Core Curriculum Content Standards

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Science Standards Learning Progressions

5.2 Physical Science All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
D. Energy Transfer and Conservation: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.
By the end of Grade 2 By the end of Grade 4 By the end of Grade 6 By the end of Grade 8 By the end of Grade 12
Content: Batteries supply energy to produce light, sound, or heat.

5.2.2.D.1 Predict and confirm the brightness of a light, the volume of sound, or the amount of heat when given the number of batteries, or the size of batteries.
Content: Electrical circuits require a complete loop through conducting materials in which an electrical current can pass.

5.2.4.D.1 Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at least one other electrical component to produce observable change.
Content: The flow of current in an electric circuit depends upon the components of the circuit and their arrangement, such as in series or parallel. Electricity flowing through an electrical circuit produces magnetic effects in the wires.

5.2.6.D.1 Use simple circuits involving batteries and motors to compare and predict the current flow with different circuit arrangements.
Content: When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before transfer equals the quantity of energy after transfer. As an object falls, its potential energy decreases as its speed, and consequently its kinetic energy, increases. While an object is falling, some of the object’s kinetic energy is transferred to the medium through which it falls, setting the medium into motion and heating it.

5.2.8.D.1 Relate the kinetic and potential energies of a roller coaster at various points on its path.
Content: The potential energy of an object on Earth’s surface is increased when the object’s position is changed from one closer to Earth’s surface to one farther from Earth’s surface.

5.2.12.D.1 Model the relationship between the height of an object and its potential energy.
Content: Nuclear reactions take place in the Sun. In plants, light energy from the Sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis).

5.2.8.D.2 Describe the flow of energy from the Sun to the fuel tank of an automobile.
Content: The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

5.2.12.D.2 Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Content: Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into energy.

5.2.12.D.3 Describe the products and potential applications of fission and fusion reactions.
Content: Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.

5.2.12.D.4 Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.
Content: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates. Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.

5.2.12.D.5 Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.