New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan



Back to NJ Histoic Preservation Plan Revisions

Purpose of the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan
How the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan Was Developed

Chapter I: Introduction
The Benefits of Historic Preservation
Preservation As Public Policy

Issues & Opportunities

Chapter II: Goals and Objectives
New Jersey Historic Preservation Goals and Objectives
Goals and Objectives

Chapter III: Planning Process
Why plan for preservation?
Preservation Plan Revisions

Chapter IV: New Jersey's Historic Contexts
New Jersey's Historic Contexts
New Jersey Statewide Historic Contexts
New Jersey Thematic Historic Contexts

Chapter V: New Jersey's Historic Resources
New Jersey's Historic Resources

Chapter VI: New Jersey's Historic Preservation Community
New Jersey's Historic Preservation Community

Chapter VII: Bibliography

Chapter VIII: Appendices
Appendix A: Historic Preservation Legislation
Appendix B: Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Planning
Appendix C: Communities of Place: The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan



Preface Back to Contents

Purpose of the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan Back to Contents
With the creation of the Department of Environmental Protection in 1970 and passage of the New Jersey Register of Historic Places Act of 1970 to supplement the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act, New Jersey's Historic Preservation program became a formal component of state government. Since that time, the New Jersey State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) has been located within DEP's Division of Parks and Forestry. Identified under various names for over twenty-five years - Historic Sites Section, Office of Historic Preservation, Office of New Jersey Heritage, and, currently, Historic Preservation Office - this state agency has been a major proponent for preserving historic properties in the state.

As the primary office in the state government with expertise in historic preservation, the SHPO advocates the preservation of the state's irreplaceable historic and archeological resources and provides statewide leadership in carrying out its mission to identify, evaluate, register and protect historic properties in New Jersey.

In carrying out this responsibility, and with the help of many groups and individuals, the Historic Preservation Office (HPO) has developed the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan.

This Plan is intended to guide preservation activities in New Jersey into the 21st century. Its success rests on the many citizens, organizations, government agencies, elected officials and preservation professionals who, by working together, will carry out a common preservation agenda which holds to a shared vision.

New Jersey's historic and archeological properties are among the state's most valuable resources. They reflect and illuminate the values of New Jerseyans. They are the physical evidence of the ways people have chosen to live, of our need for beautiful objects as well as functional structures. The presence of historic properties, which display various styles, different historic periods, and the contributions of many groups of people, adds diversity and richness to our urban, suburban, and rural landscapes.

This Plan brings together diverse people and challenges us to preserve the resources of our shared heritage. The Plan aims high - to encourage wide appreciation of the state's cultural resources; to mobilize the preservation community and enlist a wide range of new partners in the process; and to create a climate where public policy and sustainable funding work together to promote historic preservation.

How the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan Was Developed Back to Contents
This Plan draws on numerous sources of information collected and expressed over several years. Since the late 1980s, the Historic Preservation Office and many other interested parties and organizations have gathered to give focus to New Jersey's historic preservation activities. In 1993 that participation was formalized through regional public meetings and planning sessions with selected groups. The Historic Preservation Advisory Committee was formed to identify and prioritize historic preservation needs in New Jersey. Their work resulted in the 1994 publication entitled Preserving Historic New Jersey: An Action Agenda. This document has served as the guide for the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan.

This Plan is intended to set the direction for the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office for the next five years and also serve as a guide for other public and private agencies in the state who have an interest in or a responsibility for managing historic resources.

Over this period, the Historic Preservation Office will continue to carry forth its mission and seek public input for historic preservation successes and additional needs through public meetings, staff retreats, focused planning committees and regular reporting in the New Jersey Historic Preservation Planning Bulletin and other publications. At the end of the five year period, in 2001, the Historic Preservation Office will assess accomplishments and work with many interested parties to revise or rework this plan through a series of public meetings and planning activities.


Chapter I: Introduction Back to Contents

Introduction Back to Contents
New Jersey's heritage is rich and varied, as the state's abundance of historic properties attest. Historic properties are physical links to the past that provide meaning to the present and continuity to the future. They are physical records of the places, the events, and especially the people that helped shape the broad patterns of New Jersey's development.

Historic properties include prehistoric and historic archeological sites, historic districts, buildings, structures, objects, and the historic environment in which they exist.

The Benefits of Historic Preservation Back to Contents
Historic preservation is the identification, evaluation, conservation and use of historic properties so that they continue to play an integral, vibrant role in their communities. New Jersey's historic properties are irreplaceable assets that are found in every area of the state. Preserving historic properties contributes directly to the quality of life that New Jerseyans enjoy and expect. The historic structures, districts and archeological sites around us add drama and interest to the physical setting which New Jersey citizens inhabit today by providing a sense of continuity with the past. Historic properties make New Jersey attractive to visitors and newcomers, create a sense of pride and well-being among community members, and provide an opportunity for enriching the education of our young.

New Jersey's historic properties are important economic tools that can be used to encourage economic activity in the state. Tourism, one of the largest industries in New Jersey, generated nearly $18 billion in revenue in 1992, and historic properties were a top tourist destination. Historic properties can provide a foundation for attracting economic activity to cities, small towns and rural areas, and for enhancing positive cultural activity in rapidly changing communities.

Finally, historic resources contribute vital cultural benefits to the state. They provide new information about New Jersey history that adds to our understanding about ourselves. Research, interpretation and quality rehabilitation add to a fuller understanding of the past and of the state's various cultural groups for present and future generations.

Preservation As Public Policy Back to Contents
Preservation is much more than nostalgia. Preservation means the careful conservation and wise use of historic properties to provide a legacy for future generations. Our descendants have a right to know and understand their past, and their right creates an obligation for the current generation to responsibly preserve historic properties.

This basic philosophy became national policy in the 1966 National Historic Preservation Act. This legislation provides a uniform framework within which stronger federal, state, and local initiatives could take place, assisted by funds made available through the new federal program. The national historic preservation program is based upon a network of public agencies and private organizations at the federal, state, and local levels. The Historic Preservation Office administers the federally-funded State Historic Preservation Program in New Jersey.

Public interest in historic preservation, fueled by non-profit organizations, has also been recognized by state government. Protection of significant historic properties was recognized as an important objective in the 1970 state law creating the New Jersey Register of Historic Places.

New Jersey communities have long been involved in historic preservation. Many municipalities passed historic preservation ordinances in the 1970s, such as Haddonfield in 1971 and Trenton in 1972. Amendments to New Jersey's Municipal Land Use Law (MLUL) in 1985 formally enabled local historic preservation ordinances. Preservation New Jersey's Preserving New Jersey Municipal Handbook and the Historic Preservation Office's New Jersey Certified Local Government Guidelines provide guidance in establishing local historic preservation commissions. This creates a strong framework for local communities to recognize and protect their heritage. The MLUL amendments have encouraged communities across the state to develop or strengthen local public preservation programs. More recently, through the urging of HPO and preservation constituents spearheaded by Preservation New Jersey, Communities of Place, the New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan (adopted in 1992) included historic preservation in its goals, objectives, and strategies. (See Appendix C).

This represents a growing public policy for preserving the state's rich heritage and using historic preservation to enhance the quality of life for New Jersey citizens. This preservation ethic has never been stated better than in the preamble of the National Historic Preservation Act, when Congress declared:

"The spirit and direction of the nation are founded upon and reflected in its historic heritage; the historical and cultural foundations of the nation should be preserved as a living part of our community life and development in order to give a sense of orientation to the American people."

Issues & Opportunities Back to Contents
New Jersey has the highest population density in the United States. As such, there are virtually no areas of the state that are not subject to substantial development pressure. Historic resources are currently most threatened by development in older urban communities and undeveloped rural areas.

Most of New Jersey's older urban centers face enormous redevelopment pressure. The areas most strongly affected by these pressures include areas near New York City (i.e., eastern Essex, Passaic, and Union Counties; all of Hudson County) and Trenton, New Brunswick, Atlantic City, Bridgeton, and Camden, located in Mercer, Middlesex, Atlantic, Cumberland, and Camden Counties, respectively.

Both the number and size of farms have declined in New Jersey since the turn of the century. Rapid loss of farmland has been documented now for over thirty years in the state. Most parts of New Jersey have experienced this trend, but areas particularly affected are Atlantic, Burlington, Cumberland, Hunterdon, Gloucester, Ocean, Somerset, Salem, Sussex and Warren Counties. These counties are rapidly succumbing to wholesale development caused, in part by an expanded federal, state and local highway network, increased affluence, the deceased profitability of agricultural production, and rising land values.

Demand for infrastructure, including transportation improvements, throughout the state has become substantial. Demonstrating that historic preservation principals can be adhered to in these circumstances will continue to be a challenge. The historic preservation community continues to grow but faces declining state and federal fiscal support. Historic preservation is being challenged by building and economic development interests who seek reduced regulation of development. Builders have increasingly criticized environmental protection requirements as adding to the costs for new housing, and have argued against conducting archaeological surveys for developments reviewed under the New Jersey Coastal Area Facility Review Act.

The need for housing, especially for those with low and moderate incomes, is critical in New Jersey. However, many new state programs encourage large scale development instead of using existing historic resources. There is an increase of new construction projects because of a strengthened economy, but there are few projects which revitalize historic areas.

The State Development Redevelopment Plan as adopted in 1992 is designed to guide statewide development. It strives to preserve significant open spaces and revitalize urban areas. Redirecting growth to urban areas and shaping growth in rural areas will help preserve historic landscapes; however, urban revitalization must be done in such a way that significant historic resources are protected. Environmentalists need to be particularly diligent to ensure that future revisions to the State Plan adequately address historic preservation.

Amendments to the Municipal Land Use Law, the enabling legislation for municipal historic preservation, and the pressures of increased development have led to more interest in local historic preservation programs. As a result, there is substantially more demand for technical assistance relating to historic preservation ordinances, local commissions and the Certified Local Government Program.

New Jersey is among the nations leaders in the number of local historic preservation commissions. Approximately 130 municipalities out of 566 have adopted historic preservation ordinances. As more local programs are developed, more demands for technical and funding assistance increase. However, as the need for funding increases, reductions in federal and state funds have resulted in significant reductions and the elimination of all HPF grants for Survey and Planning and only minimal funding for Certified Local Governments.

Despite this level of commitment, there are still many communities in the state which do not actively seek to preserve historic resources.

Several recent legislative proposals have focused on the issue of unfunded state and federal mandates. Proposed revisions to New Jersey's Municipal Land Use Law, known as the Land Use Regulation Reform Act, should be carefully monitored to assure that historic preservation is adequately addressed. And, as a proactive measure, historic preservation advocates must seek to establish financial incentives for protecting historic properties.

Due to the substantial groundswell of historic preservation advocacy, the Historic Preservation Action Committee (HPAC) formerly the Historic Preservation Advisory Committee, has been looking into other New Jersey programs and policies which could provide incentives to historic preservation and those which may act as disincentives. The HPAC will also seek to establish economic incentives for historic preservation, sound historic preservation practice through education and customer awareness programs, effective historic preservation networks, strengthened ties with federal, state, and local governments, and heightened awareness of economic benefits of historic preservation activities.

