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History of the New Jersey Division of Fish & Wildlife

The following chronology was first compiled in 1992 as part of the the Division's Centennial Celebration.

The New Jersey Division of Fish and Wildlife is a professional organization dedicated to the management and conservation of the state's fish and wildlife resources. The Division has a rich heritage dating back more than 100 years to 1892 and the creation of a commission form of wildlife administration with an appointed, salaried Fish and Game Protector. This was an addition to nine county wardens who were first authorized in 1871. (For a detailed history of wildlife law enforcement in NJ see the feature article.)

Before the turn of the century there was not widespread support of wildlife laws. In fact, there was much resentment against these laws. This is borne out by the fact that before 1900, the first two wardens put on the job were shot to death within several years of being appointed.

1675 - The first wildlife regulation in New Jersey provides for a bounty of 15 shillings for each grown wolf killed.

1679 - The General Assembly prohibits the export of dressed skins from deer killed by Indians.

1722 - The first regulation protecting game is passed establishing a season for the killing of deer.

Warden with his deputy
Warden Harry M. Loveless (seated) with Deputy Michael Bobera
Click to enlarge

1765 - An Act of the General Assembly prohibits deer hunting at night.

1771 - The deer season is set from September 1 to December 31 and it is made unlawful to hunt with the aid of a dog.

1798 - An Act of the General Assembly "suppressing immorality" makes it unlawful to shoot, hunt or gun, or to take fish, on Sunday.

1850 - A law protecting "small and harmless birds" (songbirds) is enacted.

1862 - Deer hunting is prohibited for five years.

1870 - A Board of Fish Commissioners is created.

1871 - Nine county Fish Wardens are appointed.

1884 - A law was enacted which empowered Fish Wardens to enforce game laws; hence the position as NJ Fish and Game Wardens was created.


1892 - The commission form of wildlife administration is initiated. Three Commissioners are appointed, and the first salaried Fish and Game Protector hired.

1895 - A law enforcement staff of a Protector and 25 county wardens is established. The salary for a warden was $600 per year plus a $200 annual expense account.

1896 - Volunteer Deputy Fish and Game Wardens are authorized.

1897 - A uniform procedure was created for fish and game enforcement. This uniform procedure established a foundation for prosecuting cases within New Jersey's legal system.

1900 - The deer population in New Jersey reaches its lowest level.

1901 - There are twenty-five Fish and Game Wardens and one Game Protector, George Riley of Newark. Later, an Assistant Protector is named. Total deer harvest is 20 deer.

1902 - The first license, a non-resident hunting license for $10.50, is required.

1909 - State residents required to purchase a hunting license at a cost of $1.15.

1902-1908 - The state is closed to deer hunting.

1904-1913 - Deer are obtained from private reserves and parks, and from other states (Pennsylvania and Michigan) to restock New Jersey.

1911 - A $3.00 bicycle maintenance allowance is provided to wardens. Prior to this, Wardens patrolled by foot, boat and horseback as well as bicycle. Often a violator would ride on the handlebars en route to the magistrate. One warden would take a trolley to a horse livery, rent a horse and patrol an area.

1912 - The State Fish Hatchery at Hackettstown begins propagation of brook trout. The State Game Farm at Forked River is established, one of the first in the nation. The first motorized conveyances were issued, those being 5 motorcycles.

1913 - Brown and rainbow trout are added to hatchery production.

1915 - The first fishing license is required; enforcement could now be adequately funded. A second Assistant Protector is named. First either-sex deer season (four days) is held with a harvest of 291 bucks and 190 antlerless deer taken.

1918 - A statewide survey of streams is conducted for trout management purposes.

1921 - A "Manual of Instruction" is provided to wardens which contained three sections: General, Legal and Accounting. A Branch Game Farm in Mt. Holly begins operations.

1922 - License fees go into the dedicated Hunters and Anglers Fund to be expended for fish and game activities. A Branch Game Farm in Freehold is established to raise pheasants.

1923 - 144 acres are acquired in Warren County to construct the Rockport Game Farm. The farm continues to be the Division's primary pheasant producing facility and now encompasses almost 500 acres.

1924 - Pheasants are raised at High Point on land donated by Colonel A.R. Kuser. Operations at the Branch Game Farms in Mt. Holly and Freehold are discontinued.

1925 - Wardens become involved with marine laws and regulations.

1926 - The Governor is requested to take up with Federal authorities the possibility of acquiring old vessels to sink offshore to enhance fishing. The Fish and Game Commission President, H.J. Burlington, informs wardens that "education...has done more for conservation than all the arrests that have been made previously." Hon. Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce and soon to be president, cites New Jersey as having "done wonders" with its hatchery and is an example for other states to follow.

1928 - Sportsmen are required to wear on outer clothing a button bearing their hunting or fishing license number.

1929 - New Jersey leads the nation in production of pheasants with 16,936 reared and 6,659 purchased.

