offered to private inspection
facilities, the state could make the system more equitable.
This voucher would be issued from the State to the private inspection
facility that has completed each initial New Jersey Emissions
and Safety Inspection. The value of each voucher would be from
$12.00 to $19.00 as an incentive for early and continual participation
in the Enhanced I/M program.
In Trenton on March 31, 1998 we testified during the public
hearing on the State Implementation Plan. If the department
and the State plan properly, the current 3,700 private inspection
stations and the additional 500 prospective private centers
along with the centralized facilities will be able to meet the
needs of New Jersey drivers.
Another problem facing Enhanced I/M is public acceptance.
There needs to be a major public awareness campaign outlining
changes in Enhanced I/M and the reasons for those changes. Ultimately
public support will control political support.
STEVEN GABEL - ENERGY CONSULTANT - INDEPENDENT ENERGY PRODUCERS
OF NEW JERSEY.
The Independent Energy Producers of New Jersey is a trade
association which represents the non-utility producers of power
within the State of New Jersey. Most of these producers sell
their power to the electric utilities who then resell that power
to the end use customers within the State of New Jersey. This
independent power industry provides about 13 percent of the
capacity servicing New Jersey and about 25 to 40 percent of
the overall energy supplies coming from the independent power
Most of the power supply sources are derived from co-generation,
which uses natural gas, although there are several coal units
in New Jersey to generate both electricity and thermal energy.
From the viewpoint of the Independent Energy Producers the
most pressing issue facing the State is the need to be aggressive
in its pursuit of policies which force the federal government
to require all power producers to operate with the same standards
of environmental compliance as New Jersey. Independent Energy
Producers in New Jersey have been using state-of-the-art emission
controls and using gas-fired generators. This cleanliness needs
to be rewarded regardless of what happens in the marketplace
as the electric industry becomes more and more competitive.
If this nation moves in the wrong direction with restructuring
the power industry, New Jersey power companies will suffer.
American Electric Power, which is a major producer of power
in the Midwest, generates primarily from coal and if they were
to increase their level of output of electricity in response
to competitive market opportunities, pollution would also increase.
Their power plants operate at only 50 to 75 percent of capacity.
If they just increased to 80 percent, there would be a 40,000
ton increase in emissions. That increase swamps the overall
amount of emissions that all New Jersey industrial and electric
generation facilities combined would emit in the year 2003.
Cost is another important factor to consider in the restructuring
of the power industry. In New Jersey because of clean air rules
it costs between $1.50 to $2.25 per kilowatt hour to develop
a new combined cycle plant. The fuel cost basis is probably
only $.025 per kilowatt hour. Without recovering any capital,
no rate of return, no profit, it is necessary to be able to
sell power for $.025 just to cover variable cost. A utility
in the Midwest, which is getting all of its capital recovered
from its captive rate payers in that service territory or has
already recovered its capital because these are older generation
plants, is at a great financial advantage competing against
a generator trying to develop a new clean source in New Jersey.
It is obvious that restructuring will take the air quality standards
a step backwards. The Council and department must work to make
sure this does not happen.
Disclosure of power sources so that consumers can make informed
decisions about power suppliers is important. Consumers need
to know what the emission levels are of the power that they
are buying. We hope the NJDEP will continue to develop rule
making on NOx emission in a way that promotes clean air.
JOSEPH PARRISH - RECTOR ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, ELIZABETH
We are very involved in clean air issues because Elizabeth
is the smoke shade capital of New Jersey. When the air in Elizabeth
is filtered through a piece of filter paper and weighed, it
weighs more that air anywhere else in New Jersey as measured
by the NJDEP. Elizabeth has the highest concentration of airborne
particulates in the state.
Since 1990 five incinerators have been installed within a
radius of six miles or less of our church and the New Jersey
Turnpike has been widened to 14 lanes. The Bayway Texaco refinery
immediately upwind has had three life threatening incidents
since 1990. Fishing has been banned at the Elizabeth Marina
and in Newark Bay due to the toxicity of the waters.
The results of all this environmental degradation are staggering.
Since 1990 forty percent of our Sunday School children have
been hospitalized for asthma, eight times the national average.
Asthma deaths in Elizabeth are 25 times the national average.
The State of New Jersey needs immediate and thorough remediation
to stop the air, water and land pollution. Controls on cars
and buses are essential. The development of rail links should
be the highest priority. Waste incineration should be ended.
Technologies for composting should be used. Refineries should
be closed and fishing in polluted waters prohibited. Medical
treatment should be made available to all community members
suffering from the effects of pollution. New projects should
be suspended until these environmental measures are undertaken.
DOROTHY ANN WAXWOOD - CIVIC ASSOCIATION OF EAST RIVERTON
Cinnaminson has a Superfund landfill that is of grave concern.
There are problems with the Raritan Potomac aquifer and private
wells. Illnesses including cancer is on the rise in our area.
We are requesting an air monitoring station for Union Landing
Road because we also get emissions from the smoke stacks in
Pennsylvania. NJDEP needs to enforce and implement existing
regulations and not just collect fines. Health studies need
to be done. We hope the NJDEP will concern itself with Cinnaminson
and East Riverton and improve the quality of life for people
living in those areas.
KATHLEEN C. CALLAHAN - DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
PLANNING AND PROTECTION, USEPA
New Jersey's clean air plan needs to be aggressive in order
to ensure healthy air for its citizens. New Jersey has taken
a leadership role in the 37 state proposal to address ozone
transport. Although New Jersey has made a significant improvement
in air quality as the result of years of effort to reduce emission
contributing to the formation of ozone, nevertheless, New Jersey
is still out of compliance with the Clean Air Act as regards
ozone. Last year there were ten days of unhealthy air quality.
Most mandatory programs are on schedule with the exception
of the Enhanced I/M program. The is a serious problem since
the Enhanced I/M program has the potential to provide substantial
emission reductions at a reasonable cost. Not only will the
delay the implementation of Enhanced I/M affect New Jersey air,
but the State will also incur sanctions from the federal government.
Therefore, New Jersey should move aggressively to implement
the I/M program.
With a greater understanding of the role of transported pollutants
in the formation of ozone, the USEPA is facing the challenge
of controlling the precursors of ozone regionally. The USEPA
is also studying how states can develop an emission based trading
system that can be market driven. Reformulated gasoline and
other fuel improvements, reformulation of consumer and commercial
products, refinishing coatings, controls on motor vehicles and
large diesel engine are examples of the controls being instituted
by the USEPA. We are confident that New Jersey will rise to
the clean air challenge and create a cleaner environment for
Glossary of Abbreviations and Acronyms
AIMS - Air Information Management System
RADIUS - Remote Access Data Input User System
CO - Carbon monoxide
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
CAAA - Clean Air Act Amendments
Department - New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
I/M - Inspection and Maintenance
LEV - Low Emission Vehicle
OTAG - Ozone Transport Assessment Group
NARSTO - North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric
NJDEP - New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
NLEV - National Low Emission Vehicle
NOx - Nitrogen Oxides
RACT - Reasonably Available Control Technology
R&D - Research and Development
SIP - State Implementation Plan
SO2 - Sulfur Dioxide
USEPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency
VOCs - Volatile Organic Compounds
Editor: Eileen Hogan, M.A.