New Jersey water withdrawals,
transfers, and discharges by Watershed Management Area,
1. IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION
Domber, S.E. and Hoffman, J.L., 2004, New Jersey water withdrawals, transfers, and discharges by Watershed Management Area, 1990-1999: N.J. Geological Survey Digital Geodata Series DGS 04-9, computer workbook available on the internet at www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/.
This product is an Excel workbook (called WMATRANSFERS25.XLS) which documents fresh-water withdrawals, fresh-water transfers, sewage transfers, and reclaimed-water discharges in New Jersey on a watershed management areas basis. It also presents withdrawals and discharges on a statewide basis. Monthly data are stored by HUC14 watershed in the underlying data base for a ten-year period from 1990 to 1999. In order to minimize locational errors of water and sewer service areas the data are summarized here on an annual and monthly basis by watershed management area.
Withdrawal and use data are presented for potable, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and power-generation uses of more than 100,000 gallons of water a day. This is the cutoff volume for regulation by the N.J. Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), Bureau of Water Allocation (BWA). Withdrawals are broken out into the source of the water (surface water or ground water), where the water is withdrawn, and where the water is transferred for end use. An estimate of fresh-water withdrawals by domestic wells is included in the analysis.
Ground-water withdrawals are broken out by aquifer group on both a WMA and statewide basis. This includes an estimate of private, domestic-well water withdrawals. Withdrawals for domestic use are assumed to be partially consumed (evaporated) with the remainder discharged to the ground in the same location as the water was withdrawn.
Agricultural water use is broken out by a detailed agricultural use type on both a WMA and statewide basis. The volume of water consumed by each detailed agricultural use type is also given. Nonconsumptive water use by agricultural is assumed to be discharged in the same location as the water was withdrawn.
Water transfers for drinking-water service areas are linked to the sources of water in order to track movement of potable water using multiple NJDEP databases. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to overlay sewer service areas with drinking-water service areas. The sewer service areas are then linked to discharge points of reclaimed water. This allows for tracking of water from the area of use to a discharge point.
This report summarizes fresh-water withdrawals, fresh-water transfers, water use, sewage transfers, and reclaimed-water transfers on a watershed basis. The accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of withdrawal locations and on GIS coverages of water-purveyor service areas and sewer service areas. The best available coverages were used but inaccuracies still exist. It is hoped that by summarizing on a HUC11 level or larger scale, that errors arising from inaccuracies in service area coverages will diminish in relative magnitude to other components of the water budget at that scale.
Each type of water use is assigned a monthly consumptive-use percentage. This estimates the percent of water that is lost to the atmosphere through evaporation by that water use in that month. This allows for an estimation of total consumptive water use in each watershed management area, by use type.
Water use is reported in each WMA. This is not equivalent to water withdrawals in each WMA because of the volumes of exports and imports.
HUC11 (Hydrologic Unit Code) watersheds are defined by the United States Geological Survey. There are 151 HUC11 watersheds in New Jersey ranging from 3 to 349 square miles in size, with an average 59 square miles. Each HUC11 incorporates a number of HUC14s subwatersheds. A number of contiguous HUC11 watersheds comprise a HUC8 cataloging unit watershed. New Jersey is divided into twenty watershed management areas and five water regions. These are defined by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection as a way to assist in managing the State's resources. Water withdrawals and transfers are quantified internally on a detailed watershed basis (HUC14) but are reported here on a WMA basis.
These data are stored in the New Jersey Water Tracking Data Model (NJWaTr) (Tessler, 2003). The underlying model was populated with data by the New Jersey Geological Survey.
This product is in support of an update of New Jersey's Water Supply Plan. The plan is updated on a periodic basis in order to ensure an adequate and safe supply of water for New Jersey. Later products of the water supply plan will address these components as well as a total water budget for each HUC11.
Due to a ongoing data-accuracy evaluation process this product is considered more accurate than earlier reports.
1.2.2. LIST OF FILES AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION
WMATRANSFERS25.XLS is an MS Excel workbook which contains the withdrawal, transfer, and discharge data along with several analysis worksheets. This workbook contains 11 worksheets:
User's Guide - This is the user's guide worksheet. It is a description of how the data were generated, analyzed, and presented.
WMA Details - A worksheet which presents annual water withdrawal, use, and transfer data by watershed management area (WMA). This is the main analysis worksheet. Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
WMA Ag & Aquifer Q - A worksheet summarizing annual agricultural water use and ground-water withdrawals by WMA. Agricultural use is separated out by detailed use type. Total use and consumptive use is shown. Ground-water withdrawals are broken out by aquifer group. This worksheet is linked to the worksheet 'WMA Details.' Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
Statewide Details - A worksheet which presents annual water withdrawal, use, and discharge data for all of New Jersey. Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
Statewide Ag & Aquifer Q - A worksheet summarizing annual agricultural water use and ground-water withdrawals for all of New Jersey. Agricultural use is separated out by detailed use type. Total use and consumptive use is shown. Ground-water withdrawals are broken out by aquifer group. Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
1999 Summary - A worksheet with graphs that summarize withdrawals, transfers, and discharges in 1999 for all WMAs.
WMA & WR map - A worksheet that shows a graphic of watershed management areas and water regions in New Jersey.
Title Page - A report cover.
Consumptive % - A worksheet that shows monthly and annual percentages of consumptive water loss for different types of water use.
Reclaimed Water Transfers - A worksheet containing data on volumes and locations of reclaimed-water discharges. This is referred to by other worksheets. Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
Potable Water Transfers - A worksheet containing data volumes and locations of transfers of potable water. This is referred to by other worksheets. Many rows and columns of this worksheet contain the basic data as well as reworked data needed to generate the tables and figures. These have been protected to prevent changes.
1.2.3. LIST OF KEYWORDS
New Jersey water use, water use, New Jersey water withdrawals, water withdrawals, fresh water, sewage, wastewater, reclaimed water, watershed, water management area, water region, hydrologic unit code, New Jersey, consumptive water use, nonconsumptive water use, consumptive, nonconsumptive, transfers, water transfers, ground-water withdrawals, agricultural water use
1.3. GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT
State of New Jersey
1.4. CONTACT INFORMATION
Steven E. Domber, Principal Environmental Specialist
Jeffrey L. Hoffman, Research Scientist I
New Jersey Geological Survey
Land Use Management
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
PO Box 427
Trenton, NJ 08625
phone: (609) 984-6587
This work builds upon the previous work of many people. Gail Carter (NJDEP, DSRT) provided the coverages of drinking water service areas. Tom Cosmas (NJDEP, DWQ) provided information on location and volumes of NJPDES discharges. Andrea Lenhardt (NJDEP, NJGS) entered much of the withdrawal data and did error checking. Steve Tessler (USGS) provided the water transfers model which is used to actually track the water movement across New Jersey. And numerous NJGS interns and summer employees spent hundreds of hours deciphering quarterly withdrawal reports, locating wells, and in general straining their eyes.
1.6. PRINTING SUGGESTIONS
The analysis sheets ('WMA Details', ' WMA Ag & Aquifer Q', 'Statewide Details', 'Statewide Ag & Aquifer Q', and '1999 Summary') are designed to be printed out in color on 11" x 17" paper in landscape mode. The user may have to modify the specified print range in order to produce legible output on smaller paper.
2. DATA CREATION & QUALITY INFORMATION
2.1 NAME OF DATA
WMATRANSFERS25.xls is an Excel workbook. It contains data on withdrawals of freshwater and transfers of freshwater, sewage, and reclaimed water in New Jersey, along with information on discharge points of reclaimed water. (Reclaimed water refers to discharges from a sewage treatment plant that meets specified quality criteria.)
2.2.1 DATA SOURCE
The data in this report are based on reports submitted to the NJDEP'S Division of Water Supply. Under NJDEP regulations (N.J.A.C. 7:19 et seq) all nonagricultural water users capable of withdrawing more than 100,000 gallons per day must obtain water-allocation permits. As a condition of these permits, the users must submit reports of monthly withdrawals on an annual or quarterly basis, depending on the type of allocation permit. Agricultural users must obtain a certification from BWA (N.J.A.C. 7:20A-1 et seq) and meet some of the reporting requirements imposed on permit holders. These data, along with data on the allocation permits and the specific withdrawal locations are maintained by the BWA in computer data bases. (Note: generally only fresh-water withdrawals are regulated. Withdrawals of saline water are not regulated unless they could impact fresh-water resources.)