1930s - The Warden force averages thirty-two men. By the end of the 1930s the force is uniformed, with green trousers and jackets remaining the color.

1930 - The Naval Air Station at Lakehurst issues orders that dirigibles avoid flying over ducks, geese and brant in Barnegat Bay.

1932 - One-third of every resident license fee goes to the "Public Shooting and Fishing Grounds Fund." In June, 135 acres are purchased as "Public Shooting Grounds" in Sussex County which eventually becomes the Flatbrook-Roy Wildlife Management Area. Today, approximately half the 321,000 acres of the Wildlife Management Area System has been acquired with monies from hunting license fees.

1933 - Separate fishing and hunting licenses cost $2.00; a combination license costs $3.00. Women may fish without a license. The Farmer-Sportsman Cooperative Plan is inaugurated to open over 113,000 acres of previously posted lands and stock them with Commission-reared game.

1934 - The Bureau of Wildlife Management is formed. The State Quail Farm in Holmansville, Ocean County, begins operations. Beaver are reintroduced to New Jersey.

1938 - New Jersey agrees to the provisions of the Pitman-Robertson Federal Aid to Wildlife Act. 145,715 acres are now in the Farmer-Sportsman Cooperative Plan.

1941 - With the outbreak of war the Fish and Game Commission pledges that when our fighting forces return they will find their outdoor pleasures have not been neglected.

1944 - Despite loss of revenue and manpower shortages due to the war, planning of post-war activities continues.

1945 - An act of the Legislature reorganizes the Fish and Game Department as the Division of Fish and Game within the new Department of Conservation. A Division of Shell Fisheries is formed within the new Department. The nine Fish and Game Commissioners now constitute the first Fish and Game Council.

1946 - Investigations are made into the possibility of applying the "new science of electronics" to the incubators at State game farms.

1948 - The Department of Conservation is reorganized as the Department of Conservation and Economic Development. The Fish and Game Council is expanded to eleven members. The Council is authorized and empowered to establish regulations after a specified procedure to be known as the Fish and Game Code. Legislation is enacted providing a special bow-and-arrow deer season and licensing commercial pheasant shooting preserves.

1949 - The first training conference for Fish and Game Wardens was held. The "Ken Lockwood Gorge" of the South Branch of the Raritan River is so designated by Joint Resolution as a memorial to Kenneth F. Lockwood.

1950 - The Bureau of Fisheries Laboratory (originally the N.J. Lake Survey Unit) is created and its research is applied to trout management. The forerunner of "New Jersey Outdoors" magazine, the "New Jersey Fish and Wildlife Bulletin," is published monthly.

1951 - New Jersey agrees to the provisions of the Act of Congress, known as the Dingell-Johnson Bill, to "aid states in fish restoration and management projects."

1953 - Trout stamps are required, helping to defray rising trout production costs, increase trout production and orient the cost of production toward the trout angler.

1954 - The titles of Protector and Assistant Protector are changed. Fish and Game Wardens are now supervised by a Chief Game Warden, District Game Wardens and Assistant District Game Wardens. The state is reorganized into two districts for law enforcement.

1955 - New applicants for hunting licenses between the ages of 14 and 21 must pass a four-hour hunter safety course.

1956 - The Divisionís monthly publication, "New Jersey Outdoors," reaches over 17,000 subscribers.

1957 - Development of a Trout Rearing Station along the Pequest River begins. Legislation is passed providing for a bow and arrow safety and proficiency course to be passed by applicants for an initial license. New Jersey is the only state in the nation with such a course.

1958 - The title of Fish and Game Warden was changed to Conservation Officer. Graduation from college is now required for entrance into the job.

1959 - The State Fish Hatchery at Hackettstown is renamed the Charles O. Hayford State Fish Hatchery in honor of its first supervisor who served until 1955. The State Quail Farm in Holmansville is renamed the Edward H. Roth State Quail Farm.

1961 - The first Green Acres Bill is passed. Spruce Run and Round Valley Reservoirs are being constructed on the "multiple-use" principle and will become recreational centers of tremendous significance. The Lebanon Freshwater Fish Lab is constructed.

1962 - The Research in Trout Management project is initiated and the application of its findings is begun.

1963 - The Pequest Trout Rearing Station along the Pequest River begins production. It remains active until the opening of the Pequest Trout Hatchery in 1982.

1964 - The Nacote Creek Marine Research Station opens. Spruce Run Reservoir opens.

1966 - Family Fishing License is approved.

1967 - Public Shooting Grounds are now Fish and Wildlife Management Areas and constitute over 122,000 acres. Although the primary objective is improvement of wildlife habitat to enhance hunting opportunities, development plans and field work are accelerated to provide multiple-use public recreation.

1968 - Round Valley Reservoir opens.