Chapter II: New Jersey Historic Preservation Goals and Objectives Back to Contents

New Jersey Historic Preservation Goals and Objectives Back to Contents
Historic preservation benefits New Jersey communities. Preservation enhances the quality of our environment, instills a sense of pride in our citizens, provides a tangible link with our past, promotes understanding among different cultural groups, and encourages economic revitalization through the re-use of existing buildings. Successful preservation requires careful planning.

The New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan sets forth long-range historic preservation goals and describes specific ways in which these goals can be achieved.

The Plan is intended for those needing to understand historic preservation programs, including the state and federal mandates that shape it, the policies that guide it, and the assistance it provides to local, state, and national preservation efforts. This audience includes federal, state, and local agencies, elected officials, non-profit preservation organizations, and others who have responsibilities for historic properties. The Plan is also helpful to anyone interested in understanding the broad range of historic properties in New Jersey and the larger context in which preservation decisions throughout the state are made.

Goals and Objectives Back to Contents
The following goals and objectives have been developed to direct the state historic preservation program and to guide other governmental agencies and citizens in creating management strategies focused on historic preservation in New Jersey.

Several needs have been identified as vital to advancing historic preservation in New Jersey:

The following outline of goals and objectives focus on these issues and will direct the Historic Preservation Office activities for the next five years. However, all those with a stake in preserving NJ's historic resources can share in strengthening the preservation of tangible attributes to our history by applying these strategies to their own programs or by participating in programs initiated by other historic preservation partners. The seven goals are not in any priority order. Each stated goal has several specific strategies. These are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to clarify direction and guide the Historic Preservation Office and preservation partners.

1. Maximize efforts to identify and evaluate New Jersey's Historic Resources

2. Expand efforts to Protect New Jersey's Historic Resources

3. Improve and clarify historic preservation regulatory processes to make them as efficient, objective, and predictable as possible.

4. Increase awareness of the value and importance of the state's historic resources.

5. Encourage integration of historic preservation in state, county, and municipal planning to promote consideration of cultural resources in decision-making processes.

6. Provide incentives to encourage historic preservation.

7. Encourage appropriate treatment of historic resources.


Chapter III: The Planning Process Back to Contents

Why plan for preservation? Back to Contents
New Jersey, the most densely populated state in the United States, is diverse and in the midst of economic, cultural, and demographic change. The approaches to preserving New Jersey historic properties are almost as numerous as the prehistoric and historic sites, buildings and structures themselves.

Tension between the desire for new development and the desire to conserve what exists is always present. Slower growth areas have an acute need for financial and technical assistance to preserve significant properties, yet state and local assistance is often unavailable. Rapid growth areas may have more financial and technical resources, but historic resources are often not targeted for funding.

At the same time, the interest in preservation has grown and broadened, as has the concept of what should be preserved. This is reflected in the substantial demand for information and assistance from New Jersey's preservation organizations and concerned individuals.

Preservation planning helps in sorting out these complex issues by providing a framework within which sound decisions are made and effective actions are taken. Planning is a continuous process of identifying goals and priorities and finding ways to meet them. Planning is the process of asking:

what is our purpose?
where are we going?
and how will we get there?

The state historic preservation program has endeavored for over twenty years to provide effective federal and state preservation programs. Now, as the historic preservation movement matures, New Jersey seeks to meet the challenges of the future and provide services to our constituents in a consistent, predictable, and efficient manner.

This Plan is the guide that HPO will use as it continues to refine priorities and carry out its mission. It should make it easier for others to understand and work with the state preservation program. The Plan is also a fundamental document for anyone interested in historic preservation in New Jersey and the state's program.

The current planning approach has evolved out of numerous earlier efforts. The formality and comprehensiveness of the process has varied. The first state preservation plan for New Jersey was submitted to the National Park Service for program approval in 1970.

During the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office's first Conference on Archeology and Historic Preservation on October 27, 1978, New Jersey initiated its first comprehensive planning effort.

Volunteer committees, HPO staff, and paid consult-ants merged to eventually produce a publication entitled New Jersey's Archeological Resources from the Paleo-Indian Period to the Present: A Review of Research Problems and Survey Priorities (Feb. 1982).

This planning tool has been a vital document in directing the protection of New Jersey's historic resources, particularly archeological properties. Reprinted numerous times and still available, this publication has been made available to libraries, historical organizations, preservation consultants, and planning agencies throughout the state. This document was the basis for the first New Jersey Historic Context Outline, adopted in 1987.

In 1986, the University of Delaware's Center for Historic Architecture and Engineering was contracted to assist HPO in developing New Jersey's Historic Preservation Plan. A public hearing on May 16, 1987 introducing the Historic Context Component of the Plan met with mixed reactions. Numerous responses concerning the complexity of the plan resulted in a restructuring of the plan and its implementation.

A Plan Advisory Committee (PAC) was established to provide guidance and direction to HPO's planning efforts. The 23 member PAC consisted of representatives of the State Review Board, County Cultural and Heritage Commissions, New Jersey Historic Sites Council, New Jersey Historic Trust, professional planners, New Jersey Builders Association, and Preservation New Jersey - individuals representing a broad spectrum of preservation perspectives. Through this committee, HPO developed interim goals and objectives and an outline of 12 chronological periods to facilitate development of New Jersey Historic Contexts. The PAC eventually evolved into the Historic Preservation Advisory Committee, which continues to give guidance to New Jersey's historic preservation planning efforts.

The current New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan was developed following three regional public meetings in 1993, and the subsequent recommendations of the 1994 report of the Historic Preservation Advisory Committee entitled Historic Preservation in New Jersey: An Action Agenda.

The recommendations made in the Action Agenda have been invaluable in developing this plan.

New Jersey's historic preservation constituencies and others involved in preparing this report included representatives of:

The advisory bodies of the Historic Preservation Action Committee, the New Jersey State Review Board for Historic Sites, the New Jersey Historic Sites Council, and each of the 21 County Cultural and Heritage Commissions have been afforded opportunities to review and provide input into the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan. Many of their suggestions have been incorporated into the Plan.

Clearly, New Jersey's State Historic Preservation activities are subject to considerable public participation. The purpose for this is multi-faceted. HPO disseminates information about historic preservation to enable planning agencies and others to integrate historic preservation into their programs.

Secondly, since historic preservation encompasses many fields, a broad preservation advocacy provides a more comprehensive approach to preservation planning leading to a successful preservation program. Public participation also assists greatly in defining preservation goals and objectives at an early stage, and will be crucial in the implementation of the Plan by HPO and other planning agencies.

Preservation Plan Revisions Back to Contents
The Historic Preservation Office will review and revise the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan in five years. As a dynamic process, however, New Jersey's preservation activities will be subject to public monitoring and comment almost continuously. Consequently, future comments regarding the Plan will be retained on file and considered when revisions are formally undertaken.

Information for revisions will be derived from each of HPO's specific programs, preservation professionals, planning agencies, the general public, and economic and academic studies.


Chapter IV: New Jersey's Historic Contexts Back to Contents

New Jersey's Historic Contexts Back to Contents
The Historic Preservation Office maintains files containing data concerning historic resources in New Jersey. This information includes surveys/inventories of historic properties throughout the state; information on properties identified through environmental impact studies; New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places files; and files associated with the development of historic contexts.

The historic context files enable HPO to more effectively and objectively evaluate historic resources. Although many of the historic contexts are not fully developed, the files do contain information critical to enabling preservationists to evaluate the significance of historic properties.

Whether the information is about a specific type of resource or a recurrent theme in New Jersey's history, the information collected allows HPO to more effectively deliberate on significant properties in a broader 'historic context." The information typically consists of topical historic research focusing on New Jersey; specific associative property types and examples of similar properties in New Jersey. Refinement of this information is ongoing, and it is routinely utilized in evaluating properties for their historical significance. The public is encouraged to use this information, but much of it has not been published.

Twelve statewide historic contexts have been identified in New Jersey. All information about historic properties representing aspects of history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture in the state can be organized within this framework. As stated in the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Preservation Planning, historic contexts are a management tool for organizing information concerning related cultural properties around a common theme or cultural concept, a clearly defined geographic area, and a specific time period. Preservation planners use historic contexts to develop goals and priorities to identify, evaluate, register, and treat historic properties. Goals and priorities established for specific historic contexts are then integrated into broader planning processes at the state, county, and local levels.

Each historic context consists of several components beyond the already mentioned thematic, geographic, and chronological categories. Fully developed historic contexts include the collection, assessment, and analysis of relevant information, the identification of associated property types (groupings of individual properties sharing common physical, social, and cultural characteristics), the identification of information needs, the development of specific preservation goals and priorities for each property type within the historic context, systematic development of general historic context planning goals and priorities, and their integration into the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan.

The development and implementation of goals for each historic context is a dynamic process and may change as new information becomes available. They may also be developed at any number of thematic, geographic, or temporal levels. For example, a future historic context may focus upon the contributing theme transportation; concentrate upon property types associated with canals; utilize the central portion of the state as its geographic area; and center upon the period 1850-1920.

The information collected for historic contexts is an integral part of historic preservation in New Jersey. Their continued development will be linked to critical resource related-needs identified in New Jersey.

New Jersey Statewide Historic Contexts Back to Contents
Statewide historic contents are best utilized to Organize comprehensive historic resource surveys of an entire municipality or county and enable broad temporal categorizations and evaluations.

    1. Paleo Indian and Early Archaic 11,500 - 8,00 years ago
    2. Middle Archaic 8,000 - 6,000 years ago
    3. Late Archaic 6,000 - 3,000 years ago
    4. Early/Middle Woodland 3,000 - 1,200 years ago
    5. Late Woodland 1,200 years ago - 1500 A.D.
    6. European Intrusion A.D. 1500 - A.D. 1700
    7. Initial Colonial Settlement A.D. 1630 - A.D. 1775
    8. Early Industrialization, Urbanization, and Agricultural Development A.D. 1775 - A.D. 1860
    9. Suburban Development A.D. 1840 - A.D. 1940
    10. Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, and Urban Expansion A.D. 1850 - A.D. 1920
    11. Metropolitan New Jersey A.D. 1910 - A.D. 1945
    12. Modern New Jersey A.D. 1945 - Present


New Jersey Thematic Historic Contexts (Select List) Back to Contents
Thematic historic contexts are generally quite focused, associated with recognized topics of New Jersey history, and aid in evaluating specific types of historic resources.


Chapter V: New Jersey's Historic Resources Back to Contents

New Jersey's Historic Resources Back to Contents
Historic resources are those places that reflect our history and that through their physical qualities and the events and historical figures associated with them can convey the broad patterns of both our prehistoric past and our history. Altogether, thousands of places fit this definition, and they are as varied as the circumstances that have produced them. Some survive in an almost unchanged condition from when they were built, while others exist only as archaeology remains.