Through the years studied here (1990-1999) BWA maintained three data bases using the database software Knowledgeman. The databases are WATERA, WSOURCE and USAGE. WATERA contains information about each water allocation permit or certification. Each permit has one entry in WATERA. WSOURCE contains information on each withdrawal point. A user may withdraw water from more than one point and may withdraw a mixture of surface and ground water. An allocation permit or certification has as many entries in WSOURCE as it has physical water withdrawal points. USAGE contains the actual withdrawal data. Each entry in it contains data for one specific year for one specific water withdrawal source. Thus, each water allocation permit or certification may have as many entries in USAGE as the number of withdrawal points multiplied by the number of available years of data. (BWA abandoned these databases in 2003 and started storing data in the NJEMS data collection system.)
The N.J. Geological Survey translated these three data bases into an MS Access data base. Records for 1990 to 1999 were corrected for duplicate entries. They were also examined to identify data gaps and the paper records then researched for missing values. If additional research did not uncover the missing data the data gap was preserved. More research accurately defined the precise location, watershed, and physiographic province of each withdrawal point. Earlier reports (Hoffman and Lieberman, 2000; and Hoffman, 2000 and 2001) were based on this Access data base.
In 2002 these data were transferred into the New Jersey Water Tracking Data Model (NJWaTr) (Tessler, 2003). NJWaTr is designed to contain not only fresh-water withdrawal information but also information on the location and rates of fresh-water transfers, sewage transfers, and reclaimed-water discharges. When the data were transferred into NJWaTr they underwent an additional round of quality control resulting in the changing of some volumes withdrawn and the locations of some withdrawals. Thus the results in this report do not match exactly the results of the earlier reports. This report supercedes the earlier reports.
Some purveyors did not report enough information to allow a water source to be assigned to the withdrawal. These include withdrawals by purveyors which have gone out of business as well as some agricultural withdrawals. These withdrawals are assumed to break out according to the statewide average, with 75 percent of the water coming from surface water and 25 percent from ground water.
Water withdrawals by domestic wells are based on data from the 1996 New Jersey Water Supply Plan. The volume withdrawn in each county in 1990 was distributed throughout the municipalities in that county based on the number of domestic wells in that municipality according to 1990 census data. Increases in volume were then calculated by adding the number of new domestic wells in each municipality (as reported by BWA) and assuming each well served 3 people at an annual average rate of 75 gallons per person per day. This was done for each year for the period 1991-1999.
Withdrawals from some small, public noncommunity systems (that are not required to report volumes to BWA) were estimated from system capacity information on file with the Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW).
In 2000 the boundaries of watershed management areas (WMAs) 17, 18 and 19 changed significantly. The data reported by WMA account for this change. The data reported in Hoffman and Lieberman (2000) and Hoffman (2000) have not been corrected for the change in boundaries of these three WMAs.
2.2.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
Withdrawal data are self-reported by the water withdrawer with BWA periodically reviewing the sources, meters and reporting. Potable-water purveyors are required to recalibrate flow meters every five years; thus their data are considered to be accurate to within five percent (Diane Zalaskus, BWA, oral communication, 1998). Similar analysis of these data (Nawyn and Clawges, 1995) consider the data from these purveyors to be ‘highly reliable.’ The reported withdrawals for industrial and commercial uses are considered to be of the same order of accuracy. The estimates of irrigation, mining and power generation use volumes are probably less accurate.
The records of agricultural withdrawals are even less accurate and may be significantly in error because reported water use is estimated, not metered. The Bureau of Water Allocation cannot estimate percentage of error in these records. In some counties agricultural withdrawals are a significant percentage of total withdrawals. However, on a statewide average, agricultural use is less than five percent of total withdrawals.
The withdrawal data reported here some important qualifications:
(1) This report attempts to quantify on a monthly basis the amount of water consumed or lost to the atmosphere by each type of water use. The figures used were gleaned from literature and water-supply professionals. A copy of these is provided in the worksheet 'Consumptive %'.
(2) Only fresh-water withdrawals are summarized here. Saline-water users are not required to obtain a water allocation permit unless the diversion impacts fresh water. Thus, the saline-water withdrawals for cooling at the Oyster Creek and Salem nuclear power plants are omitted from this report.
(3) All nondomestic well data are from purveyor reports of volumes of water withdrawn. The data here repeat any inaccuracies in these reports.
(4) Water released from an onstream reservoir that flows downstream to an intake is not considered a withdrawal or release at the reservoir site. It is counted as a withdrawal from the stream at the surface water intake pipe location. If there is an intake pipe on the reservoir then the withdrawal is considered to take place at that reservoir location.
(5) Water supplied by public purveyors must be treated to drinking-water standards. The volume supplied by these purveyors is included in the 'potable supply' use category. However, the end user may not use all of this water for potable supply. For example, a homeowner will use some water for drinking, some in the bathroom, and some to irrigate a lawn. A potable-supply water main may carry water to homes, commercial shops and industries. However, since the water is reported as coming from a potable-water supplier, all volume is considered to be for potable supply. A more detailed breakdown would require examination of the reported users for all potable-water suppliers with an estimate of volumes delivered to each type of user. Neither the available data nor the available time nor the available personnel allow for such a detailed analysis on a statewide basis.
More information on the compilation and interpretation of withdrawal data is available in the N.J. Geological Survey Report OFR 00-1 'New Jersey Water Withdrawals 1990-1996' (Hoffman and Lieberman, 2000).
2.2.3. WITHDRAWALS BY AQUIFER
Ground-water withdrawals are assigned to a source aquifer where possible. Aquifer picks are made from a variety of sources. For potable-supply wells this is based on determinations made by the well head protection program of the DEP. For other wells the aquifer is determined by the well driller and reported to BWA. The specific aquifers assigned to each aquifer group are given in Hoffman and Liberman (2000).
The aquifer tapped is not reported for domestic wells. Estimated withdrawal volumes for domestic wells is separated out into its own category.
2.2.4 DATA ORGANIZERS
Jeffrey Hoffman and Steven Lieberman checked and corrected withdrawal data in 1997 for the period 1990-1996. These data were entered into an ACCESS relational data base. This was then used to produce a summary report (Hoffman and Lieberman, 2000). These data were also simplified and made available on the Internet (Hoffman, 2000).
In 2001 volumes and locations for withdrawals from 1997 to 1999 were added to the ACCESS data base. This work was ably assisted by Andrea Lenhardt, Richard Craver, David Singer and Erica Scott. This led to the release of a series of data tables that can be used in a Geographic Information System for a graphical analysis of withdrawals in New Jersey (Hoffman, 2001).
In 2001 the U.S. Geological Survey began work on a data model for watershed water budget analysis, partially funded by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection. This work is designed to yield the New Jersey Water Transfers Data Model (NJWaTr) that will track fresh-water use, fresh-water transfers, sewage transfers, and reclaimed-water discharges (Tessler, 2003). Steven Domber of the NJ Geological Survey is the lead on applying this model and filling it with accurate data. Jeff Hoffman is the lead on taking data out of NJWaTr and presenting them in a meaningful manner. The withdrawal data in this product are from NJWaTr and reflect an ongoing quality assurance & quality control process.
2.3. FRESHWATER TRANSFERS
2.3.1. DATA SOURCE
All withdrawers of water are assigned a service area. For nonpotable users and domestic wells this was assumed to be at the location of the water withdrawal. For potable users the drinking-water service area is assumed to be is a distributed area that may cover more than one HUC14.
The DEP had a preliminary GIS coverage of drinking-water service areas in NJ. All potable-water purveyors were supplied with a map of the service areas and asked to edit it and then return it to DEP. The changes were then made to DEP's GIS coverage. (Gail Carter, DSRT, personal communication, 2002).
For potable-water purveyors who did not purchase or buy water from other purveyors all withdrawals by that purveyor were assumed to be distributed throughout its drinking-water service area on population-weighted basis. These withdrawals were then distribute to the HUC14s that intersected the drinking-water service area.
For purveyors who bought water from other purveyors (called bulk water sales) the process was very similar. The volume of water bought was added to the volume withdrawn by that purveyor. The resultant volume was distributed based on relative populations throught the purveyor's service area. It was then assigned to the HUC14s that contain the drinking-water service area. For purveyors who sold water to other purveyors, the volume exported was subtracted from the volume withdrawn and the remainder was distributed across the drinking-water service area.
