Coastal Plain Sediments with Potential to Form Acid (Sulfate) Soils

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), New Jersey Geological and Water Survey (NJGWS)
Publication_Date: 20090510
Publication_Time: publication date
Title:
Coastal Plain Sediments with Potential to Form Acid (Sulfate) Soils
Edition: 20150630
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Digital Geodata Series
Issue_Identification: DGS09-2
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Trenton, NJ
Publisher:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), New Jersey Geological and Water Survey (NJGWS)
Online_Linkage: <http://www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/geodata/dgs09-2.htm>
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection/New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Publication_Date: 20070510
Title: Bedrock Geology of New Jersey 1:100,000 Scale
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Digital Geodata Series
Issue_Identification: DGS04-6
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Trenton, New Jersey
Publisher:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection/New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
Bedrock Geology of New Jersey (DGS04-6) sources are: Bedrock Geologic Map of Northern New Jersey, Drake, Avery A. Jr.,Volkert, Richard, A., Monteverde, Donald H., Herman, Gregory C., Houghton,Hugh F., Parker, Ronald A., and Dalton, Richard F., 1996, Scale 1 to 100,000, 4 cross sections, 2 sheets, size 56x40; 58x41. Map I-2540-A. Bedrock Geologic Map of Central and Southern New Jersey, Owens, James P., Sugarman, Peter J., Sohl, Norman F., Parker, Ronald A., Houghton, Hugh F., Volkert, Richard A., Drake, Avery A., Jr., and Orndorff, Randall C., 1998. Scale 1 to 100,000, 8 cross sections, 4 sheets, each size 58x41, I-2540-B
Online_Linkage: <http://www.njgeology.org/geodata/dgs04-6.htm>
Description:
Abstract:
Soil pH is the measure of the pH of soil water, which depends on the hydrogen ion (H+) activity in solution. Soils become naturally acidic for three major reasons: rainfall and leaching, acidic parent material, and decay of organic matter which produces hydrogen ions. Sulfide-bearing (pyritic) Cretaceous and Cenozoic marine and estuarine sediments, depicted on this map, are potential acid-soil producers. The development of acid-sulfate soils occurs when sulfide minerals, such as pyrite and/or elemental sulfur, in reduced sulfidic sediments, oxidize upon air exposure through drainage or earth-moving operations. The overall acid-sulfate soil-forming process involves a complex chain of reactions that connect the oxidation of iron sulfides to the release of iron oxyhydrates (+ hydronium jarosite, H3OFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6) and sulfuric acids. For pyrite and marcasite, the overall reaction is:
FeS2 + 3.75O2 + 3.5 H2O -> Fe(OH)3 + 2H2SO4 (pyrite/marcasite) (iron oxyhydrate) (sulfuric acid)
Acid-sulfate soil formation occurs if the reduced sulfur components exceed the acid-neutralizing capacity of adsorbed bases and easily weatherable silicate and carbonate minerals. Natural Resource Conservation Service reports (see for example Soil Survey of Monmouth County) demonstrate that soils developed on these sulfidic, non-calcareous, marine sediments are strongly (pH < 5.5) to extremely acid (pH < 4.5). Depicted on the geologic map are the sedimentary units with the potential to produce acid (sulfate) soils: Kirkwood, Shark River, Manasquan, Hornerstown, Tinton, Sandy Hook Member of the Red Bank, Navesink, Wenonah, Marshalltown, Englishtown, Woodbury, Merchantville, Cheesequake, Magothy, and Raritan Formations.
Purpose:
The New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, State Soil Conservation Committee requires that plans for controlling erosion during land disturbances (such as construction) must be designed in accordance with a comprehensive set of erosion control practices known as the Standards for Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act (P.L. 1975, chapter 251, N.J.S.A. 4:24-39 et seq.). This map is intended to provide Federal and State agencies, and the public with fundamental geologic information on potential acid-producing (sulfate) sediments for use in natural resource planning and environmental analyses.
Supplemental_Information:
The original list of geologic units in the New Jersey Coastal Plain which are capable of producing acid conditions in the soil included the Raritan, Magothy, Merchantville, Woodbury, Englishtown, Marshalltown, Navesink, Red Bank and Kirkwood Formations. The Cheesequake, Wenonah, Tinton, Hornerstown, Manasquan and Shark River Formations have been added to the most recent version of the acid soils map for several reasons. The Tinton, Hornerstown, Manasquan and Shark River are glauconite-bearing formations. They were added so that all the outcropping glauconite formations are shown since the NRCS classifies all soils developed on the glauconite formations as extremely to very strongly acidic. In addition, NJGWS obtained pH results on several of the glauconite formations being added. The results indicate that for unweathered Hornerstown (from a deep core hole) pH values of 2.86 and 2.95 were obtained (Dooley, personal communication).