Usually hidden below the ground surface, archaeology sites are a common type of historic resource in New Jersey, although they comprise only a small percentage of New Jersey and National Register listings. Distribution of known sites reflects patterns of modern development and therefore areas which have been surveyed for sites rather than the actual distribution or patterns of past human habitation. However, archaeology sites have been identified in all geographic areas of the State.

Prehistoric site types in New Jersey include large and small settlements, cemetery and other burial sites, trails, stone quarries, fish weirs, shell middens, and a wide variety of special purpose locations where specific foods and non-food resources were collected and/or processed. Some sites were reused periodically for thousands of years while others were used for only a limited period.

Historic archaeology sites occur in conjunction with extant buildings, districts, and structures, including industrial and commercial buildings such as mills, although they also frequently remain after above-ground portions of sites no longer remain. They also include sites such as battlefields where associated buildings may never have existed, but where evidence of human activity survives in or on the ground. Cemeteries, as well as the sites where engineering features such as canals, bridges, dams, or early roadways (e.g., plank roads which traversed low lying areas) were constructed, are also archaeological sites.

Shipwreck sites are found in navigable portions of rivers, bays, and especially, off New Jersey's Atlantic Coast. While not all historic or prehistoric sites are important in understanding our history or prehistory, virtually all locations where human activity has taken place with any intensity or for some length of time retain some detectable remnant in the ground.

New Jersey's earliest inhabitants lived during the Paleo Indian and the later Early Archaic periods. These early people were adapted to very different landscapes than exist today. Colder temperatures locked much of the world's water in continental ice sheets, so that as recently as 11,000 years ago, during the Paleo Indian period, sea level was as much as 85 feet lower than it is today.

The Outer Coastal Plain shoreline was up to 80 miles east of the current shoreline, and many river and stream valleys which are submerged today were available for use by Paleo Indians.

The environments created by these colder temperatures were conifer dominated. Herds of now extinct or extirpated animals roamed the open lands and would have been exploited by Paleo Indians. Faunal exploitation is generally thought to have extended to now extinct large cold adapted mammals such as mammoth and mastodon.

Exploitable plant resources were generally limited and also dispersed in their distribution, rather than clustered as they were during later prehistoric periods. Similarly, the range of at least the larger exploitable animals would have been extensive rather than localized. In reaction to the distribution of exploitable plant and animal resources, early adaptive strategies were based on foraging by small family based groups. This strategy included use of natural transportation corridors (e.g., along rivers or through passes between mountains) as routes to access workable stone to make tools, and movement between features that attracted game animals. The material or physical remains of this type of adaptive strategy are numerous small archaeology sites across broad portions of the landscape. More substantial expressions are found in places that were repeatedly exploited such as stone quarry sites. Most cultural groups made stylistically distinctive chipped stone tools, usually projectile points. The "hallmark" usually found on the earliest Paleo sites is the fluted point.

Identified Paleo Indian and Early Archaic sites are uncommon in New Jersey, and only a very few have been found in undisturbed contexts. This is because:

    1. population levels generally were very low early in prehistory
    2. many sites have been inundated by sea level rise;
    3. sites are limited in the remains left behind and therefore in visibility, since groups were small and movement was frequent;
    4. because of frequent movement, the stone tool kit was carefully selected and "curated" so that there was not a lot of waste and discard; and
    5. up to 12,000 years of subsequent human use has obliterated many of the earlier remains.

By the Middle Archaic (beginning 8000 years ago) and Late Archaic (6000 to 3000 years ago) periods, the plant communities, animal communities, and climate were more similar to those described historically. With sea level rise, areas were inundated, and vast tidal marshes and other types of wetlands were established inland and upstream from their prior locations. The greater diversity in available resources was matched by a greater diversity in their seasonal and spatial distribution. The number of new habitat areas containing exploitable resources not surprisingly resulted in a number of new types of settings where prehistoric people lived or foraged. For example, in areas where broad productive wetlands and marshes bordered rivers and major streams, plant and animal resources were abundant and attracted more intensive settlement.

It appears from the greater numbers of documented archaeology sites that population levels increased. While the people of the Middle Archaic may still have been foraging, they established more permanent residential bases from which foraging parties originated. Ground stone woodworking tools provide evidence of an increasing adaptation to productive forest environments. The appearance of oak, hickory, beech, and chestnut forests provided more predictable and stable plant and animal food resources to support aboriginal people.

By the Late Archaic period, the rate of sea level rise was decreasing and this appears to have further resulted in increased production of shellfish, anadromous fish, and other riverine, estuarine, and marsh resources. As a result, the archaeology evidence from the Late Archaic suggests an intensive focus on the high yield and highly predictable resources associated with riverine and estuarine habitats during their most productive seasons. At other times of the year, e.g., in winter, it appears that social units disbanded into smaller groups to adjust to the more dispersed distribution of resources. Smaller sites to support the longer term habitation sites of the larger social units continued to be used.

Several aspects of Late Archaic culture remain unknown such as house types, religious belief systems, and many aspects of community life. There is, however, evidence for increased social stratification and complexity at this time. Exotic artifact forms, extensive use of nonlocal stone for tool making, and mortuary ceremonialism indicate increased societal ranking and greater complexity in social organization.

The reasons and mechanisms for these emerging cultural characteristics are unclear. The emergence of a system to coordinate the labor intensive procurement and distribution of resources has been hypothesized. Others suggest high degrees of social organization develop when significant differences in heritable wealth emerge. Investigation of associated sites will shed light on unanswered questions.

The Early/Middle Woodland (3000 to 1200 years ago) is marked by the appearance of ceramic technology, increased sedentism (to a large degree resulting in greater visibility of sites), and more elaborate ceremonialism (as evidenced by exotic artifacts and status burials). However, by focusing on the actual adaptive strategies rather than material remains, per se, it appears that patterns seen in the Early/Middle Woodland gradually emerged from earlier patterns of successful adaptation. The focus on estuarine, marsh, and floodplain settings persisted, with a continuation, as well, of use of smaller more ephemeral sites for specialized procurement and processing activities.

Widespread evidence for food storage technology (e.g. storage pits, pottery vessels) emerged. There was a shift in utilization of coastal resources. While Late Archaic groups exploited these areas, later sites appear more stable and permanent by comparison.
Although the economy became increasingly focused, seasonal movement and/or dispersal (e.g., at more inland locations) appears to have remained a useful strategy to adjust to changes in seasonal abundance. The appearance of pottery can often facilitate interpretation by providing a relatively sensitive indicator for differences in time and cultural affinity.

The Late Woodland period in some parts of New Jersey was characterized by village life and a decidedly significant turn towards dependence on horticultural products for subsistence. It was a time of intensive occupation and gardening along major riverine settings and selective seasonal exploitation of interior and coastal hunting and gathering sites. Numerous stone and ceramic artifacts attest to trade and contact with cultures from throughout New Jersey, east to Staten Island and Long Island, west to the Susquehanna Valley, and north to the Mohawk Valley and other parts of New York. Late Woodland cultural patterns persisted to the time of first contact with Europeans.

At the time of contact between European and Native Americans, it appears that the entire region now identified as New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania, southern New York, and the northern portions of Delaware and Maryland, was homeland to the ancestral Lenni Lenape, or Delaware Indians, as the Lenape came to be known by the Europeans. While Lenape artifacts and general settlement patterns were similar to those of the Iroquois, the cultures differed linguistically. The Lenape spoke Algonkian.They also differed in terms of sociopolitical organization. At the time of contact, the Lenape could not be described as a tribe in the strict sense, but lived as loosely structured autonomous bands of lineages and resided in small settlements dispersed across the landscape.

For the seventeenth century, there is archaeology evidence of contact between Europeans and Lenape in northwestern, central, and southwestern New Jersey. It is sometimes difficult, however, to distinguish between Late Woodland and early Contact Period sites. This is in large part because often only a limited number of European produced items are included in predominantly Native American-produced assemblages of artifacts. In turn, this appears to be part of the reason that so few Contact period sites have been identified.

The archaeology data from New Jersey sites and contemporary sites in surrounding areas, in conjunction with the ethnohistoric information indicate that cultivated foods (predominantly corn, beans and squash) comprised an important part of the subsistence base. Hunting, fishing, shellfish gathering and the collection of wild plant foods, however, remained an integral part of the subsistence economy.

Village sites were recurrently occupied with group sizes not exceeding a few hundred people. Examples of these site types have been found throughout the State including in the Upper Delaware River Valley, near Trenton within the Abbott Farm National Historic Landmark, and near Bridgeport at the National Register Salisbury Site. Other sites utilized or occupied for shorter durations served needs not met by the primary villages.

Village sites usually occur on river terraces that had easily cultivated and productive soils. These sites were complex, incorporating:

  1. house remains, often providing evidence of internal arrangement;
  2. rash accumulations with high densities of food and other remains which provide detailed insights into diet, etc.;
  3. torage pits, often with the remnants of stored food materials and large ceramic storage pots;
  4. ire pits and associated artifact concentrations around their perimeter such as clusters of debitage from making stone tools; and
  5. human burials. Cemeteries, separate from habitation sites, are also known for this period.

Colonial settlers of New Jersey also often valued the areas occupied by the Lenape for settlement. This is largely due to the similarities in subsistence between the two groups. Both usually farmed and, as stated above, the floodplains bordering major rivers contained the most productive land. The rivers yielded high densities of fish which were useful to both groups. In addition, the earliest transportation routes available to Colonists were rivers, navigable streams, and Indian trails.

As Colonists increasingly occupied the area, most of the Native American population was forced westward. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw a drastic change in demography in New Jersey; by 1740, there were relatively few sites still occupied just by Lenape. While at 1600 most of the State was occupied by Lenape Indian societies, by 1800 no recognizable separate Native American societies remained, based on present knowledge. This does not mean that Lenape Indians no longer lived in New Jersey. However, by 1800, the Lenape occupied the State as individuals who were part of the larger colonial society. The degree and time of cultural assimilation varied considerably. For example, in some areas such as Monmouth County, the Sand Hill Lenape continued to be culturally identifiable into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Many people tracing their ancestry to the Lenape continue to live in the state today.

The historic period of New Jersey began with the first European explorers who visited our shores, including Giovanni di Verrazano in 1524, Lord de la Warre in 1608, Hendrik Hudson in 1609, and Cornelis Jacobse Mey in 1610. Settlement of New Amsterdam (now lower Manhattan) soon followed, and it became the center of a colony known as "New Netherland." Within a generation, the Dutch began expanding into northeastern New Jersey (now Hudson and Bergen Counties). In the Delaware River and Bay (so named by de la Warre), English, Dutch, Swedes and Finns soon settled, although the Swedes and Finns gained a temporary hegemony and called their province "New Sweden." In 1655, New Sweden was annexed by New Netherland, and in 1664, during one of the Anglo-Dutch wars of that era, an English force seized New Netherland in the name of King Charles II of England.