2.3.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
Bulk water transfers are supposed to be reported twice, once by the seller and once by the receiver. A comparison of records supplied to the BWA shows the sellers and buyers don't usually report the same volumes of water. In most cases NJGS went to the suppliers directly for information on volume of water supplied to bulk water transfers. The greatest volumes of transfers between purveyors occur in NJ's urbanized northeast and in the northeastern coastal plain. Due to the work required to get all sales/purchase records only the largest dealers were contacted.
The purveyor service areas are of unknown quality. Purveyors were supplied with draft maps of service areas based on an older GIS coverage. Each was asked to correct the coverage. Some replied with corrections that showed where there were actually pipes in the ground. Others replied with corrections that indicated total franchise area, including areas to which the water pipes had not yet been extended. Tracking down these discrepancies is beyond the scope of this study. However, these discrepancies become less important at larger scales.
2.3.3 DATA ORGANIZERS
The purveyor service areas were provided in GIS form by DSRT. All bulk water transfers were collected and assigned to watersheds by NJGS staff.
2.4. SEWAGE IMPORTS & EXPORTS
2.4.1. DATA SOURCE
The volume of sewage imported or exported from an areas is derived from an analysis of volumes of reclaimed-water discharged from a treatment plant and the sewer service areas which feed that plant. The reclaimed-water reported to have been discharged from a plant was assumed to have originated as sewage in the plant's service areas proportionally to the area of each service area. This sewage volume was then evenly assigned to all HUC14 watersheds that overlapped the service area, again on an areally-proportional basis. The sewage volume reclaimed was then summed up by WMA. Where the source and discharge point of the WMA differed this was tracked as an export from the source WMA and import to the receiving WMA.
DEP maintains a draft GIS coverage of sewer service areas. This tends to indicate primarily the service areas, not where pipes are actually in the ground. This is thus an overestimation of the areas actually served by sewers.
2.4.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
This method assumes that sewage is generated evenly across a sewage service area. It is back calculated from the total volume of reclaimed water discharged by a plant and the relative areas in each WMA of all sewer service areas feeding that plant.
2.4.3 DATA ORGANIZERS
The NJGS, using the capacities of NJWaTr, estimated the volume of sewage imported to or exported from each WMA.
2.5. VOLUMES OF GENERATED SEWAGE
2.5.1. DATA SOURCE
The volume of sewage generated on a WMA basis comes from estimates of sewage generated in each HUC 14. The amount of sewage generated in each HUC14 is back calculated based on a redistribution of reclaimed waste water.
Sewer volumes based on redistribution of reclaimed waste water come from a comparison of the sewer service areas which feed a particular treatment plant. The volume of reclaimed water reported discharged from that plant is assumed to have been generated on an equal areal basis from all sewage service areas. A GIS coverage of the sewer service areas was intersected with a HUC14 GIS coverage. This allowed an estimation of sewage generated in each HUC14 and WMA. Where the sewage was generated outside of the WMA, or it was exported to a different WMA, then this volume is accounted for in section 2.4. Sewage Exports and Imports
2.5.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
Estimates of the volume of sewage generated based on volume of reclaimed-water discharge assume that the volume of water delivered to the treatment plant are identical to the volume of sewage generated. However, the volume delivered to the plant is the sum of sewage generated, infiltration into the pipes, discharge from any users that may have their own water allocations (and thus don't receive potable water) but are connected to the sewer, and inputs from combined sewer inflows.
Additionally this assumes that sewage is generated evenly across the entire extent of the sewer service area. For sewer service areas which extend over two different areas this may introduce an error if the sewer generation isn't even across the service area.
Better estimates of sewage generated in each WMA would require accurate metering of at the point of generation.
2.5.3 DATA ORGANIZERS
The NJGS, using the capacities of NJWaTr, estimated the volume of sewage generated in each HUC14 and WMA.
2.6. RECLAIMED-WATER DISCHARGES
2.6.1. DATA SOURCE
All sewage treatment plants must report monthly volumes of discharged reclaimed water under a New Jersey Pollution Elimination System (NJPDES) Permit. Discharge points have been accurately located using a GPS system. The volumes and locations were supplied by the NJDEP's Division of Water Quality (DWQ). These data are available through DWQ's web site:
2.6.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
The volumes of discharged reclaimed water are considered to be of good accuracy. The locations are very accurate.
2.6.3 DATA ORGANIZERS
The basic data are generated by DWQ staff. They were added to NJWaTr by NJGS staff.
2.7. DESTINATION OF RECLAIMED-WATER DISCHARGES
Each reclaimed-water discharge point was plotted using a GIS and classified as discharging to fresh water, brackish water, or salt water. This was then used to quantify the total annual volumes of reclaimed-water being discharged to each destination type in each WMA.
For the purposes of this analysis, all discharge points beyond the coast of NJ into the Atlantic Ocean, Delaware Bay, Newark Bay or Hudson River were classified as salt water. Any discharge that occurred to a stream or river below the head of tide but upstream of the coast along the Atlantic or Delaware Bay coast line was classified as being a brackish-water discharge. All discharges above the head of tide were classified as fresh water. The major exception to this rule is that all discharges in the Delaware River Basin upstream of the Delaware Memorial Bridge were classified as fresh water. The salt-water line in the Delaware River is usually within a few river miles of this bridge. But the head of tide in the Delaware River is near Trenton.
2.7.1. DATA SOURCE
The location of discharge points was provided by DWQ staff. The coast line was based on a GIS coverage (NJDEP, 1996) available on the DEP's GIS downloads page (http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/). The head of tide also comes from a GIS coverage (Coast Survey Ltd, 1986) available from the same downloads page.
2.7.2. DATA RELIABILITY AND QUALIFICATIONS
The locations of reclaimed-water discharges are very accurate. It is clear which ones are salt-water discharges and which ones are far inland. Defining brackish-water discharges is much harder. Preferably a coverage of the maximum extent of the salt-water line in each stream would be available but this is not easily available. In lieu of this the head of tide coverage was used. This is not exactly correct in that at the head of tide all water in the stream is fresh. The effect of the tides extends further upstream than the actual salt water. Thus some of the discharges classified as being into brackish water may actually be to a tidally-influenced section of a steam that always contains fresh water. But the brackish water discharges are all very close to the coast line. It is clear that all of the volumes marked as brackish water occur within a mile or two of the coast.
2.7.3. DATA ORGANIZERS
Assigning each discharge point to fresh water, brackish water, or salt water was done by NJGS staff.
2.8 WATERSHED DEFINITIONS
2.8.1. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AREAS (WMAs)
The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection has determined that a watershed basis is the most appropriate one for managing environmental concerns in New Jersey (Cohen, 1997). For management purposes the State is divided into twenty watershed management areas (WMAs). A map of these is in the worksheet 'WMA map' in this workbook.
A digital coverage of the watershed management areas in New Jersey is available from the Geographical Information System webpage of the NJ Department of Environmental Protection:
In 1999 the boundaries of watershed management areas (WMAs) 17, 18 and 19 changed significantly for management purposes (Hoffman, 2004). The withdrawal data in this product account for this change, as does the figure in this product and the GIS coverage available for downloading.
2.8.2. WATER REGIONS (WRs)
The twenty Watershed Management Areas are grouped into five water regions for management purposes (Cohen, 1997). While this scale is too broad for water-supply-planning purposes it is useful for a general state-wide overview.
2.8.3. HYDROLOGIC UNIT CODES (HUCS)
The United States Geologic Survey divided the United States into twenty one regional watersheds (Seaber and Knapp, 1987). Each regional watershed is given a two-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC2). Each regional watershed is then subdivided into sub-regional watersheds. Each sub-region watershed is coded by adding as a suffix an additional two-digit code to the original two digits resulting in a four digit code. This is explained in more detail on the U.S. Geological Survey's web site:
Each subdivision is in turn subdivided into smaller areas based on natural watershed boundaries leading to accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds and subwatersheds. At each subdivision additional numbers are tacked onto the end of the code, leading to six digits (for accounting unit watersheds), eight digits (for cataloging unit watersheds), eleven digits (for watersheds) or fourteen digits (for subwatersheds). As an informal practice the various levels of nested watersheds are called simply HUC2, HUC4, HUC6, HUC8, HUC11 or HUC14 watersheds.