It is not clear why the Tinton, Hornerstown, Manasquan and Shark River Formations were omitted from the original 1982 list of acid producing deposits. The list included the Merchantville, Marshalltown, and Navesink Formations, three older glauconite-bearing units. Apperently the August 1983 text indicates that acid producing deposits are the dark gray, brown or black units (may have a greenish tinge) with a clay + silt content of 30% or more which may contain pyrite or marcasite. So it may be that the original assumption was that only the glauconite units with a dark gray to black clay matrix could contain pyrite or marcasite. The assumption likely was that the acid conditions were only caused by the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite.
A search of the files and reports of the NJ Geological and Water Survey provides a large amount of historic information on the use of the glauconite formations as natural fertilizers. These units were extensively utilized up to the 1880's and an attempt to reestablish the use was made in the first half of the 20th century. Geology of New Jersey (George H. Cook, 1868, p. 414 - 474) contains an extensive discussion of the greensand marl units and their use as a fertilizer. He mentions the astringent nature of the various glauconite-bearing units and the need to apply varying amounts of lime to counteract the acidity of the material, which varied from unit to unit and from pit to pit within the same unit.
Since the acid problems were noted during the time greensand marl was extensively used as a natural soil conditioner, it is prudent to include all the greensand marls on the Acid Soils Map. Recently, some glauconite samples were collected and pHs were measured on samples of the Manasquan, Shark River and Hornerstown Formations (see attached Adobe PDF, "pH of Select, Glauconite-rich, Geologic Formations"). A sample of the upper Hornerstown contained a large amount of calcium sulfate, which may be causing the low pH in that sample.
Currently there is not enough pH data on all the glauconite formations to rule any out as non-acid producing. Our plans are to continue to collect samples from other areas in these formations to develop a better database. Should future data indicate certain glauconite formations do not produce a low pH on exposure, they will be eliminated from future editions of the map.
The unit identified as the Cheesequake Formation is the upper part of the Magothy Formation and was first recognized as a separate formation by Owens and others, 1998. Since the Magothy was one of the original acid producing units the area now shown as Cheesequake was already included in the original map coverage. The Wenonah Formation was added as a potential acid producing formation due to the presence of the dark, lignitic, clayey silts, much like the Englishtown. This formation should be included since in portions of the outcrop the clayey silt can make up more than 50% of the formation.
Reference: Geology of New Jersey, Cook, George H., 1868
Bedrock Geologic Map of Central and Southern New Jersey, Owens, James P., Sugarman, Peter J., Sohl, Norman F., Parker, Ronald A., Houghton, Hugh F., Volkert, Richard A., Drake, Avery A., Jr., and Orndorff, Randall C., 1998. Scale 1 to 100,000, 8 cross sections, 4 sheets, each size 58x41, I-2540-B
Enlargement of the data to more detailed scales than specified could result in registration errors. If information is needed at more detailed scales, please contact the New Jersey Geological and Water Survey to determine the status of detailed mapping.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 2009
Currentness_Reference: publication date
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -75.587306
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -73.890363
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.357564
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 38.924819
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: Dictionary of Geological Terms
Theme_Keyword: bedrock
Theme_Keyword: geology
Theme_Keyword: soils
Theme_Keyword: acid
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO 19115 Topic Category
Theme_Keyword: geoscientificInformation
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: U.S. Gazeeter
Place_Keyword: New Jersey
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), Data Distribution Agreement I. Description of Data to be Provided. The Data provided herein are distributed subject to the following conditions and restrictions. SUBJECT DATA LAYERS For all data contained herein, NJDEP makes no representations of any kind, including, but not limited to, the warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use, nor are any such warranties to be implied with respect to the digital data layers furnished hereunder. NJDEP assumes no responsibility to maintain them in any manner or form. II. Terms of Agreement 1. Digital data received from the NJDEP are to be used solely for internal purposes in the conduct of daily affairs. 2. The data are provided, as is, without warranty of any kind and the user is responsible for understanding the accuracy limitations of all digital data layers provided herein, as documented in the accompanying cross-reference files (see Section 1.14 CROSS_REFERENCE). Any reproduction or manipulation of the above data must ensure that the coordinate reference system remains intact. 3. Digital data received from the NJDEP may not be reproduced or redistributed for use by anyone without first obtaining written permission from the NJDEP. This clause is not intended to restrict distribution of printed mapped information produced from the digital data. 4. Any maps, publications, reports, or other documents produced as a result of this project that utilize NJDEP digital data will credit the NJDEP's Geographic Information System (GIS) as the source of the data with the following credit/disclaimer: "This (map/publication/report) was developed using New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Geographic Information System digital data, but this secondary product has not been verified by NJDEP and is not state-authorized." 5. Users shall require any independent contractor, hired to undertake work that will utilize digital data obtained from the NJDEP, to agree not to use, reproduce, or redistribute NJDEP GIS data. Data utilized by an independent contractor will be required to be returned to the original user at the close of such contractual work. Users hereby agree to abide by the use and reproduction conditions specified above and agree to hold any independent contractor to the same terms. By using data provided herein, the user acknowledges that terms and conditions have been read and that the user is bound by these criteria.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: John Dooley