In the immediate aftermath of the English victory, New Englanders began to settle key parts of northeastern New Jersey. About a decade later, New Jersey was divided into two provinces, East and West New Jersey. In the late 1670s, groups of Quakers, mostly emigrants from the English midlands, settled the Delaware Valley and transformed it into an English Quaker-dominated cultural region.

Other groups also added to the New Jersey mosaic during the Colonial period. A small but important group of Scottish settlers occupied large parts of Monmouth and Middlesex Counties in the 1680s. In the eighteenth century, after East and West New Jersey became the royal colony of New Jersey, Germans, Scotch-Irish, and descendants of the early Dutch and New Englanders spread throughout northwestern New Jersey.

Many buildings and sites have survived from the Colonial era in New Jersey, but only a tiny fraction of the numbers that were actually built. Furthermore, the quality of what survives is very uneven, and only a small percentage of buildings and sites have been properly identified through research. Large gaps remain in our knowledge of how early New Jersey actually looked and how it functioned in a material sense. For example, no surviving buildings have been reliably dated to before 1680, and only a handful prior to 1700. Buildings for specialized purposes such as work places of all kinds have only rarely survived, and, even then, have almost always been heavily altered. Although a few more seventeenth-century houses are likely to be identified, almost all of what remains from that period (and much from all later periods as well) will be discovered and investigated in the ground by archeologists, or this part of our heritage will remain lost.

Each of the ethnic groups who settled New Jersey in its first century brought distinctive building practices with them. Each group constructed buildings which are distinguishable from those of the other groups.

The Swedes and Finns and their descendants built the first log and plank houses in America. The early Germans, who settled chiefly in the northwestern counties of the state, built log houses that were different in plan and construction from those of the Swedes and Finns. The New Englanders built timber frame houses similar to those both of New England and of East Anglia, the part of England from which most of them or their parents had emigrated. Several early remaining examples of these houses are found in Cape May County, but they remain to be fully documented.

The Dutch settlers built farm houses and barns using a technique of carpentry that was distinctive to the areas of Europe from which they had come, and not practiced at all by the English. Today, a few "Dutch barns" still dot the northern half of New Jersey, but they are rare and threatened. The distinctive "pattern brick" houses of southwestern New Jersey were built in areas heavily settled by Quakers. These historic resources are the visual evidence of cultural diversity in early New Jersey, and their preservation is a critical concern.

The groups of colonial-era buildings that are the most widely known and best documented are the houses that were built toward the end of the period, from about 1750 to 1775. They are often referred to as pre-Revolutionary, to emphasize their construction during the generation before the War for American Independence. The Rarzillai Newbold house (c.1740) in Burlington County, the Theunis Dey house (c.1740s) in Passaic County, and the Ebenezer Ford mansion in Morristown (1774) are outstanding examples of design and construction in New Jersey according to the prevailing Georgian style.

The end of the Revolution and the adoption of the Federal Constitution ushered in the period of the "Early Republic" as many historians have called it. The typical architecture of this period has been labeled "Federal;" it was a refined version of the Georgian style that borrowed ideas and sometimes designs from the Adam style that flourished in England during the same era. An outstanding example of the Federal style in a public building is the old Burlington County Courthouse (1796) in Mount Holly.

By the age of "democracy" in the 1820s and '30s, the appeal of ancient Greece had left its mark on New Jersey's cities and towns with many buildings in the Greek Revival style. The hallmark of these buildings were frequently their "temple" fronts which resembled ancient Greek temples. Relatively few temple-front buildings were built and have survived in New Jersey compared to neighboring states like New York, but the Greek Revival style also used a whole range of design devices - what architects call a "vocabulary" - that have survived in many fine buildings. The town of Flemington in Hunterdon County has several fine Greek Revival houses.

Architecture after the Greek Revival consisted of a series of revivals of other historic European styles, adapted to American needs and conditions. The first among these were the Gothic Revival, the Italian Villa style, and the Tuscan Revival, which are often referred to as the "Picturesque" revivals. The middle of the nineteenth century was the Romantic era in literature, and designers sought a picturesqueness in buildings that could not be obtained from the constraints of the Federal or Greek Revival styles.

Architecture after the Civil War brought the fruits of industrial production to the making of all sorts of building materials, which fostered an amazing proliferation of styles and an increasing eclecticism in which a single house would embody the marks of several different architectural styles through a variety of ornament often spoken of as "gingerbread". The best and most original of the new styles, the Richardsonian Romanesque and the Shingle Style, sought to develop a new sense of order out of architectural chaos, and while they were originated in other states, many examples were built in New Jersey.

New Jersey's rise as an industrial state also accelerated in the nineteenth century. The Morris Canal was opened in 1825, the Camden & Amboy Railroad in 1831, the Delaware & Raritan Canal in 1834, and many other railroads shortly thereafter. The rapid rise of Newark as an industrial city began. Other towns expanding into cities included Paterson, Jersey City, New Brunswick, Trenton, Elizabeth, and Camden. The Rogers Locomotive Works in Paterson is an outstanding reminder of this era, and both canals have been preserved to a considerable degree.

Industry began in New Jersey with the mills that harnessed water and wind power to perform the energy-intensive tasks of the colonial period: grinding grain, sifting flour, sawing wood, fulling cloth, extracting linseed oil from flaxseed, and hammering wrought iron in forges. Mills were vital features of the landscape in their heyday, and survivals remain important landmarks today. A few remain in working condition or have had works reconstructed; some others still possess their works inside; a greater number survive which are adapted to new uses.

Toward the end of the eighteenth century, invention merged with the older concept of industry to beget the first Industrial Revolution in America. Early manifestations of the new age in New Jersey included the earliest use of the steam engine in America, to pump water out of Arentaz Schuyler's copper mine; the invention of the steamboat by John Fitch (1809); and the first railroad in the nation, created by Colonel John Stevens at Hoboken in 1812. Paterson was founded as the nation's first industrial city in 1791, and the Society for Useful Manufactures Historic District survives to memorialize it.

Readily available transport, power, and raw materials drove industrialization forward, and although much early industry was small scale and in rural locations, what came to characterize industry in its mature phase was its urbanness, its large scale, and its capital intensity. Accordingly, great industrial districts emerged in all of New Jersey's cities, where a considerable degree of specialization often resulted, such as silk in Paterson, ceramics in Trenton, textiles in the City of Passaic, or oil refining in Bayonne.

Today, numerous large industrial complexes survive to recall them, such as Roebling's in Trenton (wire rope manufacture), Botany in Passaic (worsted cloth and clothing), New York Ship in Camden (shipbuilding), and Dixon Crucible in Jersey City (pencil manufacture). The rise of railroad transportation as a mature industry also required a revolution in how products were distributed. The clearest embodiment of these changes in a New Jersey building is the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company (A&P) Warehouse (ca. 1900) in Jersey City, which is a National Historic Landmark.

The great variety of American educational experience has left its mark on New Jersey's school buildings. Primary schools, the forerunner of elementary schools, began during the colonial period, which can be seen in the Brainerd school (1759) in Mount Holly. Similar schools became more widespread after the
Revolution, with buildings such as the Lyons Farm schoolhouse (1784) of Newark and the Burlington Friends school (1792). The brief vogue for octagonal schoolhouses in the Delaware valley during the early 19th century is represented by the Fairview Schoolhouse (1835) in Warren County. There are a number of surviving one-room schoolhouses, and they date from the nineteenth century.

As the nineteenth century drew to a close, multi-room school buildings replaced one-room schools. These schools were built in many New Jersey communities in response to the 1894 school consolidation act. The result was "consolidated" schools such as the Mercer Street School (1894) in Hightstown and the old Cranbury School (1896).

Before the first high schools were organized in New Jersey, education beyond the primary school usually meant attending one of the small local academies that were started during the Revolutionary period or afterward. Amwell Academy (1811) in Ringoes, Hunterdon County, is one of a number of surviving buildings that housed these secondary schools. The first high school in New Jersey was organized in the 1850s in Newark, and it had few counterparts until after the Civil War. As high schools developed and grew, they frequently required a large facility. During the early twentieth century, high schools in urban areas became architectural symbols of their communities, carefully designed by local architects such as John T. Rowland, who designed four high schools in Jersey City, including the distinctive Dickinson High School.

Alone among the thirteen colonies before the Revolution, New Jersey boasted two collegiate institutions: the College of New Jersey at Princeton (Princeton University), and Queens College (Rutgers, the State University) at New Brunswick. Nassau Hall (1756) at Princeton and "Old Queens"(1811) at Rutgers are outstanding reminders of the early origins of these two institutions. Both universities have since built large campuses that include many distinguished buildings. Some of New Jersey's newer colleges and universities have acquired estates that include outstanding historic buildings and landscaping. Some of our state's private secondary schools have also developed impressive campuses.

New Jersey has been a destination for year-round recreation since the 18th century. Before the Revolution, people of the larger towns and the cities, including Philadelphia and New York, sought out the mineral waters of our state and made places such as Schooley's Mountain popular. As early as the 1790s, (long before "Atlantic City" was conceived), the New Jersey shore was a recreation spot at Cape May and Long Branch, and also at forgotten former "seashore" resorts such as Perth Amboy. The Proprietary House at Perth Amboy, which became a hotel known as the Brighton about 1810, is the outstanding survivor from this period of shore history.

The more remote parts of New Jersey were explored by artists, botanists, naturalists, and mineralogists and the rise of railroads led to an upsurge of both inland vacation resorts such as the Delaware Water Gap and Lake Hopatcong, and additional shore resort towns. Although few of the largest hotels survive, many of the coastal resort towns still evoke their historical patrimony.

By the end of the 19th century, New Jersey already had become known for its suburban development. The common link of these suburbs was railroad access. Prime examples include Llewellyn Park, Washington Park, Ocean Grove, Roebling, Collingswood, Cape May City and Short Hills. These developments were often precursors to planned communities.

As automobiles and supporting roadways improved in the 20th century, even the remotest segments of the state became subject to various types of developments of which Radburn and Roosevelt are nationally recognized examples.

Twentieth-century America has shaped and been shaped by many developments that have taken place in New Jersey and left their mark on our built environment. Thomas Edison spent the most productive years of his career at West Orange, where his home and laboratory are a National Historic Site.

Guglielmo Marconi conducted much of his pioneermg work in radio here, and his house and some of his towers and other structures have survived.

Edwin Armstrong built the nation's first FM-radio station in Alpine, Bergen County. Numerous advances in aviation history were made in New Jersey, which are recalled by the Hangar No.1 of the Naval Air Station at Lakehurst in Ocean County, and North Terminal at Newark Airport. An aviation history museum is located in the old control tower at Teterboro Airport, America's busiest private airport.


Chapter VI: New Jersey's Historic Preservation Community Back to Contents

Substantial strides have been made for historic preservation in New Jersey since the state program was established in the Historic Sites Section within the Division of Parks & Forestry in the newly created Department of Environmental Protection in 1970.