The HUC2, HUC4, HUC6 and HUC8 watershed are defined on a national basis (Seaber and Knapp, 1987). The HUC11 and HUC14 watersheds are defined on a local basis and have been done so in New Jersey by Ellis and Price (1995). A figure of the HUC11s in New Jersey is shown in the spreadsheet 'HUC11 map' in this workbook. The HUC11s and HUC14s were reevaluated in 2000 and some slight modifications made (Bob Schopp, US Geological Survey, oral communication, 2002).
Digital coverages of HUC2, HUC4, HUC6 and HUC8 watersheds in the United States are available from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Atlas web page:
Digital coverages of HUC11 and HUC14 watersheds in New Jersey are available from the
Geographical Information System webpage of the NJ Department of Environmental Protection:
Note: There is an effort by the USGS to reduce the number of digits used in coding watersheds and subwatersheds. The code for watersheds may in the future have 10 digits, not 11, and subwatersheds 12 instead of 14. This change has not yet been propagated down to New Jersey. This effort is part of the USGS's National Hydrologic Dataset effort. This is explained in more detail at:
2.8.4. WATERSHED REPORTING BASIS
All water withdrawal and transfer data are initially calculate on a HUC14 basis in the NJWaTr database. However, there are concerns about the accuracy of these underlying coverages (water service areas and sewer service areas) on this scale. For this reason, withdrawals and transfers are summed to HUC11, WMA and WR watersheds. The NJGS feels that the errors in the underlying coverages become less significant as the watershed-scale becomes larger.
2.9. POPULATION ESTIMATES
Population estimates for 1940 - 2000 are based on reported Census data for municipalities. The population in each municipality was distributed evenly (on an areal basis) to every HUC14 which overlaps that municipality. Population was then summed up for each HUC14 and then again for each WMA11, WMA and WR.
3. DESCRIPTION OF TABLES
3.1. Table 1. Statewide Freshwater Withdrawals
This table shows annual statewide fresh-water withdrawals by water source - surface water or ground water. The last column shows the total allocated volume in New Jersey based on 1999 allocations by BWA. These allocations are for all uses. These data are shown on the left hand side of figure 1.
3.2. Table 2. Statewide Use of Fresh Water
This table shows statewide annual use of fresh water. This is broken out by use group. The different types of uses have been grouped into use groups which are defined in more detail in section 4.3 of this metadata. These data are graphed in figure 2.
3.3. Table 3. Destination of Reclaimed Water Discharges
This table shows annual discharges of reclaimed-water discharges on a statewide basis based on destination water. The description of how destination water was assigned is given in section 2.7 of this metadata. These data are graphed in figure 4.
3.4. Table 4. Statewide Nonconsumptive Water Returns
This table shows estimated nonconsumptive water use volumes in New Jersey. Each water use type in each month has an associated consumptive percent (as shown in the worksheet 'Consumptive %'). The volume of water that is not evaporated is referred to as nonconsumptive water use. The assumption is that the water is not consumed is returned for either discharge to the environment or export (in the form of sewage).
Annual nonconsumptive water-use volumes are divided up by water use type. In the case of potable supply this is divided into two categories. The first, 'potable purveyors' represents water supplied by public-water-supply purveyors with allocation permits. The second, 'domestic wells,' is an attempt to quantify the volume of water returned to the WMA by households on domestic wells.
This table groups industrial, commercial and mining water use groups in one line for simplification of analysis. Similarly, agricultural and irrigation uses are summed on one line.
3.5. Table 5. Statewide Water Allocation in WMA by Water Source
This table shows the maximum annual water fresh water allocations permitted by the DEP's Bureau of Water Allocation by water source statewide.
3.6. Table 6. Statewide Water Allocation in WMA by Water Use Group
This table shows the maximum annual water fresh water allocations permitted by the DEP's Bureau of Water Allocation by the eventual use of that water. Water uses are summed into use groups.
3.7. Table 7. Statewide Annual Agricultural Water Use by Detailed Use Type
The agricultural water use group can be subdivided into a detailed use type. This table shows statewide annual fresh water use `(in millions of gallons) by use type. The total volume of agricultural use is at the bottom of the table.
3.8. Table 8. Statewide Annual Agricultural Use by Detailed Use Type as Percentage of Total Agricultural Use
This table expresses statewide annual agricultural use by detailed use type as a percentage of total usage for all agricultural use.
3.9. Table 9. Statewide Annual Consumed Water Volume by Detailed Agricultural Use Type
This table shows statewide annual consumed volume associated with each agricultural use type. The underlying use data are stored on a monthly basis. The percent of water that is consumed (evaporated) by each detailed use type is shown in the worksheet 'Consumptive %'. Multiplying the volume used in each month by the consumptive percent associated with each detailed use type, and then summing over the year, yields the total annual consumed volume for that use type.
3.10. Table 10. Statewide Annual Consumed Water Percentage by Detailed Agricultural Use Type
This table shows statewide annual consumptive water use for each agricultural use type as a percentage of water used by that use type.
3.11. Table 11. Statewide Annual Ground-Water Withdrawals by Aquifer Group
This table shows statewide annual ground-water withdrawals by aquifer group.
3.12. Table 12. Freshwater Withdrawals, Imports & Exports in WMA
This table shows annual fresh-water withdrawals in the WMA of interest by water source - surface water or ground water.
Also shown is volumes of fresh-water imports and exports with the net volume (defined as imports-exports). For WMAs that have more exports than imports (resulting in a negative net volume) the net volume is shown in red.
Imports, surface-water withdrawals, and ground-water withdrawals are graphed on the left side of figure 12. Exports are graphed on the right side of figure 12.
3.13. Table 13. Freshwater Imports to WMA in 1999
This table shows, for 1999, the volumes of fresh water imported to the WMA of interest along with the source WMA.
For each source WMA it gives what percentage of all fresh-water withdrawals the transferred volume is. This allows a quick estimation of how much a drain on the source WMA the transfer volume is. These data are graphed on the left side of figure 13.
Also shown is what percentage of all potable-water use in the WMA of interest comes from that source WMA. This allows for a quick estimation of how dependant the WMA of interest is on the source WMA.
The table also shows what percentage of all potable water use in the WMA of interest is imported.
3.14. Table 14. Freshwater Exports from WMA in 1999
This table shows, for 1999, the volumes of fresh water exported from the WMA of interest to each destination WMA.
The table shows what percentage of all withdrawals in the WMA of interest the transferred volume is. This allows a quick estimation of how much a drain on the WMA of interest the transfer volume is. These data are graphed on the right side of figure 13.
Also shown is what percentage of all potable-water use in the destination WMA comes from the WMA of interest. This allows for a quick estimation of how dependant the destination WMA is on the WMA of interest.
The table also shows what percentage of all water withdrawn in the WMA of interest is exported.
3.15. Table 15. Use of Fresh Water in WMA
This table shows annual use of fresh water in the WMA of interest. This is broken out by use group. The volume of fresh water used in a WMA is equal to withdrawals in the WMA plus imports minus exports. The water use is specified in BWA allocation permits. The different types of uses have been grouped into use groups which are defined in more detail in section 4.3 of this metadata. These data are graphed in figure 14.
The total volume of fresh water used in the WMA of interest is given at the bottom of the table 15.
The data are stored in monthly volumes for each detailed use in the underlying NJWaTr database. The consumed (or consumptive) volume is calculated by multiplying the monthly-use volume by the consumptive percentage (shown in the worksheet 'Consumptive %') and then summing for each year. Annual consumed volume is then divided by annual use volume to give an annual consumed percent. The actual breakdown of monthly consumptive and nonconsumptive volumes is shown in figure 4.
3.16. Table 16. Sewage transfers & reclaimed-water discharges in WMA
This table shows annual volumes of sewage generated in, imported into, exported from, and discharged in the WMA of interest. The volume discharged in the WMA is the base data. The other volumes are estimates based on areas of sewer-service areas in the WMA of interest. A fuller description is given in section 2.4 of this metadata.
Volumes of sewage generated in and imported into the WMA of interest are shown on the left side of figure 16. Volumes of sewage exported from the WMA of interest are shown on the right side of figure 16.