Contact_Organization:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection/New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Contact_Position: Research Scientist II
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: P.O. Box 420, Mail Code: 29-01, 29 Arctic Parkway
City: Trenton
State_or_Province: New Jersey
Postal_Code: 08625-0420
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (609) 292-2576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (609) 633-1004
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: john.dooley@dep.nj.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8:00AM - 5:00PM
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <http://www.state.nj.us/dep/njgs/geodata/dgs09-2.htm#image>
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: image
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: JPEG
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: none
Security_Classification: Unclassified
Security_Handling_Description: none
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.3.1.3000

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Attribute accuracy was tested by manually comparing hard copy plots of the digital data with the source materials and interactively queried and verified on the screen.
Logical_Consistency_Report: Topologically clean. March 2, 2009.
Completeness_Report:
The data includes the sedimentary units with the potential to produce acid (sulfate) soils: Kirkwood, Shark River, Manasquan, Hornerstown, Tinton, Sandy Hook Member of the Red Bank, Navesink, Wenonah, Marshalltown, Englishtown, Woodbury, Merchantville, Cheesequake, Magothy, and Raritan Formations.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Bedrock Geology of New Jersey 1:100,000 Scale was scanned and digitized from United States Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2540-A (Bedrock Geologic Map of Northern New Jersey), Open-File Series Map 95-253 (Bedrock Geologic Map of Central New Jersey), and Open- File Series Map 95-254 (Bedrock Geologic Map of Southern New Jersey). The files were geo-registered to United States Geological Survey 30x60 minute, 1:100,000 scale topographic maps. The state boundary is taken from the STATE reference coverage available from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Information Resources Management, 401 E. State St., Trenton, NJ 08625. The data meets the national map accuracy standards for the 1:100,000 scale. Please refer to metadata files for STATCO for more information on data origin, quality, and limitations.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report: n/a
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Scale_Denominator: 100,000
Type_of_Source_Media: online
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The following sedimentary units with potential to form acid soils were selected from the Bedrock Geology of New Jersey 1:100,000 Scale (DGS04-6): Kirkwood, Shark River, Manasquan, Hornerstown, Tinton, Sandy Hook Member of the Red Bank, Navesink, Wenonah, Marshalltown, Englishtown, Woodbury, Merchantville, Cheesequake, Magothy, and Raritan Formations.
Process_Date: 2009
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Ronald S. Pristas
Contact_Organization:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection/New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Contact_Position: Geographic Information Systems Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Box 427, 29 Arctic Parkway
City: Trenton
State_or_Province: NJ
Postal_Code: 08625-0420
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (609) 292-2576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (609) 633-1004
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: ron.pristas@dep.nj.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8:00AM - 5:00PM
 

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector
Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:
SDTS_Terms_Description:
SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: G-polygon
Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 183

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Map_Projection:
Map_Projection_Name: Transverse Mercator
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999900
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -74.500000
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 38.833333
False_Easting: 492125.000000
False_Northing: 0.000000
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: coordinate pair
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 0.000000
Ordinate_Resolution: 0.000000
Planar_Distance_Units: survey feet
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257222

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: PotentialAcidSoils
Entity_Type_Definition:
Coastal Plain Sediments with Potential to Form Acid (Sulphate) Soils
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: FID
Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain:
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Shape
Attribute_Definition: Feature geometry.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: AREA
Attribute_Definition: Area of the polygon in square feet.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: PERIMETER
Attribute_Definition: Perimeter of the polygon in feet.
Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: GEOABB
Attribute_Definition: Abbreviation of stratigraphic unit.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Tkl
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Lower member (Kirkwood Formation)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Tsr
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Shark River Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Tmq
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Manasquan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Tht
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Hornerstown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Tinton Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Krbsh
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Sandy Hook member
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kns
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Navesink Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kw
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Wenonah Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kmt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Marshalltown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Ket
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Englishtown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kwb
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Woodbury Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kmv
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Merchantville Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kcq
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Cheesequake Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kmg
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Magothy Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Kr
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Raritan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: GEONAME
Attribute_Definition: Name of stratigraphic unit.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Lower member (Kirkwood Formation)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Complex unit in which facies changes are common. In outcrop, some of the lower member is a light-colored quartz sand (Grenloch facies of Isphording, 1970). The facies pinches out rapidly in the subsurface, and the unit is primarily a massive to finely laminated, dark-gray clay (Alloway clay of Kümmel and Knapp, 1904). This clay facies occurs as far south as Clayton, Gloucester County, where the lower part changes to a fossiliferous clayey silt. The lower clayey facies thickens to over 30 m (98 ft) in the coastal region. Here, the lower facies is mostly dark-gray clayey silt that is locally very fossiliferous. The unit varies in thickness but is thickest, as much as 80 m (262 ft), in the southeastern part of the central sheet. South of Bridgeton, Cumberland County, sand is present at the top of the member. This sand thickens to over 23 m (75 ft) at the coast where it is part of the "800 foot" sand, the principal aquifer in the coastal region. Quartz and siliceous rock fragments are the major sand minerals. Feldspars typically constitute less than 10 percent of the sand fraction except in the reworked beds where they make up as much as 25 percent of the sand. Mica and wood fragments are minor constituents.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Shark River Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Consists of three lithofacies, a basal clayey, greenish-gray glauconite sand; a middle dark-green to gray-green silty clay or clayey silt; and an upper medium-gray to gray-green, silty quartz sand. Updip beds are cyclic with a fine- to medium-grained, somewhat clayey, fossiliferous, dark-green, glauconite-quartz (25 percent) sand at the base. The basal lithofacies is about 12 m (39 ft) thick in the southern sheet and 3 m (10 ft) thick in the central sheet. There is a general increase in quartz sand upward and a change in color to dark gray or brownish gray. Locally, some of the beds are more clayey and have more calcareous shell fragments. The middle clay and silt facies is typically the thickest lithofacies in most Shark River sections (as much as 38 m (125 ft) thick) and is massive to thick bedded. The thick-bedded parts typically consist of intercalated silty and clayey beds that are extensively bioturbated. Macro- and microfossils are abundant in this facies. Most of the macrofossils are thin-walled pelecypods. This facies is gradational into the upper quartz-sand facies. The quartz sand is well developed in the Toms River Chemical Plant drillhole, Toms River, Ocean County (sheet 1). This facies apparently was beveled off in the updip areas during erosion prior to deposition of the Kirkwood Formation. The Shark River Formation in the updip area near Bridgeton, Cumberland County (sheet 2), is about 52 m (171 ft) thick. All of the Shark River lithologies in the downdip area are extensively bioturbated. The Shark River is thickest (more than 60 m (197 ft)) in a trough that lies near the middle of the southern sheet. The contact between the Shark River and the underlying Manasquan Formation is sharp and contains a thin zone of reworked glauconite sand, granules of quartz, and phosphatic debris. On most gamma-ray logs through this contact, there is a sharp gamma high reflecting the concentration of phosphatic sediment. The vertical arrangement of facies in this formation is from a transgressive (mostly clay) facies at the base to a regressive (mostly sand) facies at the top.