The number of organizations and professionals with an interest in historic preservation is now quite extensive. The following directory of major preservation related organizations is provided to facilitate the exchange of information or services among preservation advocates.

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation:
An independent federal agency that advises the President and Congress on preservation policy. The council also reviews proposed federal under-takings, including federal funding or permits, in order to evaluate and mitigate potential effects on historic properties. For information, contact:

The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20004
(202) 786-0503.

Advocates for New Jersey History:
A public-interest organization that advances the preservation, teaching, and dissemination of New Jersey History. As a membership organization, it functions as a consortium of history professionals and advocates.

Advocates for New Jersey History
David A. Cowell, President
29 Brookside Avenue Caldwell, NJ 07006

American Institute of Architects:
The national professional organization of architects. The New Jersey Chapter has a historic preservation committee.

New Jersey Society of Architects
1000 Route 9
Woodbridge, N.J. 07095
(201) 636-5680

American Planning Association:
The national professional organization for planners. It may be reached by calling (312) 431-9100 or:

American Planning Association
122 5. Michigan Avenue
Suite 1600
Chicago, IL. 60603-6107
or by calling (312) 431-9100

American Society of Landscape Architects:
The national professional organization for landscape architects. It may be reached at:

American Society of Landscape Architects
1733 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20009,
(202) 466-7730.

Archaeological Society of New Jersey:
Encourages the study and further understanding of prehistoric and historic archaeology of the State. Through active chapters, conferences, and a bulletin, the Archaeology Society supports the conservation of archaeological sites and artifacts and encourage their professional investigation and interpretation.

Archaeological Society of New Jersey
Charles Bello
19 Ledge Lane
Pipersville, PA 18947
(610) 294-8260

Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions (ANJEC):
The Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions (ANJEC) is a private, non-profit membership organization serving municipal and county officials and the citizens of New Jersey. ANJEC was formed in 1969 to coordinate and assist the work of municipal environmental commissions and citizens. The combined knowledge and actions of the hundreds of New Jersey commissions promote the conservative use of the state's natural resources. Many commissions are also active in historic preservation activities.

Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions
300 Mendham Road Route 24, Box 157
Mendham, N.J. 07945
(201) 539-7547

Center for Preservation Policy Studies:
Provides research and testimony on pending federal legislation, advocacy of preservation issues, coordination of national lobbying network, and research on preservation policy issues. For information call the National Trust: (202) 673-4254

Certified Local Governments:
Local governments with historic preservation programs that meet prescribed standards, making them eligible for special enhanced participation in national preservation programs, grants-in-aid and technical assistance from the state historic preservation offices to assist in carrying out preservation activities as the local level. The New Jersey Historic Preservation Office administers the state program and may be reached at: (609) 984-6017

County Cultural and Heritage Commissions:
County cultural and heritage commissions are responsible for the development of county programs to promote public interest in local and county history, in the arts and in the cultural values, and traditions of the community, state and nation. The specific functions of the county cultural and heritage commissions in New Jersey vary widely, but most serve as county-level resource centers which can respond to preservation inquiries and help to determine appropriate contacts and procedures on the county and local level. For the address of a particular County Cultural and Heritage Commission contact the:

Association of NJ County Cultural & Historic Agencies
c/o Pat McGarry
Somerset County Cultural and
Heritage Commission
Somerset County Administration Building
P.O. Box 3000 Somerville, NJ 08876
(908) 231-7110

Historic Preservation Office:
Located within the Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Parks & Forestry, the Historic Preservation Office (HPO) is committed to enhancing the quality of life for the people of New Jersey through the preservation and appreciation of New Jersey's collective past. The HPO administers State and Federal Historic Preservation Programs for New Jersey and offers technical assistance and guidance to individuals, organizations, and government agencies in the identification, evaluation and protection of historic and archaeological resources. This is accomplished through conferences, consultations, training workshops, the Historic Preservation Planning Bulletin and various publications.

Importantly, the HPO reviews public projects in order to avoid or mitigate adverse effects to historic resources in accordance with state and federal laws.
Further, the HPO is responsible for developing and guiding this document entitled the New Jersey Historic Preservation Plan. Comprehensive planning provides all levels of government and New Jersey's professional and a vocational interests with a method to systematically evaluate, protect and preserve historic resources.

Historic Preservation Office
P.O. Box 404
Trenton, NJ 08625-0404
(609) 292-2023
(609) 984-0578 9 (Fax.)

League of Historical Societies of New Jersey:
This is an organization representing nearly 250 local historical societies in New Jersey. The League conducts regular meetings, publishes a newsletter and focuses on promoting public support for state and local history. It has a historic preservation committee. Although it is the largest membership organization of its type in the state, there are likely another 500 additional historical societies in NJ that do not belong to the League. Many of New Jersey's local historical societies are stewards of historic properties, often as administrators of house museums or general history museums. For information contact:

League of Historical Societies of New Jersey
P.O. Box 909
Madison, NJ 07940
(201) 377-7023

Main Street Program:
A nation-wide program managed by the National Trust dedicated to improving and preserving our nation's downtowns. New Jersey's Main Street Program is in the Department of Community Affairs.

Main Street New Jersey Program
Housing and Community Resources
Department of Community Affairs
P.0. Box 806 Trenton, NJ 08625-0806
(609) 633-9769

Municipal Historic Preservation Commissions:
Out of a total of 566 municipalities in NJ, over 160 have made a substantial commitment to local historic preservation through the creation of a local historic preservation commission. These communities are among NJ's strongest preservation partners. The Historic Preservation Office has a publication entitled New Jersey Historic Preservation Commissions Directory.

National Alliance of Preservation Commissions:
This is an alliance of local preservation commissions that provides information regarding historic preservation law, local ordinances, design review, and local preservation planning; maintains a speakers bureau; and publishes the periodic "Alliance Review". For information, contact:

National Alliance of Preservation Commissions
P.O. Box 1605
Athens, GA 30603
(706) 542-4731

National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers:
Organization of state historic preservation officers that provides a professional network and newsletter, and organizes an annual meeting of members. For information, contact the National Conference at:

National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers
Suite 342-Hall Of The States
444 North Capital Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202) 624-5465

National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior:
As the principal federal agency responsible for historic preservation laws and activities, the National Park Service maintains the National Register of Historic Places, administers the certification program for federal tax incentives, and provides guidance and direction to each state in a unique
federal/state partnership.

National Park Service
P.O. Box 37127
Washington, D.C. 20013-7127
(202) 343-9596

The National Register of Historic Places:
The nation's official list of historic, architectural, archaeological, engineering, and cultural resources is maintained nationwide by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, but the state program is managed by the:

New Jersey Historic Preservation Office
P.O. Box 404
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-2023

National Trust for Historic Preservation:
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is the only national private, non-profit organization chartered by Congress with the responsibility for encouraging public participation in the preservation of sites, buildings and objects significant in American history and culture.

National Trust for Historic Preservation
1785 Massachusetts Avenue. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Mid-Atlantic Regional Office
One Penn Center at Suburban Station
Suite 1520
1617 John F. Kennedy Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19103-1815

The New Jersey Conservation Foundation:
The New Jersey Conservation Foundation is a statewide non-profit membership organization advocating appropriate land use. The Foundation acquires real estate using a revolving land fund, and is an interim property owner. Acquisition can be by a market value purchase, outright donation, or by combination through a less-than market or bargain sale. Easements have been advocated and accepted for the past 15 years. These include conservation, natural areas, agricultural, scenic, and historic easements in various combinations. Most easements have been donated to the Foundation, and are viewed as deductible charitable contributions by the donors for charitable purposes.

Although historic preservation is not the organization's main concern, significant historic structures are often located on properties proposed for easement protection wherein the historical nature of the improvement is acknowledged and provisions to insure its protection are included in the easement. The Conservation Foundation has directly participated in protecting several National Register properties as well as several of local, regional or statewide importance. The group currently holds historic facade easements on several properties. In addition to open space preservation, the Foundation's emphasis is focused on agricultural retention and innovative development concepts. The Foundation is also an information resource for current easement regulations, government programs, tax aspects, land use planning, marketing strategies, and general open space real estate related inquiries of both a public and private nature.

New Jersey Conservation Foundation
Bamboo Brook
170 Longview Road
Far Hills, NJ 07931
(908) 234-1225

The New Jersey Historic Sites Council:
The New Jersey Sites Council (HSC) consists of 11 citizens appointed by the Governor to advise the Commissioner of Environmental Protection on historic preservation matters. According to the New Jersey Register of Historic Places Act, any undertaking by the public sector, state, county or municipality that will affect a property listed in the Register must be authorized by the Commissioner of DEP after review by the staff and the Historic Sites Council.

New Jersey Historic Sites Council
c/o Historic Preservation Office
P.O. Box 404 Trenton, N.J. 08625
(609) 292-2023

The New Jersey Historical Commission:
The New Jersey Historical Commission was established by the state legislature in 1966 to advance public knowledge and preservation of the history of New Jersey through research, public programs, publications and assistance to other agencies.

Since 1969, the Commission has established a wide-ranging series of scholarly and popular programs: scholarly resource materials; symposia, workshops, and other public programs; and publications for scholars, students and the public. It also assists other agencies with information, consultation and grants-in-aid, and co-sponsorship programs. In addition to publications, programs, observances and other scholarly projects, the Commission furthers the study of New Jersey history through grants to professional and amateur historians, historical organizations and educators. The Commission offers consultation, advice, cooperation, co-sponsorship and other assistance to historians and teachers.

New Jersey Historical Commission
P.O. Box 305
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-6062

New Jersey Historical Society:
The New Jersey Historical Society is the oldest statewide historical organization in New Jersey. The Society's founding principles - collecting, preserving, and disseminating New Jersey history - have been carried out since its formation in 1845. The Society offers citizens a unique opportunity to learn about New Jersey through its valuable collections and programs. The New Jersey Historic Society has a reference library, a museum, an education program, and numerous
publications, including a quarterly journal.

New Jersey Historical Society
52 Park Place
Newark, NJ 07104
(937) 596-8500

The New Jersey Historic Trust:
Created by State Law in 1967, the New Jersey Historic Trust is a nonprofit historic preservation organization affiliated with the State. The Trust promotes preservation of the state's historic resources, and has the power to accept grants, gifts, legacies, bequest and endowments for any purpose that falls within its mission.

The New Jersey Historic Preservation Grant Program, administered by the Trust, provides matching grants that assist in the restoration, preservation, and rehabilitation of historic properties listed in the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. Nonprofits and units of the state, county and municipal government are eligible to apply. The program also funds a revolving loan program that provides low-interest loans for acquisition of historic properties.