3.17. Table 17. Destination of reclaimed-water discharges in WMA
This table is a detailed breakout of the source of reclaimed-water discharges in the WMA. How this breakout was done is described in section 2.7 of this metadata. The sum of the three destinations is the total volume of reclaimed-water discharged in the WMA.
These data, for 1999, are shown on the right hand side of figure 17.
3.18. Table 18. Nonconsumptive Water Returns to WMA
Each water use type in each month has an associated consumptive percent (as shown in the worksheet 'Consumptive %'). The volume of water that is not evaporated is referred to as nonconsumptive water use. The assumption is that the water is not consumed is returned to the WMA for either discharge or export (in the form of sewage).
Annual nonconsumptive water-use volumes are divided up by water use type. In the case of potable supply this is divided into two categories. The first, 'potable purveyors' represents water supplied by public-water-supply purveyors with allocation permits. The second, 'domestic wells,' is an attempt to quantify the volume of water returned to the WMA by households on domestic wells. If it is assumed that all homes with domestic wells have septic tanks, and all homes supplied by potable purveyors are hooked up to a sewer line, then one can estimate volumes of sewage generated in the WMA.
Nonconsumptive water use by industrial, commercial and mining use groups are summed. Nonconsumptive water use by agricultural and irrigation uses are also summed.
The sum of nonconsumptive water use (table 18) and consumptive water use (from table 15) should equal total volume of water used in the WMA (table 15).
3.19. Table 19. Water Allocation in WMA by Water Source
This table shows the maximum annual water fresh water allocations permitted by the DEP's Bureau of Water Allocation by water source in this WMA. Some of the withdrawn water may be exported for use in another WMA. Note that private domestic wells are not required to obtain an allocation permit.
3.20. Table 20. Water Allocation in WMA by Water Use Group
This table shows the maximum annual water fresh water allocations permitted by the DEP's Bureau of Water Allocation in this WMA by the eventual use of that water. Some of the withdrawn water may be exported for use in another WMA. Water uses are summed into use groups. Note that private domestic wells are not required to obtain an allocation permit.
3.21. Table 21. Descriptive Statistics
This table reports on some basic physical characteristics for the WMA.
First is total area of the WMA in square miles.
Second is population in the WMA based on census data for the years 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000. This is based on reported population by municipality. Municipal population was assumed to be areally evenly distributed to all WMAs that intersected that municipality. This section also shows change in population, as a percentage, from the previous census.
Third is average annual surface and ground-water withdrawals (from table 12) divided by the area of the WMA. This is expressed in millions of gallons per square mile.
Fourth is a summary of land use in the WMA. These data were obtained from the DEP's GIS web page: http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/. Land use is given for 1986 and 1995, years of complete aerial overflights of the state. Land use is expressed as a percentage of WMA area.
Fifth is the percentage of the WMA which falls within the Pinelands area and the Highlands area of New Jersey. The Pinelands and Highlands are ecological sensitive areas with special protections applied to parts of each. GIS coverages of each were obtained from the DEP's GIS web page and intersected with a coverage of WMA to determine these percentages.
3.22. Table 22. Annual Agricultural Water Use by Detailed Use Type
The agricultural water use group can be subdivided into a detailed use type. This table shows annual fresh water use in the selected WMA (in millions of gallons) by use type. The total volume of agricultural use is at the bottom of the table.
3.23. Table 23. Annual Agricultural Use by Detailed Use Type as Percentage of Total Agricultural Use
This table expresses use in the selected WMA by detailed use type as a percentage of total usage for all agricultural use.
3.24. Table 24. Annual Consumed Water Volume by Detailed Agricultural Use Type
This table shows annual consumed volume associated with each agricultural use type for the selected WMA. The underlying use data are stored on a monthly basis. The percent of water that is consumed (evaporated) by each detailed use type is shown in the worksheet 'Consumptive %'. Multiplying the volume used in each month by the consumptive percent associated with each detailed use type, and then summing over the year, yields the total annual consumed volume for that use type.
3.25. Table 25. Annual Consumed Water Percentage by Detailed Agricultural Use Type
This table shows the annual consumptive water use in the selected WMA for each agricultural use type as a percentage of water used by that use type.
3.26. Table 26. Annual Ground-Water Withdrawals by Aquifer Group
This table shows annual ground-water withdrawals by aquifer group in the selected WMA.
4. DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES
4.1. Figure 1. Statewide Freshwater Withdrawals and Use
This figure shows annual fresh-water withdrawals (by source) on the left hand side. The right hand side shows what happens to the water, either nonconsumptive use or consumptive use. The data that are used to create this graph are reported in tables 1, 2, and 4.
4.2. Figure 2. Statewide Use of Fresh Water
This figure shows statewide annual use of water broken out by use group. These data are reported in table 2.
4.3. Figure 3. Statewide Monthly Consumptive & Nonconsumptive Water Use
This table shows statewide total monthly use. The figure divides the monthly total into nonconsumptive use and consumptive use. This allows for a visual analysis of the seasonal changes in total water used and in consumptive use patterns. Consumptive loss is at a peak in the summer due to evaporation and transpiration impacts on outdoor water use.
4.4. Figure 4. Statewide Destination of Reclaimed-Water Discharges
This figure shows statewide annual discharges of reclaimed water based on type of receiving water. These data are reported in table 3.
4.5. Figure 5. Statewide Net Resource Impacts
This figure is an attempt to summarize total annual impacts on the water resources of New Jersey. The lines show volumes of water removed from the resource. The bars show water returned.
The bottom of the two lines shows annual ground-water withdrawals. The upper line shows total withdrawals. Thus the difference between the two is surface-water withdrawals. These data come from table 1. This shows, in effect, the volume of water removed from the resource.
The stacked bar chart consists of several different numbers. The first is nonconsumptive returns. This is based on data from table 4. It is the sum of the 'domestic wells,' 'ind+comm+mining,' 'ag+irrig,' and 'power generation' lines. This represents the nonconsumptive water returns of uses that are likely not attached to a sewer line and thus not contribute to reclaimed-water discharges. The other components of the stacked bar consist of salt-water discharges, brackish-water discharges, and fresh-water discharges from table 3.
4.6. Figure 6. Outcrop Areas of Aquifer Groups
This figure shows the surficial outcrop areas of those geologic units combined into each aquifer groups. In the coastal plain the units dip to the southeast. Thus by drilling deep enough it may be possible to withdraw water from a different aquifer group than what is present at the surface.
4.7. Figure 9. 1999 WMA sources of Freshwater
This figure is a summary for 1999 of all 20 WMAs showing where fresh water comes from (ground-water withdrawals, surface-water withdrawals, or imports). In effect, it is the left side of figure 12 for all twenty WMAs for 1999.
4.8. Figure 8. 1999 WMA Total Freshwater Demands
This figure is a summary for 1999 for all 20 WMAs showing where fresh water goes (exports, consumptive use, or nonconsumptive use. In effect, it is the right side of figure 15 for all twenty WMAs for 1999.
4.9. Figure 9. 1999 WMA Depletive (Exports) & Consumptive (Evaporated)
This figure is a summary for 1999 of depletive and consumptive uses for all twenty WMAs. The bar chart shows depletive (exports) volumes (from table 12) and consumptive (evaporated) uses (from table 15). The line shows depleted and consumptive use as a percentage of total withdrawals in the WMA (from table 12) and imports (table 12). This is referred to by the abbreviation D&C%.
For those WMAs with a significant volume of exports the D&C% is very high. WMAs with very low imports have a low D&C%.
4.10. Figure 10. 1999 Reclaimed Water Discharge Volumes & Receiving Waters
This figure is a summary for 1999 and all 20 WMAs of the total volumes of reclaimed-water discharges broken out by receiving water quality. These data are reported for each WMA in table 16 (total volume) and table 17 (destination of discharge). Section 2.7 of this metadata gives more information on how each reclaimed-water discharge point was assigned to a receiving water.
4.11. Figure 11. Watershed Management Areas & Counties in New Jersey
This figures shows the boundaries of watershed management areas and counties in New Jersey. This figure is in two places, in worksheet 'WMA Details' and '1999 Summary.' It also shows the borders of the Pinelands and Highlands areas in New Jersey.