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Manasquan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Clay to clay-silt, massive to finely laminated, green to gray-green, extensively bioturbated. Calcareous microfossils are abundant in this unit. In the northwestern outcrop belt and shallow subsurface of the central sheet, the lower beds of the Manasquan Formation consist of a maximum of 10 m (33 ft) of fine- to coarse-grained, somewhat clayey, bluish-green glauconitic quartz sand. No calcareous macrofossils were found in this lithology. The sand minerals in the basal sand facies, excluding glauconite, consist of quartz, feldspar (10 to 25 percent), and siliceous rock fragments (a few percent). The glauconitic quartz sand is overlain to the southwest by a light- to dark-green, locally glauconitic, sandy clay-silt. This clay-silt is present at the base of the unit in the shallow subsurface. Eastward and in the intermediate subsurface, the Manasquan is primarily a clayey glauconite sand. In the deep subsurface, the Manasquan is primarily a massive to finely laminated, light-yellow clay-silt that has high concentrations of calcareous microfossils and has several hard indurated layers. In general, the formation thickens to the southeast where it is more than 60 m (197 ft) thick. The basal contact with the underlying Vincentown Formation is sharp and contains a thin zone, typically 0.61 m (2 ft) thick, of reworked glauconite sand, phosphatic debris, and sparse quartz granules. Gamma-ray logs through the Manasquan Formation have a large gamma spike along the basal contact.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Hornerstown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, glauconite, clayey, extensively bioturbated, massive, medium-green in the shallow subsurface. Common to abundant microfauna in the subsurface are not present in outcrop. In the deep subsurface, the Hornerstown Formation consists of glauconite sand at base, overlain by a thin, laminated, dark-gray clay-silt that grades upward into a fine-grained, clayey glauconite quartz sand. The formation is very thin and rarely exceeds 7.5 m (25 ft) in thickness. The basal contact with the underlying Kc4 cycle is difficult to place because both units are glauconitic sand; however, the basal Hornerstown contains dark-brown phosphatic debris. Less commonly the contact is marked by extensive burrows filled with glauconite sand that project downward into the underlying unit. Gamma logs from the Hornerstown have a very large gamma kick at the base of the formation. The age of the Hornerstown is early Paleocene (Danian) based on the presence of calcareous nannofossils (Chiasmolithus consuetus and Ellipsolithus macellus) and foraminifera characteristic of zones NP 3 and NP 4, and P1a to P1c (Chengjie Liu, Rutgers University, written commun., 1993), respectively.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Tinton Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz and glauconite, siderite-cemented, indurated, reddish-brown to dark-gray. The Tinton was extensively dissected prior to deposition of the overlying Hornerstown Formation. Unit can be traced in the subsurface only as far downdip (south) as the Freehold area, Monmouth County (E-E'). The Tinton in the Freehold core is about 6 m (20 ft) thick and thickens to the east where at Rumson, Monmouth County, it is 12 m (40 ft) thick. The Tinton unconformably overlies the Kc4 cycle. The Tinton is more quartzose to the west and more glauconitic to the east. The unit represents an incomplete cycle of sedimentation as it consists only of subtidal marine beds and lacks nearshore sands. Siderite cement, which imparts the hardness to the Tinton, is irregularly distributed throughout the unit. Because of its extensive induration, sand and clay mineralogy was not determined. Gamma logs of the Tinton, because of the widespread presence of siderite cement in the matrix, have a relatively high intensity and are similar in shape to gamma logs for clayey units. No fossils were found in subsurface samples of this formation, but fossils from outcrops indicate a late Maastrichtian age.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Sandy Hook member
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz, fine-grained, clayey, very micaceous, massive, dark-gray, fossiliferous. Feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, and biotite are minor sand constituents. Well exposed at Poricy Brook in the Long Branch quadrangle. The Sandy Hook is much thinner than the overlying Shrewsbury Member and is a maximum of 10 m (33 ft) thick
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Navesink Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, glauconite, medium-grained, clayey and silty, massive, dark-gray to dark-gray-green, extensively bioturbated, locally contains large calcareous shells; sand-size mica, locally abundant; weathers light brown or red brown. Basal quartz sand is fine- to coarse-grained, pebbly, massive, light-yellow, and somewhat glauconitic, as much as 2 m (7 ft) thick and formed by the reworking of the underlying Mount Laurel Formation (Owens and others, 1977). Exogyra costata and the belemnite Belemnitella americana occur in the basal quartz sand. Crops out in a narrow belt throughout map area. Fresh exposures occur along tributaries of Raccoon Creek near Mullica Hill, Gloucester County. The Navesink is 3 to 7.5 m (10-25 ft) thick. The Navesink and Red Bank deposits represent a transgressive (Navesink)-regressive (Red Bank) cycle of sedimentation (Owens and Sohl, 1969). The cycle is unconformity-bounded at top and bottom. Within the cycle, the formational contact is gradational.