New Jersey Historic Trust
P.O. Box 404
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 984-0473

The New Jersey State Review Board for Historic Sites (SRB):
Each State historic preservation program is required by the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, to maintain a State review board. Designated by the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO), the review board must consist of at least five people, the majority of whom are to be professionals in preservation-related disciplines. The fields of history, archaeology (prehistoric and historic), architectural history, and architecture are professionally represented on the New Jersey State Review Board (SRB). Other professional disciplines include folklore, cultural anthropology, curation, conservation and landscape architecture. In the broadest sense, the SRB serves as advocate for historic preservation in New Jersey. As committed preservationists, they provide a focal point for furthering preservation activity that fully utilizes New Jersey's special historic resources. Review boards were established to provide expert judgments about the historical, architectural and archeological significance of resources in their States.

Specific duties of review boards are outlined in Federal Regulations (36 CFR, Part 61) which state that the review boards must meet at least three times a year and:

  1. Review and approve documentation on each National Register of Historic Places nomination prior to its submission to the National Register.
  2. Participate in the review of appeals to National Register nominations and provide written opinions on the significance of the properties.
  3. Review completed State historic preservation plans prior to submission to the Department of the Interior.
  4. Provide general advice and professional recommendations to the SHPO in conducting the comprehensive statewide survey, preparing the State plan, and carrying out the other duties and responsibilities of the State Historic Preservation Office.

New Jersey State Review Board
C/O Historic Preservation Office
P.O. Box 404 Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-2023

Preservation Action:
National grass-roots citizen preservation advocacy, with lobbying coordinators in many states. Preservation Action works closely with the National Trust and other historic preservation organizations in lobbying for the historic preservation agenda. For information, contact:

Preservation Action
1350 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Suite 401
Washington, DC, 20036
(202) 659-0915.

Preservation Alliance of Greater Philadelphia:
Although Pennsylvania based, this organization promotes preservation throughout the Delaware Valley and holds facade easements on several New Jersey historic properties. Their address is:

Preservation Alliance of Greater Philadelphia
1616 Walnut Street, Suite 2310
Phila., PA 19103
(215) 546-1146

Preservation New Jersey:
Preservation New Jersey (PNJ) is a non-profit member organization concerned with preserving the architectural and cultural heritage of New Jersey. PNJ serves a key role in the preservation network in the state by providing a single information source for local organizations and interested individuals. PNJ produces Preservation Perspective, a bi-monthly newsletter which is distributed to approximately 2500.

Preservation New Jersey
18 West Lafayette Street
Trenton, NJ 08609
(609) 392-6409


Chapter VII: Bibliography Back to Contents

Historic Preservation Planning in New Jersey: Selected Papers on the Identification, Evaluation and Protection of Cultural Resources.
Olga Chesler, editor
Historic Preservation office, 1984

New Jersey's Archeological Resources from the Paleo-Indian Period to the Present: A Review of Research Problems and Survey Priorities.
Olga Chesler, editor
Historic Preservation office, 1982

Historic Preservation in New Jersey: An Action Agenda.
Report of the Historic Preservation Advisory Committee
October, 1994

Communities of Place: The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan
The New Jersey State Planning Commission
Adopted June, 1992

A Guide to Understanding and Using the State Development and Redevelopment Plan.
The New Jersey Office of State Planning
November, 1994

Economic Impact of Historic Preservation in New Jersey
Thomas Hemphill, New Jersey Historic Trust
January, 1994

State Tax Incentives for Historic Preservation A State by State Summary.
National Trust for Historic Preservation, May, 1992

The Economics of Rehabilitation.
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1991

New Jersey Historic Trust Annual Reports, 1991,1992,1993,1994, 1995

New Jersey's Common Ground 1994-1999:
New Jersey Open Space and Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP).
Green Acres Program, Department of Environmental Protection, 1994

New Jersey Historic Preservation Commissions Directory
Historic Preservation Office, April, 1995

The Economics of Historic Preservation.
Donovan D. Rypkema
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1994

Historic Preservation Fund Survey and Planning Grant Activities in New Jersey, 1975-1991.
Historic Preservation Office, 1994

New Jersey Paleo-Indian Historic Context.
Robert S. Grumet. National Park Service in cooperation with the Office of New Jersey Heritage, Department of Environmental Protection, 1990


Chapter VIII: Appendices Back to Contents

Appendix A: Historic Preservation Legislation Back to Contents


National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-665, as amended)
The pivotal preservation legislation with respect to current cultural resource protection is the National Historic Preservation Act(NHPA) of 1966, which establishes a broad policy of historic preservation, including the active encouragement of state and local efforts. The act came about as the result of the federal government's acknowledgment of the inadequacies of the nations' pre-1966 preservation program in the face of such conditions as increasing highway sprawl and growth of the urban megalopolis. The legislation serves to define historic preservation as "the protection, rehabilitation, and construction of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects significant in American history, engineering, architecture, archeology or culture." Key components of the NHPA are:

National Register of Historic Places
The NHPA directed the Secretary of the Interior to expand and maintain a National Register of Historic Places which includes cultural resources of state and local as well as national significance in order to ensure future generations an opportunity to appreciate and enjoy the nation's heritage. The National Register criteria are as follows: The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting materials, workmanship, feeling, association, and:

      1. that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or
      2. that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or
      3. that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or
      4. that have yielded or may be likely to yield information important in prehistory or history.

State Historic Preservation Office
The NHPA also established in each state and territory a State Historic Preservation Office which functions as a liaison agency between the federal and state governments with respect to both general preservation programs and project-specific cultural resource review and planning coordination. State Historic Preservation Office staff and preservation plan requirements are stipulated in National Park Service Regulations 36 CFR 60. Currently, the National Park Service requires that each State Historic Preservation Office consist of professionals from the disciplines of history, archeology, and architectural history. In New Jersey, the State Historic Preservation Office implements all federal and state preservation programs, including the National and New Jersey Registers of Historic Places, and the New Jersey Historic Sites Inventory. The Commissioner of New Jersey's Department of Environmental Protection serves as the State Historic Preservation Officer while the Division of Parks and Forestry's, Historic Preservation Office functions as the staff for administering federal and state preservation activities. The NHPA further established a matching grant-in-aid program to the states with respect to the identification, preservation and rehabilitation of historic resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places. New Jersey utilizes some portion of their funds allocated by regranting money for preservation projects.

Section 106: Federal Agencies
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act instructs every federal agency having direct or indirect jurisdiction over a proposed federal, federally assisted, or federally licensed undertaking to take into account the effect of the undertaking on any property listed on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places and to afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation an opportunity to comment with regard to such an undertaking. In turn, the Advisory Council has outlined the procedural process to be undertaken by federal agencies in order to satisfy Section 106. Together, Section 106 and Advisory Council Regulations (36 CFR 800) establish a mechanism during the active planning phase of all federally funded, assisted, licensed, or permitted undertakings for the professional review of the impact of such undertakings on cultural resources listed on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (P.L. 91-190)
NEPA declares a national policy "to encourage production and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment... and to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation." The National Environmental Policy Act mandates the systematic and controlled assessment of both natural and cultural resources in federal project planning.

The legislation is generally recognized by its principal requirement that federal agencies prepare a detailed Environmental Impact Statement for major federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Assessment of a project's effect upon archeological resources is also to be included. Council on Environmental Quality Guidelines 40 CFR 1500, Regulations for implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, stipulate that agencies should to the fullest extent possible integrate environmental impact analyses and related surveys and studies with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and other environmental review laws and regulations. Conversely, for those projects which fall below the Environmental Impact Statement threshold requirements, federal agencies must nonetheless satisfy the Section 106 provisions of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-291)
This legislation serves to amend the original Reservoir Salvage Act so that federal action for the identification and preservation of significant archaeological data will be undertaken with respect to any alteration of the terrain resulting from any federal construction project or federally licensed undertaking. Federal agencies must demonstrate previous good faith efforts to satisfy the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and Advisory Council Guidelines 36 CFR 800, prior to initiation of Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act data recovery inquiries. The act also directs federal agencies to notify the Secretary of the Interior when their activities may cause irreparable loss or destruction of significant scientific, prehistoric, historic, or archaeological data. The act further authorizes the federal agency or the Secretary of the Interior to expeditiously undertake procedures for the identification, recovery and preservation of threatened significant data. Although funding authorized by the Reservoir Salvage Act has rarely, if ever, been utilized in the Northeast, supplemental monies provided by the Archaeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974 have been utilized to conduct appropriate data recovery programs.

Section 101 (a)(4) of the legislation gives the Secretary of the Interior discretionary authority to withhold from public disclosure the specific location of archaeological resources listed on the National Register when it is determined that "the disclosure of specific information would create a risk of destruction or harm to such sites or objects." In keeping with the spirit of the amendment, federal agencies should carefully evaluate all potential deleterious effects, e.g., vandalism, which might accrue as a result of the publication of archaeological site locational data.

Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (P.L. 96-95)
The purpose of the act is "to secure for the present and future benefit of the American people, the protection of archaeological resources and sites which are on public lands and Indian lands, and to foster increased cooperation and exchange of information between governmental authorities, the professional archaeological community, and private individuals having collections of archaeological resources and data." Basically, the act serves to strengthen, update, and supersede the Antiquities Act of 1906, and establishes a permit and review process for the scientific excavation of archaeological resources on federal and Indian lands, as well as providing a full range of enforcement penalties in order to inhibit non-sanctioned excavation, vandalism, and relic collecting. Further, the commercial marketing of unsanctioned archaeological materials is explicitly prohibited.

Tax Reform Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-514)
Since 1976, the Internal Revenue Code has contained tax incentives to encourage the rehabilitation of income producing historic structures. Although the Tax Reform Act of 1986 made substantial changes to the Internal Revenue Code, the following tax incentives for historic properties were retained:

The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-298)
This law transfers to states title to abandoned shipwrecks that are on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places or in protected coral formations (except wrecks on Federal or Indian lands). It also requires the Secretary of Interior to prepare guidelines to help states and federal agencies manage shipwrecks within their jurisdiction. New Jersey, however, has not yet passed a shipwreck management act.

In turn, the Advisory Council has outlined the procedural process to be undertaken by federal agencies in order to satisfy Section 106. Together, Section 106 and Advisory Council Regulations (36 CFR 800) establish a mechanism during the active planning phase of all federally funded, assisted, licensed, or permitted undertakings for the professional review of the impact of such undertakings on cultural resources listed on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (P.L. 101-601)
This law requires Federal agencies and museums to inventory human remains and associated funerary objects and to provide culturally affiliated tribes with the inventory of collections. The Act requires repatriation, on request, to the culturally affiliated tribes and establishes a grant program within the Department of the Interior to assist tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations in repatriation and to assist museums in preparing the inventories and collections summaries. It also makes it illegal to sell or purchase Native American human remains.

Department of Transportation Act of 1966 - Section 4(f)
Section 4(f) is one of our strongest federal historic preservation laws, prohibiting federal approval or funding of any transportation project that requires the "use" of any historic site, public park, recreation area, or wildlife refuge, unless (1) there is "no feasible and prudent alternative to the project," and (2) the project includes "all possible planning to minimize harm to the project." The term "use" includes not only the direct physical taking of land, but also indirect efforts that would "substantially impair" the value of protected sites. Section 4(f) applies to all transportation agencies, including the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Coast Guard.