4.12. Figure 12. Freshwater Withdrawals, Use, Imports & Exports
This figure shows annual fresh-water withdrawals, use, imports, and exports. It is divided into two halves. The left half shows fresh-water sources for the WMA: imports, surface-water withdrawals and ground-water withdrawals. The right hand side shows what happens to the water: nonconsumptive use, consumptive, or exports. The data that are used to create this graph are reported in tables 12, 15, and 18.
Normally for any year the left-hand bar will be equal in length to the right-hand bar. However for WMAs 03 (Pompton, Pequannock, Wanaque, and Ramapo), 08 (North and South Branch Raritan) and 12 (Monmouth County) this is not always true. This is the case because in these WMAs there is an offstream reservoir that is partially filled by withdrawals from a river or stream. The withdrawals from the stream are accounted for in the surface-water withdrawals on the left hand side of figure 1. However the change in reservoir storage is not accounted for anywhere. Thus the left-side and right-side bars may not be of equal length for these three WMAs.
4.13. Figure 13. 1999 Freshwater Import & Export Details
This figure shows, for 1999, a detailed analysis of fresh-water imports and exports. Imports are on the left and exports are on the right. The WMA source of imports and destination of exports are labeled. The import data are also reported in table 13, the export data in table 14.
4.14. Figure 14. Use of Fresh Water in WMA
This figure shows annual use of water in the WMA of interest by use group. These data are reported in table 15.
4.15. Figure 15. Monthly Consumptive & Nonconsumptive Water Use in WMA
This figure shows total monthly use in the WMA of interest. The figure divides this into nonconsumptive use and consumptive use. This allows for a visual analysis of the seasonal changes in total water used and in consumptive use patterns. Consumptive loss is at a peak in the summer due to evaporation and transpiration impacts on outdoor water use.
4.16. Figure 16. Sewage Generation, Transfers and Reclaimed-Water Discharges
This figure shows the movement of sewage and discharge of reclaimed water. The volume of sewage imported into the WMA of interest and the volume generated inside the WMA are shown on the left hand side. The right hand side shows the volume of sewage exported from the WMA and the volume of reclaimed water discharged to fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. These data are from tables 16 and 17.
Section 2.4 and 2.5 of this metadata give more details on how the volumes of sewage generation, imports and exports were calculated. Sections 2.5 and 2.6 deal with reclaimed-water discharges.
4.17. Figure 17. 1999 Sewage Import & Export Details
This figure shows details of sewage imports and exports for 1999 for the WMA of interest. This graphs shows imports on the left side, identifying the source WMAs. The right side shows exports with destination WMAs.
4.18. Figure 18. Net Resource Impacts to WMA
This figure is an attempt to summarize total impacts on the water resources of the WMA of interest. The lines show volumes of water removed from the resource. The bars show water returned.
The bottom of the two lines shows annual ground-water withdrawals. The upper line shows total withdrawals. Thus the difference between the two is surface-water withdrawals. These data come from table 12. This shows, in effect, the volume of water removed from the resource.
The stacked bar chart consists of several different numbers. The first is nonconsumptive returns. This is based on data from table 18. It is the sum of the 'domestic wells,' 'ind+comm+mining,' 'ag+irrig,' and 'power generation' lines. This represents the nonconsumptive water returns of uses that are likely not attached to a sewer line and thus not contribute to reclaimed-water discharges. The other components of the stacked bar consist of salt-water discharges, brackish-water discharges, and fresh-water discharges from table 17.
For those WMAs that are next importers of water the top of the stacked bar chart will be higher than the topmost line. WMAs that are net exporters of water are indicated by having the topmost line higher than the top of the stacked bar chart.
By looking at the various components of the bar chart it one can also compare total withdrawals to returns to the fresh-water component of the WMA.
5. DATA DEFINTIONS
5.1 SOURCE OF WITHDRAWALS
Fresh-water withdrawals are identified as being either from surface water or ground water. Surface water is defined as a river, canal, stream, creek, or pond with a surface-water inlet and outlet. Ground water is defined as coming from a well, spring, or pond with no surface-water inlet or outlet.
Withdrawals of saline water (primarily for the cooling of nuclear power plants) are not included in these figures.
5.2 CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE
Consumptive water use is defined as water that is evaporated to the atmosphere after use. It is a function of the use to which the water is put and of the time of year. The workbook 'Consumptive %' shows monthly and annual consumptive percent rations used in this analysis. For this analysis reported monthly withdrawals were multiplied by the estimated monthly consumptive percent to estimate the volume of water used consumptively. The monthly volumes consumed were summed over a year to give a total annual volume of consumed water. The annual consumed volume was divided by the annual total water volume to get the annual consumed percent reported here. Thus the annual consumptive percent reported for a watershed management area, water region or HUC11 watershed is not the average of each monthly consumptive use percent.
5.3. USE OF WITHDRAWALS
5.3.1. AGRICULTURAL WATER USE
Agricultural use is water withdrawn in support of agricultural activities. It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- general agriculture
- field crops
- agriculture irrigation
- tree fruit
- vegetables, leaf crops
- Christmas trees
5.3.2. COMMERCIAL WATER USE
This category is defined as water withdrawn by a specific user in support of commercial activities. It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- commercial (non-com)
- recreation (non-comm)
5.3.3. INDUSTRIAL WATER USE
This category is defined as water withdrawn by a specific user in support of industrial activities. It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- air conditioning
- cooling (industrial)
- pollution control
5.3.4. IRRIGATION WATER USE
This category is defined as all nonagricultural use of water for irrigation. It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- irrigation for non-agricultural purposes
5.3.5. MINING WATER USE
This category accounts for water reportedly withdrawn to assist in mining operations. It is not subdivided in NJWaTr into any subcategories.
5.3.6. POTABLE SUPPLY WATER USE
This category accounts for water delivered by public water suppliers to all users (private, commercial and industrial). It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- medicinal value
- public non-community
- public supply
- industrial, food processing
5.3.7. POWER GENERATION WATER USE
This is defined as fresh water used to assist in the generation of power. It is subdivided in NJWaTr into these subcategories based on information in BWA's permit file:
- power generation
- geothermal/heat pump
- hydro power generation
- thermal power generation
5.4 AQUIFER GROUPS
The geologic units are grouped into 16 different aquifer groups for the purposes of classifying the source of ground-water withdrawals. This grouping is primarily based on the age and composition of the units. This is described in more detail in Hoffman and Lieberman (2000).
The geologic units in each aquifer group are listed below. Within each aquifer group the geologic units are sorted alphabetically. The geologic units are taken from the recently published maps of bedrock geology in New Jersey (Drake and others, 1996; Owens and others, 1998).
5.4.1. Aquifer Group A - glacial sediments of northern New Jersey
Alluvial Fan Deposits; Alluvium; Alluvium and Boulder Lag; Basalt Colluvium; Bergen Till; Carbonate Colluvium; Channel Deposits; Colluvium; Colluvium and Alluvium, Undivided; Conglomerate Colluvium; continuous till; Deltaic Deposits; deltaic sediment; derived from basalt and diabase; derived from carbonate rock; derived from gneiss; derived from gray slate, mudstone and sand; derived from quartzite and conglomerate; derived from red shale, mudstone and sand;
Diabase Colluvium; discontinous till; Eolian Deposits; Estuarine Deposits; Flanders Till; Floodplain Deposits; fluvial over lacustrine sediment; fluvial sediment; fluvial sediment (Illinoian age); glacial undifferentiated; Glaciofluvial Sand and Gravel; Glaciolacustrine Lake Bottom Deposits; Glaciolacustrine Sand and Gravel; Gneiss Colluvium; Ice Contact Deposits; ice-contact sediment; Illinoian deltaic deposits; Illinoian fluvial deposits; Illinoian Moraines; Illinoian Stratified Drift; Illinoian Till; Kittatinny Mountain Till; Lacustrine Fan Deposits; lake-bottom sediment; Late Wisconsian Till; Late Wisconsinan Moraines; Late Wisconsinan Stratified Drift; Meltwater Terrace Deposits; Morainic Deposits; morainic deposits (Illinoian age); Netcong Till; non-glacial material; Pre-Illinoian (Jerseyan) Stratified Drift; Pre-Illinoian (Jerseyan) Till; Quartzite Colluvium; Rahway Till; Sand and Gravel Colluvium; sand and gravel of Jerseyan age; Sand and Silt Colluvium; Slate, Shale, Sandstone, Mudstone Colluvium; Stratified Drift; Stream Terrace Deposits; Swamp and Marsh Deposits; Talus; terminal moraine; Till; Till Colluvium; till of Illinoian age; till of Jerseyan age; Tillstone Lag;Valley Outwash Deposits;Weathered Basalt, Bedrock, Carbonate, Conglomerate, Diabase, Gneiss, Quartzite, Schist Slate, Shale, Sandstone, and Mudstone.