1969 - An agreement is signed with the North Jersey District Water Supply Commission to establish a 500-acre, 7 billion gallon reservoir at the headwaters of the Wanaque Reservoir; this becomes the Monksville Reservoir in the late 1980s.

1970 - The Department of Environmental Protection is created and the Division of Fish and Game is expanded to become the Division of Fish, Game and Shellfisheries.

1972 - Hunter safety education becomes mandatory for all initial hunting license purchases. First year of the mandatory deer check station system.

1973 - State waters are classified as "Trout Production," "Trout Maintenance" and "Non-Trout" waters. Ground breaking ceremony is held for 235-acre Lake Assunpink. 200 square inches of fluorescent orange clothing is made mandatory for hunters. The "Endangered and Nongame Species Conservation Act" is passed along with an appropriation from the Legislature.

1974 - The Deer Management Zone system is inaugurated with the state divided into 34 Deer Management Zones using highways and rivers rather than county lines as boundaries. Lake Assunpink opens. The Nongame Advisory Council is formed.

1975 - New Jersey receives three captive-bred peregrine falcons which are the first to fledge in the state in 20 years.

1976 - First Winter Bow Deer Season is held in January. Muzzleloading rifles legalized for deer hunting. All state mosquito control programs transferred to the Division's Office of Mosquito Control Coordination, formed the year before. First teacherís wildlife education weekend is held at the N.J. School of Conservation.

1977 - Reintroduction of wild turkeys is begun with the release of 22 birds.

1978 - Bobcat restoration project initiated. Rearing of tiger muskies, a hybrid of northern pike and muskellunge, is begun at the Hackettstown facility and is the beginning of an ambitious esocid (large pike) program.

1979 - Agencyís name is changed to Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife. Bureau of Marine Fisheries is formed.

1980 - Construction of the Pequest Trout Hatchery and Natural Resource Education Center begins. Peregrine falcons successfully breed for the first time east of the Mississippi since 1950.

1981 - The voluntary "tax check-off" method of donating funds to the Endangered and Nongame Species Program is approved for the coming year. First turkey hunting season is held. Black bear research project begun.

1982 - The Pequest Trout Hatchery begins operations upon receiving shipments of disease-free eggs.

1983 - "Operation Game Thief" and "Skillful Angler Award" programs inaugurated.

1984 - The first state waterfowl stamp is issued with proceeds going towards acquisition and preservation of the stateís wetlands. The mile-square Garden State Artificial Reef is constructed of used tires off Ocean County. Project WILD is introduced in New Jersey.

1985 - The Pequest Natural Resource Education Center opens to the public. Division reorganization implemented. Bureau of Law Enforcement adopts a regional concept of three inland and one marine region. Each region had two districts. First wetlands are purchased with funds raised from sale of state-issued waterfowl stamps. Osprey becomes first species to be removed from the endangered list thanks to the Endangered and Nongame Species Programís efforts.

1986 - The first "Free Fishing Days" are held.

1987 - An intensive, multi-use fish rearing system is designed and constructed at the Charles O. Hayford Hatchery for raising warm- and coolwater species. The Fall Trout Stocking Program is initiated in 16 streams and 16 lakes.

1988 - Exhibits are installed at the Pequest Natural Resource Education Center.

1989 - For the first time in decades there is more than one active bald eagle nest in New Jersey, thanks to the efforts of the Endangered and Nongame Species Program. The "Sportsmanís Responsibility Act" passes.

1991 - The "Hunt SMART" campaign, encouraging sportsmen's responsibility, is launched.

1992 - As the Division begins its second century it manages over 233,000 acres in the Wildlife Management System; has reestablished the osprey, peregrine, bald eagle, wild turkey, bobcat and beaver; stocks over 600,000 trout in approximately 200 bodies of water; has the most progressive deer management program in the nation; has an active warmwater fish program; stocks over 50,000 pheasant and 15,000 quail each year; has an active black bear research project to determine critical habitat; is renovating the Charles O. Hayford Fish Hatchery; hosts over 230 school and other groups and 50,000 members of the public at Pequest each year; holds wildlife workshops for teachers each year; and trains an estimated 18,000 future hunters and trappers in hunter education courses annually.

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POSTSCRIPT - As we move further into the 21st century, the task of managing the state's wildlife for all its citizens becomes ever more complex and challenging. Habitat continues to be lost as the human population and its attendant development increases, yet most wildlife species are doing better than they have in decades. To enable wildlife populations to remain an asset instead of a liability, the Division of Fish and Wildlife must enlist the help and cooperation of the state's residents while employing scientific management techniques. We strive to do this through education, enforcement of laws and regulations, and the use of the latest available technology. It is the Division's goal and desire that our wildlife and the habitat it depends on remain healthy and provide recreation and enjoyment for generations to come.

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Department of Environmental Protection
P. O. Box 402
Trenton, NJ 08625-0402

Last Updated: November 27, 2006