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Wenonah Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz and mica, fine-grained, silty and clayey, massive to thick-bedded, dark-gray to medium-gray; weathers light brown to white, extensively bioturbated, very micaceous, locally contains high concentrations of sand-sized lignitized wood and has large burrows of Ophiomorpha nodosa. Feldspar (5-10 percent) is a minor sand constituent. Unit crops out in a narrow belt from Sandy Hook Bay on the central sheet and pinches out southwest of Oldmans Creek, Salem County, on the southern sheet. Isolated outliers of the Wenonah are detached from the main belt in the central sheet area. Thickness is about 10 m (33 ft) in the northern part of the central sheet, 20 m (66 ft) in the southwestern part of the central sheet, and 7.5 m (25 ft) in the southern sheet. The Wenonah is gradational into the underlying Marshalltown Formation. A transition zone of several meters is marked by a decrease in mica and an increase in glauconite sand into the Marshalltown.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Marshalltown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz and glauconite, fine- to medium-grained, silty and clayey, massive, dark-gray; weathers light brown or pale red, extensively bioturbated. Very glauconitic in basal few meters; glauconite concentration decreases upward so that in upper part of unit, quartz and glauconite are nearly equal. Feldspar, mica, pyrite, and phosphatic fragments are minor sand constituents. Locally, very micaceous (mostly green chlorite) with sparse carbonized wood fragments. Fine-grained pyrite abundant throughout formation. Local thin, pebbly zones with large fossil impressions occur in the middle of the formation. In the upper part of the formation, quartz increases to about 40 percent. Unit crops out in a narrow belt throughout the map area and forms isolated outliers in the central sheet. Best exposures are along Crosswicks Creek in the Allentown quadrangle. In the southern sheet, the Marshalltown underlies a narrow belt in the uplands and broadens to the southwest. Many Marshalltown exposures occur along Oldmans Creek and its tributaries near Auburn, Gloucester County. The contact with the underlying Englishtown Formation is sharp and unconformable. The basal few centimeters of the Marshalltown contain siderite concentrations, clay balls, and wood fragments reworked from the underlying Englishtown. Many burrows, some filled with glauconite, project downward into the Englishtown for about one meter (3 ft) giving a spotted appearance to the upper part of the Englishtown (Owens and others, 1970). The Marshalltown is the basal transgressive unit of a sedimentation cycle that includes the regressive deposits of the overlying Wenonah and Mount Laurel Formations resembling the overlying Red Bank Formation to Navesink Formation cycle in its asymmetry.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Englishtown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz, fine- to coarse-grained, gravelly, massive, bioturbated, medium- to dark-gray; weathers light brown, yellow, or reddish brown, locally interbedded with thin to thick beds of dark clay. Abundant carbonaceous matter, with large lignitized logs occur locally, especially in clay strata. Feldspar, glauconite, and muscovite are minor sand constituents. Sand is extensively trough crossbedded particularly west of Mount Holly, Burlington County. In a few places in the western outcrop belt, trace fossils are abundant, typically the burrow Ophiomorpha nodosa. Unit is pyritic, especially in the carbonaceous-rich beds where pyrite is finely disseminated grains or pyritic masses as much as 0.6 m (2 ft) in diameter. Lowest part of unit is a massive sand that contains small to large, soft, light-gray siderite concretions. The Englishtown underlies a broad belt throughout the map area and ranges from about 45 m (148 ft) thick in the northern part of the central sheet to 30 m (98 ft) thick in the western part of the central sheet to 15 m (49 ft) in the southern sheet. Best exposures occur along Crosswicks Creek in the Allentown quadrangle and along Oldmans Creek. The basal contact with the underlying Woodbury Formation or Merchantville Formation is transitional over several meters. The age of the Englishtown in outcrop could not be determined directly but was inferred from stratigraphic position and pollen content. Wolfe (1976) designated the microflora of the unit as Zone CA4 and assigned it to the lower Campanian.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Woodbury Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Clay-silt, dark-gray; weathers brown and orange pink. Iron oxides fill fractures or form layers in the most weathered beds. Unit is massive except at the base where thin quartz sand layers occur. Locally, thin stringers of pale-greenishbrown, smooth-surface glauconite occur near the top. Unit conspicuously micaceous throughout and contains finely dispersed pyrite, carbonaceous matter, and small pieces of carbonized wood as much as 30 cm (12 in) in length. Small siderite concretions are abundant in the Woodbury in the northern part of the outcrop belt. Unit forms a broad belt in the central sheet from Sandy Hook Bay, southwest to area around East Greenwich, Gloucester County, where it pinches out or changes facies. The Woodbury maintains a thickness of about 15 m (49 ft) throughout most of its outcrop belt.