New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail Route
The New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail Route links significant natural and cultural resources on the Jersey Shore and Raritan and Delaware Bays by means of a vehicular touring route. This partnership project between the National Park Service, the State of New Jersey and many non-profits and public organizations seeks to heighten public awareness of New Jersey's outstanding coastal heritage.

The Trail seeks to protect the natural, cultural, and scenic resources of the New Jersey coastline through interpretation, education, and research, create public advocacy for resource protection through expanded awareness of the coast's significance, ensure that no sites or resources are threatened or adversely affected because of designation as part of the Trail; and plan Trail routes and visitor facilities to minimize impacts on local communities and their natural and cultural settings. Local endorsement of site participation is an important element of resource protection because it encourages community support and awareness.
The New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail (NJCHT) was established in 1988 "to provide for public appreciation, education, understanding, and enjoyment" of significant natural and cultural sites associated with the coastal area of the State of New Jersey. (Public Law 100-515) It encompasses the area east of the Garden State Parkway from the Raritan Bay south to Cape May and the area north and west of Cape May south of Route 49 to the vicinity of Deepwater. For further information, contact:

New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail
National Park Service
P0 Box 118
Mauricetown, NJ 08329



New Jersey Register of Historic Places
The New Jersey Register of Historic Places is the official list of New Jersey's historic and archaeological resources. Created by the New Jersey Register of Historic Places Act of 1970 (Laws of 1970, Chapter 268: N.J.S.A.13.113-15.128), the New Jersey Register is patterned after the National Register of Historic Places. Both Registers share the same criteria for eligibility, nomination and review process. Unlike the National Register Law, however, the New Jersey Register law accords a degree of protection from state, county or municipal undertakings to New Jersey Register properties. The state, county or municipality is responsible for determining whether any of their projects will affect New Jersey Register properties and, if so, to provide project information and effect upon such properties to the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office for review and project authorization. There are two major differences between the Registers:

An exceptional law when enacted, the New Jersey Register of Historic Places law is still nearly unique. About 30 states currently have State Register laws affording protection against state agency undertakings, but only a handful extend the protection to include county and municipal undertakings.

Historic Preservation Grant Funds
New Jersey voters authorized the investment of nearly $56 million for the preservation of the states most important historic properties. This program provides funding for a competitive matching grant program and a revolving loan program to support "bricks and mortar" preservation projects throughout the state. These programs are administered by the New Jersey Historic Trust in the Department of State.
In order to qualify for funding from the bond program, an applicant must demonstrate that a property is a tax exempt non-profit organization or a unit of state, county and local governments; and is listed or meets the criteria for inclusion in the New Jersey Register of Historic Places. For more information, contact the New Jersey Historic Trust: (609) 984-0473.

Farmland Preservation Program
New Jersey's Agriculture Retention and Development Act of 1983 authorized the establishment of County Agriculture Developmental Boards; provided the framework for statewide voluntary farmland preservation programs; authorized the purchase of development easements and the funding of soil and water conservation projects on agricultural land; and appropriated funds from the Farmland Preservation Bond Act. The program is administered by the N] Department of Agriculture. For information regarding New Jersey's Farmland Preservation Program, contact the New Jersey Department of Agriculture.

Green Acres
The Green Acres Program was created out of a 1961 bond issue that demonstrated New Jersey's voters' belief that a highly urbanized state must set aside open space. This conviction has been reaffirmed by the approval of several subsequent bond issues. Through its funding, Green Acres is able to provide acquisition matching grants and revolving low-interest loans for county and municipal open space. The Green Acres Program considers the historic value of properties in the application for funding, and indeed many Green Acres open space acquisitions are for historically significant properties. For more information contact:

The Green Acres Program
Department of Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 404
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 984-0500

Coastal Management Program
The protection, preservation and management of New Jersey's coastal zone is the responsibility of the Bureau of Coastal Regulations, Department of Environmental Protection. The Bureau reviews all permit applications to assure compliance with the Waterfront Development Law of 1914 (N.J.S.A 12:5-3), the Wetland Act of 1970 (N.J.S.A. 13:9A-1), and the Coastal Area Facility Review Act of 1973 (CAFRA, N.J.S.A. 13.19-1). Collectively these acts are intended to preserve environmentally sensitive sites and guide a rational pattern of development along New Jersey's valuable coastal zone. Consideration of the historic built environment as well as the natural environment (coastal ecosystem) is part of the review and compliance process. In addition to its regulatory function, the Coastal Management Program also is involved with long-range planning and policy making regarding the coastal zone; oversees the development and management of the state's Shore Protection Master Plan; and designs and conducts shore protection projects. For more information concerning the Coastal Management Program, its grants, projects and permit procedures, contact:

The Bureau of Coastal Regulations
Department of Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 401
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 633-2289

Executive Order 215
Signed by Governor Thomas H. Kean; effective September 11, 1989.
Executive Order 215 directs all department agencies and authorities of the State to prepare and submit an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement to the Department of Environmental Protection (it includes projects directly initiated by the State as well as projects in which the State is granting at least 20 percent financial assistance). The provisions of this order do not apply to maintenance or repair; facility or equipment replacement in kind; renovations or rehabilitation of existing buildings; expansion or additions (less than 25 percent); projects subject to review under Coastal Area Facility Review Act or the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Financing Program; projects which require an EIS or are classified as categorical exclusions under the National Environmental Policy Act; and private projects involving State loans or tax exempt financing. The Guidelines for the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Assessment specifically require a discussion of the historic, archaeological and architectural aspects of the area and how the project could affect significant historic, archaeological or cultural resources (N.J.A.C. 7:7E-3.36).

New Jersey Pinelands Protection Act of 1979 (N.J.S.A. 13:18A-1 et seq)
The New Jersey Pinelands Commission is responsible for the protection and management of the Pinelands Area. The regulations and standards apply to all development in the Pinelands area and are designed to promote orderly development of the Pinelands so as to preserve and protect the significant and unique natural, ecological, agricultural, archaeological, historic, scenic, cultural and recreational resources of the Pinelands.
The New Jersey Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan allows the Pinelands Commission to designate historic districts and historic, archaeological or cultural resources in furtherance of the following public purposes:

    1. To effect and accomplish the protection, enhancement, perpetuation and use of improvements and areas of special historic and archaeological interest or value which represent or reflect significant elements of the Pinelands' cultural, social, economic, political and architectural history and prehistory;
    2. To safeguard the Pinelands' prehistoric, historic, and cultural heritage as embodied and reflected in such improvements and areas;
    3. To stabilize and improve property values in such areas;
    4. To prevent neglect and vandalism of historic, archaeological and cultural sites;
    5. To foster pride in the beauty and noble accomplishments of the past; and
    6. To preserve opportunities for traditional life styles related to and compatible with the ecological values of the Pinelands.

For municipalities and counties within the Pinelands area, in order to be certified under the provisions of Article 3 of this Plan, a municipal master plan or land use ordinance must provide a program for the protection of historic, archaeological and cultural resources. Properties within the Pinelands which are listed in the New Jersey Register of Historic Places are automatically afforded a measure of protection.

The Pinelands Management Plan requires that a cultural resource survey shall accompany all applications for major development. Where archaeological or historic resources are present, a developer shall take all reasonable steps to preserve or record the resources.

The Pinelands Cultural Resource Management Plan for Historic Period Sites (CRMP) has been developed in order to provide guidance to local officials in carrying out the provisions of the CMP relating to the preservation of historic resources (NJ.A.C. 7:50-6.151 et seq.). The Pinelands Commission also has available a model historic ordinance, technical preservation pamphlets and other information including A Survey of Potential Historic Districts in the Pinelands. (1993), which can aid municipalities and individuals in their efforts to protect our shared heritage.

For further information, contact the:
New Jersey Pinelands Commission
P.O Box 7
New Lisbon, NJ 08064
(609) 894-9342

Municipal Historic Preservation
Nationally, municipal historic preservation programs began in the 1920s and 1930s with local ordinances which provided for the designation and protection of historic districts in New Orleans, Charleston, and Savannah. Today there are many municipalities in the United States with historic preservation ordinances; in New Jersey there are over a hundred municipalities having some type of local historic preservation ordinance. The historic preservation ordinance has become a standard planning tool for the management of a community's historic resources, much in the way that other resources are protected by law.

Typically, historic preservation ordinances deal with the designation and protection of significant individual properties ("landmarks") and/or historic areas ("districts"). Such ordinances generally define specific boundaries, establish a review process for public and private actions affecting the designated sites, and set up a review board or a commission to oversee compliance. A relationship is therefore created between the land use decision-making process and the preservation of historic buildings and districts. The degree of authority granted to review boards or commissions varies; they may act simply as advisory boards, reviewing and making recommendations on applications for building permits for proposed alterations, or the legislation may enable them to stay, grant, or deny demolition, alteration, and new construction.

Municipal Land Use Law
Local preservation ordinances can be tailored to the particular needs and desires of a municipality, but they all must include sufficient policy, regulation, and procedure in accordance with state Municipal Land Use Law. New Jersey's historic preservation enabling legislation (Laws of 1985, Chapter 516, amended, 1991) empowers municipalities to adopt and to enforce historic preservation ordinances, and sets guidelines for what those ordinances should include. Historic preservation regulation must be through the zoning ordinance, as part of a municipality's overall system of land use regulation. The law also requires that historic resources be identified in the municipal master plan. In New Jersey a local governing body may create a Historic Preservation Commission or utilize the Planning Board in regulating historic resources. Further information on historic preservation ordinances including sample ordinances, can be obtained from a knowledgeable land use lawyer or historic preservation planner, or from:

The Historic Preservation Office
Department of Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 404
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-2023

Appendix B: The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Preservation Planning Back to Contents

The National Historic Preservation Act requires that all State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPO's) prepare and implement a comprehensive statewide historic preservation plan. In order to participate in the national historic preservation program and receive federal funding, a state must incorporate planning into its preservation program according to the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Preservation Planning. The standards state:

Preservation planning is a process that organizes preservation activities (identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties) in a logical sequence. The Standards for Planning discuss the relationship among these activities while the remaining activity standards consider how each activity should be carried out. The Professional Qualifications Standards discuss the education and experience required to carry out various activities.

The Standards for Planning outline a process that determines when an area should be examined for historic properties, whether an identified property is significant, and how a significant property should be treated. Preservation planning is based on the following principles:

Preservation planning can occur at several levels or scales in a project area; in a community; in a State as a whole; or in the scattered or contiguous landholdings of a Federal agency. Depending on the scale, the planning process will involve different segments of the public and professional communities and the resulting plans will vary in detail. For example, a State preservation plan will likely have more general recommendations than a plan for a project area or a community. The planning process described in these Standards is flexible enough to be used at all levels while providing a common structure which promotes coordination and minimizes duplication of effort. The Guidelines for Preservation Planning contain additional information about how to integrate various levels of planning.