5.4.2. Aquifer Group B - surficial deposits in southern New Jersey
Beach Sand; Beacon Hill Formation; Bridgeton Formation; Cape May Formation; Cenozic Era; Holly Beach water-bearing unit; Pensauken Formation; Pleistocene estuarine sand facies; Quaternary System; Spring Lake beds; Tertiary System; Upland Gravel; Van Sciver Lake beds.
5.4.3. Aquifer Group C - Kirkwood and Cohansey
Bellplain Member; Cohansey & Kirkwood Formations; Cohansey Formation; Kirkwood Formation; Shilo Marl Member; Upper Kirkwood confining unit; Wildwood Member.
5.4.4. Aquifer Group D - Rio Grande and Atlantic City 800-foot sand
Atlantic City 800-foot sand (lower sand); Lower Kirkwood confining unit; Rio Grande water-bearing unit (upper sand).
5.4.5. Aquifer Group E - Piney Point and Vincentown
Composite confining unit; Cretaceous System; Manasquan Formation; Manasquan-Vincentown Formations; Mesozoic Era; Old Church-Piney Point; Piney Point aquifer; Redbank Formation; Sandy Hook Member; Shark River Formation; Shark River Marl-Piney Point; Shrewsbury Member; Tinton Formation; Vincentown Formation; Hornerstown Formation.
5.4.6. Aquifer Group F - Wenonah, Mount Laurel and Englishtown
Cheesequake Formation; Englishtown Formation; Englishtown lower sand; Englishtown upper sand; Marshalltown Formation; Marshalltown-Wenonah confining unit; Merchantville Formation; Merchantville-Woodbury confining unit; Mt. Laurel & Wenonah Formations; Mt. Laurel Formation; Navesink Formation; Wenonah Formation; Woodbury Formation.
5.4.7. Aquifer Group G - upper Magothy, Raritan and Potomac
Amboy Stoneware Clay Member; Magothy Formation; Old Bridge Sand Member; Upper Magothy, Raritan & Potomac aquifer.
5.4.8. Aquifer Group H - middle Magothy, Raritan and Potomac
Farrington Sand Member; Middle Magothy, Raritan & Potomac aquifer; Raritan confining unit; Raritan Fire Clay Member; Raritan Formation; Sayerville Sand Member; South Amboy Fire Clay Member; Woodbridge Clay Member.
5.4.9. Aquifer Group I - lower Magothy, Raritan and Potomac
Lower Magothy, Raritan & Potomac aquifer; Potomac confining unit; Potomac Formation.
5.4.10. Aquifer Group J - undifferentiated Magothy, Raritan and Potomac
Magothy & Raritan Formations; Magothy, Raritan, & Potomac Formations.
5.4.11. Aquifer Group K - Brunswick Supergroup
Basalt-clast Conglomerate; Boonton Formation; Brunswick aquifer; Brunswick aquifer sedimentary units; Conglomerate and Pebbly Sandstone facies; Conglomerate and Sandstone facies Feltville Formation; Gneiss-clast Conglomerate; Gray bed; Gray-bed hornfels; Hook Mt. Basalt; Jurassic & Triassic Systems; Jurassic Basalt; Jurassic Diabase; Jurassic System; JurassicTriassic Conglomerate; JurassicTriassic Limestone-clast Conglomerate; JurassicTriassic Quartzite-clast Conglomerate; JurassicTriassic Shale-clast Conglomerate; Limestone-clast Conglomerate facies; Orange Mountain Basalt; Passaic Formation; Preakness Basalt; Quartzite-clast Conglomerate; Quartzite-clast Conglomerate facies; Red-bed Hornfels; Sandstone and Siltstone facies; Shale-clast Conglomerate facies; Towaco Formation; Triassic System.
5.4.12. Aquifer Group L - Lockatong and Stockton
Arkosic Sandstone facies; Hornfel; Lockatong Formation; Red bed; Sandstone and Conglomerate Sandstone facies; Stockton Formation.
5.4.13. Aquifer Group M - limestone, dolomite and marble of the Valley & Ridge and Highlands provinces
Allentown Dolomite; Big Springs Member; Bossardville Limestone; Branchville Member; Buttermilk Falls Limestone; Cement Limestone Facies; Cement Rock Facies; Coeymans Limestone; Epler Formation; Franklin Limestone; Franklin Marble; Hamburg Member; Hope Member; Jacksonburg Limestone; Jacksonburg Limestone and Kittatinny Supergroup; Jacksonburg Limestone, Wantage Sequence, & Beekmantown; Kalkberg Limestone; Kittantinny Supergroup; Kittatinny Formation; Lafayette Member; Leithsville Formation; Limeport Member; Lower Member; Manlius Limestone; Marble; Minisink Limestone; Minisink Limestone & New Scotland Formation; Ordovician & Cambrian Systems; Rickenback Dolomite; Upper Member; Wildcat Marble.
5.4.14. Aquifer Group N - Noncarbonate consolidated rocks of the Valley & Ridge and Highlands provinces
Albite Oligoclase Granite; Amphibolite; Baltimore Gneiss; Beaver Run Member; Beekmantown Group; Beemerville Intrusive Suite; Bellvale Sandstone; Berkshire Valey Formation; Berkshire Valley & Poxono Island Formations; Berkshire Valley Formation; Biotite Granite; Biotite-Plagioclase Gneiss; Biotite-Quartz-Feldspar Gneiss; Biotite-Quartz-Oligoclase Gneiss; Bloomsburg Red Beds; Bushkill Member; Bushkill Member Hornfel; Byram Intrusive Suite; Califon Member; Cambrian System; Chestnut Hill Formation; Chickies Quartzite; Clinopyroxene-Quartz-Feldspar Gneiss; Cobble Conglomerate and Sandstone facies; Coeymans Formation Undivided; Connelly Conglomerate; Cornwall Shale; Decker Formation; Devonian & Silurian Systems; Devonian System; Diorite; Epidote Gneiss; Esopus Formation; Glenarie Formation; gneiss; granite; Green Pond Conglomerate; Green Pond Mountain undifferentiated; Hardyston Quartzite; Harmonyvale Member; Helderberg Group; High Falls Formation; High Point Member; High Point Member Hornfel; Hornblende Granite; Hornblende Syenite; Hornblende-Plagioclase Gneiss; Hornblende-Quartz-Feldspar Gneiss; Hypersthene-Quartz-Oligoclase Gneiss; Jutland Klippe Sequence; Kanouse & Esopus Formations, & Connelly Conglomerate; Kanouse Sandstone; Lake Hopatcong Intrusive Suite; Lamprophyre and Related Rocks; Late Proterozoic Diabase; Late Proterozoic Era; Leithsville Formation & Hardyston Quartzite; Longwood Shale; Losee Metamorphic Suite; Lower Part; Manhattan Schist; Marcellus Shale; Martinsburg Formation; Metasedimentary Rocks; Microantiperthite Alaskite; Microcline Gneiss; Microperthite Alaskite; Middle Proterozoic Era; Migmatite; Monazite Gneiss; Mt. Eve Granite; Nepheline Syenite; New Scotland Formation; Ontelaunee Formation; Ordovician System; Oriskany Group; Ouachitite Breccia - Volcanic Breccia; Paleozoic Era; Port Ewen Shale; Potassic Feldspar Gneiss; Poxono Island Formation; Precambrian; Proterozoic Era; Pyroxene Alaskite; Pyroxene Gneiss; Pyroxene Granite; Pyroxene Syenite; Pyroxene-Epidote Gneiss; Quartzite; Quartz-Oligoclase Gneiss; Ramseyburg Member; Ramseyburg Member Hornfel; Ridgely Sandstone; Rondout & Decker Formations; Rondout Formation; Schoharie Formation; Serpentinite; Shawangunk Formation; Shriver Chert; Silurian Green Pond Mountain undifferentiated; Silurian System; Silurian Valley & Ridge undifferentiated; Skunnemunk Conglomerate; Stonehenge Formation; Syenite Gneiss; Walkill Member; Wantage Sequence; Wissahickon Gneiss.