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Merchantville Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, glauconite, locally has high quartz content, very clayey and silty, massive to thick-bedded, grayish-olive-green to dark-greenishgray; weathers moderate brown or moderate yellow brown. Mica, feldspar, and pyrite are minor sand constituents. Very micaceous at base. Locally, has extensive iron incrustations in near-surface weathered beds. Fossil molds are mostly phosphatic. Fossils typically occur in siderite concretions. No calcareous fossils were found in outcrop. The Merchantville forms a continuous narrow to wide belt throughout the map area. The unit is about 6 m (20 ft) thick in the northern part of the central sheet, about 20 m (66 ft) thick in the Trenton area, and 12 to 15 m (39-49 ft) thick throughout the southern sheet. The formation is best exposed in the Trenton East quadrangle, mainly in the tributaries on the western side of Blacks Creek and south of Bordentown, Burlington County, where the entire thickness of the formation can be seen in gullies (Owens and Minard, 1964b). The basal contact with the underlying Magothy or Cheesequake Formations is sharp and disconformable. At most places, a reworked zone about 0.3 to 1 m (1-3 ft) thick is present at the base. This basal bed contains reworked lignitized wood, siderite concretions as much as 13 cm (5 in) in diameter, scattered pebbles and coarse-grained quartz sand and is burrowed. Most burrows project downward into the underlying formations. The Merchantville is the basal bed of a lower Campanian transgressive-regressive cycle that includes the overlying Woodbury and Englishtown Formations. Merchantville faunas were analyzed by Sohl (in Owens and others, 1977) who concluded that northern fauna represented deposition on a lower shoreface or in the transition to an inner shelf, whereas the southern fauna was a deeper water assemblage, probably inner shelf.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Cheesequake Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Clay and clay-silt, micaceous, thin-bedded to laminated, dark-gray; weathers light tan. Contains abundant wood fragments intercalated with light-colored, fine-grained micaceous quartz sand and is rarely crossbedded. Rock fragments and feldspar are minor sand constituents. Small cylindrical burrows occur in the updip area. Abundant, rounded, pale-gray siderite concretions (about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter) occur in thin discontinuous beds. Sand interfingers rapidly within a short distance with extensively bioturbated, dark-gray, very micaceous, somewhat woody clay-silt. The basal clay-silt has extensive cylindrical burrows filled with fine-grained, light- to medium-green botryoidal glauconite. The basal contact with the underlying Magothy Formation is sharp. Reworked siderite concretions and some glauconite and coarse-grained quartz sand are found along the contact within the Cheesequake. Unit exposed only in the South Amboy and Keyport quadrangles. The unit is about 14 m (46 ft) thick.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Magothy Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Sand, quartz, fine- to coarse-grained, locally gravelly (especially at the base), white; weathers yellow brown or orange brown, interbedded with thin-bedded clay or dark-gray clay-silt mainly at the top of the formation. Muscovite and feldspar are minor sand constituents. Large wood fragments occur in many clay layers. Clay weathers to gray brown or white. Formation characterized by local vertical and lateral facies changes. The Magothy is best exposed and thickest (about 80 m (262 ft)) in the Raritan Bay area. The outcrop belt is widest in the north and narrows to the southwest. The formation is about 25 m (82 ft) thick or less in the southern sheet. The formation is poorly exposed because of its sandy nature and its widespread cover by younger sediments.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: Raritan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition:
Consists of an upper clayey silt (Woodbridge Clay Member) and a lower sand (Farrington Sand Member). Formation occurs only in northern part of central sheet. Woodbridge Clay Member - Silt, clayey, dark-gray; weathers to red brown or white, locally interbedded with light-gray, clayey, fine- to very fine grained sand (primarily quartz and mica with little feldspar). Very micaceous (muscovite, chlorite, and biotite) in both silty and sandy beds. Very woody, mostly fine pieces in layers and coated with pyrite. Locally, tree stumps, in upright position, are found near base of unit as are transported individual logs several feet in length. Siderite occurs in discontinuous beds and as flattened slab concretions as much as 0.6 m (2 ft) in maximum diameter. Fossil casts of marine mollusks are present, particularly near the top of the formation. Locally, well-developed burrows of Ophiomorpha nodosa filled with iron oxides weather out of the clay-silt. The Woodbridge is approximately 20 m (66 ft) thick in the vicinity of Sayreville, Middlesex County, where the South River has stripped away the overlying Magothy Formation, and it crops out in many places in the Perth Amboy and New Brunswick quadrangles to the north, but not in the quadrangles to the south or southwest. The Woodbridge does not crop out in the Delaware River valley southwest of Trenton. The late Cenomanian ammonites Metoicoceras bergquisti and Metengonoceras sp. were described from the upper part of the Woodbridge (Cobban and Kennedy, 1990). Pollen from the unit belongs to the Complexipollis-Atlantopollis Assemblage Zone of latest Cenomanian and early Turonian age (Christopher, 1979, 1982). Farrington Sand Member - Sand, quartz, fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded, very micaceous, white, interbedded with thin to thick, dark, silt beds. Rock fragments are a minor sand constituent. No burrows were observed in the unit. Unit is exposed only in pits dug below the overlying Woodbridge Clay Member. Typically, thickness is about 9 to 10.5 m (30-34 ft). Pollen from the Farrington is similar to the pollen in the Woodbridge.