Standard I. Preservation Planning Establishes Historic Contexts
Decisions about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most reliably made when the relationship of individual properties to other similar properties is understood. Information about historic properties representing aspects of history, architecture, archaeology, engineering and culture must be collected and organized to define these relationships. This organizational framework is called a "historic context."

The historic context organizes information based on a cultural theme and its geographical and chronological limits. Contexts describe the significant broad patterns of development in an area that may be represented by historic properties. The development of historic contexts is the foundation for decisions about identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties.

Standard II. Preservation Planning Uses Historic Contexts to Develop Goals and Priorities for the Identification, Evaluation, Registration and Treatment of Historic Properties
A series of preservation goals is systematically developed for each historic context to ensure that the range of properties representing the important aspects of each historic context is identified, evaluated and treated. Then priorities are set for all goals identified for each historic context. The goals with assigned priorities established for each historic context are integrated to produce a comprehensive and consistent set of goals and priorities for all historic contexts in the geographical area of a planning effort.

The goals for each historic context may change as new information becomes available. The overall set of goals and priorities are then altered in response to the changes in the goals and priorities for the individual historic contexts. Activities undertaken to meet the goals must be designed to deliver a usable product within a reasonable period of time. The scope of the activity must be defined so the work can be completed with available budgeted program resources.

Standard III. The Results of Preservation Planning Are Made Available for Integration Into Broader Planning Processes
Preservation of historic properties is one element of larger planning processes. Planning results including goals and priorities, information about historic properties, and any planning documents must be transmitted in a usable form to those responsible for other planning activities. Federally mandated historic preservation planning is most successfully integrated into project management planning at an early stage. Elsewhere, this integration is achieved by making the results of preservation planning available to other governmental planning bodies and to private interests whose activities affect historic properties.

Appendix C: Communities of Place: The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan (Excerpts)
Back to Contents

The New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan June 12, 1992
Note: On June 25, 1997. The State Planning Commission issued the 1997 Reexamination Report, Preliminary State Plan and Cross-Acceptance Manual as the prelude to the first statutory revisions and readoption of the state plan. However, until the revised State Plan has been formally readopted in 1999, the 1992 State Plan will continue to be in effect.

The State Planning Act
In 1985, the Legislature of the State of New Jersey adopted the State Planning Act, (N.J.S.A. 52:18A-196 et. seq.) In the Act, the Legislature declared that the State of New Jersey needs sound and integrated "Statewide planning" to:

"conserve its natural resources, revitalize its urban centers, protect the quality of its environment, and provide needed housing and adequate public services at a reasonable cost while promoting beneficial economic growth, development and renewal"

Under the Act, the State Development and Redevelopment Plan is to establish "statewide planning objectives" regarding land use, housing, economic development, transportation, natural resource conservation, agriculture and farmland retention, recreation, urban and suburban redevelopment, historic preservation, public facilities and services and intergovernmental coordination. Sound and integrated statewide planning around these issues is the anticipated result of a statewide planning process that involves the active participation of State agencies and local governments in its preparation.

The State Planning Act recognizes and is based on the following principles:

    1. The future well-being of the State of New Jersey depends on equal and shared social and economic opportunity among all its citizens;
    2. A reasonable balance between public and private sector investment in infrastructure is key to the fiscal health, economic prosperity and environmental integrity of the State;
    3. Coordinated planning among the State and local governments can ensure that "economies, efficiencies and savings" are achieved regarding public and private-sector investment in the State;
    4. The revitalization of the State's urban centers is necessary if all New Jersey's citizens are to benefit from growth and economic prosperity;
    5. The provision of adequate and affordable housing in reasonable proximity to places of employment is necessary to ensure equal social and economic opportunity in the State; achieving this end requires sound planning to ensure an adequate supply of available land that can be developed in an efficient growth pattern; and
    6. The conservation of natural resources and the protection of environmental qualities are vital to the quality of life and economic prosperity of New Jersey.

The State Development and Redevelopment Plan responds to these principles and establishes a vision and a plan for the future of New Jersey. It is intended to serve as a guide for how public policy decisions should be made at all levels of government to achieve the Goals of the State Planning Act. The State Plan identifies these Goals as well as Strategies and public policy measures that, when applied by all levels of government, will shape growth in ways that will help achieve the intent and purpose of the State Planning Act..

The State-wide Policy Structure

State Planning Goals and Strategies
The following statements summarize State Planning Goals and Strategies:

    1. Revitalize the State's Urban Centers and Areas by investing wisely and sufficiently in improvements to their human resources and infrastructure systems to attract private investment;
    2. Conserve the State's Natural Resources by planning the location and intensity of growth to maintain the capacities of natural resource systems and then investing in infrastructure and natural resource protection programs in ways that guide growth according to this planning;
    3. Promote Beneficial Economic Growth Development and Renewal by providing infrastructure in advance of, or concurrent with, the impacts of new development sufficient to maintain adequate facility standards;
    4. Protect the Environment by planning for growth in compact forms at locations and intensities of use that protect land and water quality, allow expeditious regulatory reviews and make sufficient transportation alternatives feasible to help achieve and maintain air quality standards;
    5. Provide Adequate Public Services at a Reasonable cost by planning locations and patterns of growth that maintain existing and planned capacities of infrastructure, fiscal, social and natural resource systems;
    6. Provide Adequate Housing at a Reasonable Cost by planning for the location of a density of housing sufficiently close to both employment opportunities and public transportation so as to reduce both housing and commuting costs for low, moderate, and middle- income groups;
    7. Preserve and Enhance Historic, Cultural, Open Space and Recreational Lands and Structures by identifying these resources and using public investment strategies; preservation, conservation and regulatory programs; and other techniques to guide growth in locations and patterns that protect them;
    8. Ensure Sound and Integrated Planning Statewide by using the State Plan as a guide to planning and growth-related decisions at all levels of government.

Statewide Policies
Statewide coordination of planning will be achieved through the application of the Plan's "Statewide Policies". These Policies are designed to improve both the planning and the coordination of public policy among all levels of government so that we can overcome existing problems and not create new problems in the future. The Statewide Policies address seventeen substantive areas of concern:

Statewide Policies are designed to improve intergovernmental coordination of planning in a complex, highly diverse state.

Statewide Policy Number 10: Historic, Cultural and Scenic Resources
The essential elements of Statewide Policies for Historic, Cultural and Scenic Resources are to protect,enhance, and, where appropriate, rehabilitate historic, cultural and scenic resources by identifying, evaluating and registering significant historic, cultural and scenic landscapes, districts, structures, buildings, objects and sites, and ensuring that new growth and development is compatible with historic cultural and scenic values. These policies are designed also to protect and enhance the natural and visual values of scenic and historic corridors by promoting the management of new growth and development in ways that complement scenic and historic values associated with these corridors and by using a variety of preservation techniques.

Much of the history of a state finds expression in the sites and structures of the times, and these sites and structures are elements of the state's quality of life. While we may not think of it often, New Jersey's history pre-dates colonization of America. The Lenape Indians, for instance, called New Jersey "Schetechbi," or "Land Along the Water". Unfortunately, little remains of their world.

Nearly 100 Revolutionary War battles were fought in New Jersey as Washington's army crisscrossed New Jersey to confuse the British in Philadelphia and New York.

Agriculture and manufacturing prospered after the Revolutionary War, spurred by extensive road building, canal construction and the arrival of the railroads. Yet the most dramatic growth occurred after 1870, when New Jersey's cities grew with incredible speed. Even today, these cities display striking contrasts 18th Century churches and colonial houses, 19th century factories and tenements, neoclassical public buildings of the early 20th Century and more modern office complexes built later in the century.

Although some historic resources are public assets, most historic properties are privately owned. In this period of extraordinary change, preservation of both privately owned and publicly held historic properties was important.

New Jersey's diverse topography provides the State with an ample number of scenic corridors. Geology first set the pattern. The last of the great glaciers spread over half the State. It stopped, slowly receding, leaving behind the Hudson and Delaware Rivers, a flat coastal plain and hilly uplands dotted by tiny lakes. Canals, railroads and highways subsequently altered the landscape and created new vistas. Today, these topographic features and historic and cultural landmarks, including urban skylines, provide a scenic diversity that adds much to the quality of New Jersey life. The vistas provided by these natural and historic features also contribute to the State's economic health by attracting many visitors each year. The visual allure of many of the State's overlooks and waterways may be lost through incompatibly designed or inappropriately located development. Unsightly "strip" development, with its accompanying sign pollution, may only be the most dramatic example of this degradation of the visual environment along scenic and historic corridors. Billboards, power lines, incompatibly designed buildings and restrictions to public access all combine to contribute to this loss.

Policy 1. Identification and Registration
Coordinate the identification of historic areas, historic sites, landscapes, archaeological sites and scenic corridors for inclusion in registers and planning documents.

Policy 2. Municipal Programs
Include historic surveys and scenic corridors in local
master plans.

Policy 3. Preservation Guidelines
Ensure uniformity in guidelines used by all levels of government for the preservation and rehabilitation of historic buildings.

Policy 4. Historic Resources and Development Regulations.
Protect the character of historic sites, landscapes and structures through flexible application of zoning ordinances, construction codes and other development regulations to such resources.

Policy 5. Historic Resources and Infrastructure
Locate and design public and private infrastructure improvements to protect historic resources and their settings from the immediate and cumulative effects of construction and maintenance of these improvements.

Policy 6. Historic Structure Re-use and Affordable Housing
Promote adaptive reuse of historic structures to provide affordable housing, where appropriate.

Policy 7. Main Street Programs
Promote "Main Street" programs to aid in protecting historic sites and structures during revitalization of traditional downtown areas.

Policy 8. Coastal Heritage Trail
Support the Federal Coastal Heritage Trail proposal so that the unique natural and cultural features of New Jersey's coast can be identified, preserved and promoted.

Policy 9. Greenways and Historic Corridors
Establish regional, publicly accessible greenways both to preserve historic corridors and to provide passive and active recreational and cultural opportunities.

Policy 10. Identification and Delineation of Scenic Corridors
Participate in the coordination of State, regional and local government identification and delineation of scenic corridors throughout the State and take the necessary steps to protect them.

Policy 11. Development Patterns and Design to Support Scenic Values
Development and redevelopment should be managed to maintain, complement and enhance scenic values within identified and delineated scenic corridors.

Policy 12. Protection and Preservation of Scenic Corridors
Scenic corridors should be protected by appropriate means and preserved by using easement purchase, transfer of development rights, fee simple purchase and other innovative and effective mechanisms.

The Glossary of the New Jersey State Development and Redevelopment Plan specifically defines historic districts and historic sites as those properties "formally designated by the state, county, or municipality as being of historical, archaeological, cultural, scenic, or architectural significance."