5.4.15. Aquifer Group P - Unknown
artificial fill; extensive bedrock outcrop (surficial sediment generally absent); Holocene Series; multiple aquifers; surficial deposit; unknown.
5.4.16. Aquifer Group Q - domestic wells
All estimated withdrawals by domestic wells are assigned to this group. Generally domestic wells are shallow and tap the outcropping unit.
6. DISTRIBUTION INFORMATION
This file consists of one Excel spreadsheet. This product may be distributed with proper attribution and if it is unchanged.
7. AUTHOR NOTES
The report 'New Jersey Water Withdrawals 1990-1996' (N.J. Geological Survey Open-File Report OFR 00-1) is available from the DEP's Maps and Publications Sales Office:
Over-the-counter purchases:DEP Maps and Publications Sales Office
Hours: 8:30AM-12noon; 1pm-4pm (Monday-Friday)
Mail-order purchases:DEP Maps and Publications Sales Office
Please report any errors in this workbook to the authors.
Check the NJGS website for possible additional information.
Use of brand, commercial, or trade names is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the New Jersey Geological Survey or New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
Abbreviations used in this metadata (with reference, where appropriate).
BSDW - Bureau of Safe Drinking Water, NJDEP
BWA - Bureau of Water Allocation - NJDEP
DSRT - Division of Science, Research and Technology, NJDEP
DWM - Division of Watershed Management, NJDEP
DWS - Division of Water Supply, NJDEP
GIS - geographical information system
GPS - global positioning system
HUC - hydrologic unit code (HUC14, HU11) (see Ellis and Price, 1995)
NJDEP - New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
NJGS - New Jersey Geological Survey, NJDEP
NJPDES - New Jersey Pollution Discharge Elimination System, NJDEP
NJWaTr - New Jersey Water Tracking Data System (see Tessler, 2003)
STP - sewage treatment plant
USGS - United States Geological Survey
WMA - watershed management area (see Cohen, 1997)
WR - water region (see Cohen, 1997)
9. PREVIOUS VERSIONS
Version 1 (and various modifications) were distributed internally in the DEP starting in June 2003 to report on preliminary results and for error checking.
Version 2.3 was the first version officially released to the pubic in October 2003.
Version 2.4 was completed in November 2003. Major Version 2.4 revisions:
· More details on agricultural withdrawals were added in response to a request from a member of the Water Supply Advisory Council's subcommittee on Water Availability.
· Tables were reformatted to be more in line with NJGS publications standards.
· Many withdrawals from off-stream ponds had been incorrectly assigned to surface-water withdrawals. These were corrected leading to higher estimates of ground-water withdrawals, significantly so in WMA 1, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 19. In these WMAs the shift of withdrawals from surface water to ground water was more than 1 billion gallons in some years. The largest change was a reassigning of 5.618 billion gallons in 1996 in WMA14 from surface water to ground water.
Version 2.5 was completed in August 2004. Major version 2.5 revisions:
· The ongoing process of data evaluation corrected some inaccuracies in purveyor service areas.
· Fresh water distributed to a service area had been evenly distributed on an areal basis in version 2.4 and earlier. Thus HUC14s with equal area in a service area were assigned the same volume of water. This was changed in version 2.5 to reflect population densities. If one HUC14 was estimated to have twice as many people as another HUC14, it was assigned twice as much water regardless of size of the two HUCs. This population-weighted approach will assign more water to densely-populated areas which is consistent with how water is actually distributed.
Later versions may be released if significant errors in data input or processing are found or additional analyses are added.
Coast Survey Ltd, 1986, NJDEP Head of Tide Points for Watercourses of New Jersey: spatial data set on file with the NJDEP Geographical Information System's web page, http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/.
Cloke, W., Williams, R., McLaughlin, M.F., Reynolds, J.R. and Kummel, H.B., 1907, To investigate the practicability and probable cost of the acquisition by the State of the title to the potable waters of the State: Report of the Commissioners of the Riparian Commission, Trenton, NJ, 101p.
Cohen, Sandra, 1997, Draft statewide watershed management framework document for the State of New Jersey: N.J. Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Environmental Planning, Trenton, N.J., 78p.
Drake, A.A., Volkert, R.A., Monteverde, D.H., Herman, G.C., Houghton, H.F., Parker, R.A. and Dalton, R.F., 1996, Bedrock geologic map of northern New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey miscellaneous investigations series Map I-2540-A, scale 1:100,000, 4 cross sections, 2 sheets.
Ellis, W.H. and Price, C.V., 1995, Development of a 14-digit hydrologic coding scheme and boundary data set for New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resource Investigations Report 95-4134, 1 plate, scale 1:250,000.
Frontinus, Sextus Julius, ca 100, The Aqueducts of Rome, reproduced in Evans, H.B., 1997, Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: Michigan, The Univ. of Michigan Press, 168p.
Herman, G.C., 2000, NJDEP watershed management areas in New Jersey: spatial data set on file with the NJDEP Bureau of Geographical Information Systems' web page, http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/.
Hoffman, J.L., 2000a, Data tables for New Jersey water withdrawals, 1990-1996: N.J. Geological Survey Digital Geodata Series DGS00-4, http://www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/index.html.
Hoffman, J.L., 2000b, NJDEP 11-digit hydrologic unit code delineations for New Jersey (DEPHUC11): spatial data set on file with the NJDEP Bureau of Geographical Information Systems' web page, http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/.
Hoffman, J.L., 2001, Relational data files for GIS display of New Jersey water withdrawals from 1990 to 1999: New Jersey Geological Survey Digital Geodata Series 01-2, computer spreadsheets.
Hoffman, J.L., 2004, Modifications to New Jersey's watershed management area boundaries, 1996-1999: N.J. Geological Survey technical memorandum 04-?, 12p.
Hoffman, J.L. and Lieberman, S.E., 2000, New Jersey Water Withdrawals 1990-1996: N.J. Geological Survey Open-File Report OFR 00-1, Trenton, N.J., 123p.
Johnson, Lyndon B., 1968: Letter to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House, transmitting 'An Assessment of the Nation's Water Resources, 18 Nov 1968'.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, 1996, New Jersey Coastline Shapefile: spatial data set on file with the NJDEP Bureau of Geographical Information Systems' web page, http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/.
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, 2003, NJDEP municipality boundaries for the State of New Jersey: spatial data set on file with the NJDEP Bureau of Geographical Information Systems' web page, http://www.nj.gov/dep/gis/.
Nawyn, J.P. and Clawges, R.M., 1995, Withdrawals of ground water and surface water in New Jersey, 1989-90: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-324, West Trenton, N.J., 52p.
Owens, J.P., Sugarman, P.J., Sohl, N.F., Parker, R.A., Houghton, H.F., Volkert, R.A., Drake, A.A., and Orndorff, R.C., 1998, Bedrock geological map of central and southern New Jersey: U.S. Geological Survey miscellaneous investigations series Map I-2540-B, scale 1:100,000, 8 cross sections, 4 sheets.
Saarela, Helve, 1992, 1988 New Jersey water withdrawal report: N.J. Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Allocation, Trenton, N.J., 41p
Seaber, P.R., Kapinos, F.P., and Knapp, G.L., 1987, Hydrologic Unit Maps: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2294, 63 p.
Tessler, Steven, 2003, Data model and relational database design for the New Jersey water-transfer data system (NJWaTr): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report OFR-03-197, available on the Internet at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/ofr03197.
Zripko, N.P. and Hasan, Asghar, 1994, Depletive water use project for regional water resource planning areas for New Jersey: N.J. Deptartment of Environmental Planning, Office of Land and Water Planning, Trenton, N.J., 149p.
"In our potable waters we have a vast natural asset, held in trust by the State for the people thereof, the consideration and purity of which is indispensable to their health and well-being."
-- Cloke and others, 1907.
"A nation that fails to plan intelligently for the development and protection of its precious waters will be condemned to wither because of its shortsightedness. The hard lessons of history are clear, written on the deserted sands and ruins of once proud civilizations."
-- President Lyndon B. Johnson, 1968.
"With such an array of indispensable structures carrying so many waters, compare, if you will, the idle Pyramids or the useless, through famous, works of the Greeks!"
-- Sextus Julius Frontinus, The Aqueducts of Rome, ca 100 CE