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: LITHOLOGY
Attribute_Definition: Short description of rock types.
Attribute_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: quartz sand and clay
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Lower member (Kirkwood Formation)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: silt and clay; glauconite sand to a lesser extent
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Shark River Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value:
quartz-glauconite sand, clayey; and fine grained quartz sand or silt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Manasquan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: glauconite sand, fine- to medium-grained
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Hornerstown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: quartz sand, glauconitic, locally indurated
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Tinton Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: quartz sand, fine-grained, clayey, micaceous
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Sandy Hook member (Red Bank)
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: glauconite sand, clayey
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Navesink Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: quartz sand, fine-grained, silty, clayey micaceous
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Wenonah Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: quartz and glauconite sand, silty, and clayey
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Marshalltown
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value:
quartz sand, fine- to coarse-grained, locally interbedded with thin- to thick beds of clay
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Englishtown Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: clay-silt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Woodbury Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: glauconite sand to quartz-glauconite sand, clayey and silty
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Merchantville Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: clay and clay-silt, micaceous
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Cheesequake Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value:
quartz sand, fine- to coarse-grained, interbedded with thin-bedded clay or clay-silt
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Magothy Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: clayey silt overlying quartz sand
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Raritan Formation
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: NJGWS
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
This is a polygon feature dataset. All formations have the potential to form acid soils.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection/New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Contact_Person: Ronald S. Pristas
Contact_Position: Geographic Information Systems Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 29 Arctic Parkway, P.O. Box 420, Mail Code: 29-01
City: Trenton
State_or_Province: NJ
Postal_Code: 08625-0420
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (609) 292-2576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (609) 633-1004
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Ron.Pristas@dep.nj.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8:00AM - 5:00PM
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
This organization provides the geographic data as is. This organization makes no guarantee or warranty concerning the accuracy of information contained in the geographic data. Also, this organization makes no warranty either expressed or implied, regarding the condition of the product or its fitness for any particular purpose. The burden for determining fitness for use lies entirely with the user. Although these files have been processed successfully on computers at this organization, no warranty is made by this organization regarding the use of these data on any other system, nor does the fact of distribution constitute or imply any such warranty. See "Use Constraints" for other information.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: AVSHP
Format_Version_Number: 9x
File_Decompression_Technique: WinZip
Transfer_Size: 1.352
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: <http://www.njgeology.org/geodata/dgs09-2.htm>
Offline_Option:
Offline_Media: none
Recording_Format: none
Fees: none
Ordering_Instructions: none

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20090831
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Ronald S. Pristas
Contact_Organization: New Jersey Geological and Water Survey
Contact_Position: Geographic Informations Systems Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 29 Arctic Parkway, P.O. Box 420, Mail Code: 29-01
City: Trenton
State_or_Province: New Jersey
Postal_Code: 08625-0420
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (609) 292-2576
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (609) 633-1004
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: Ron.Pristas@dep.nj.gov
Hours_of_Service: 8:00AM - 5:00PM
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: none
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: none
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile

Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Mon Aug 31 13:43:25 2009