Core Curriculum Content Standards

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NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: 21st-Century Life and Careers
9.4 Career and Technical Education
Content Area 21st-Century Life and Careers
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical Education All students who complete a career and technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees. (For descriptions of the 16 career clusters, see the Career Clusters Table.)
Strand I. Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
12
Academic Foundations: Academic concepts lay the foundation for the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within the career cluster.
9.4.12.I.1 Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of postsecondary education and career opportunities.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.2 Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of postsecondary education and career opportunities.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.3 Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of postsecondary education and career opportunities.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.4 Demonstrate knowledge of marketing techniques used to sell products and services in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.5 Apply knowledge of cultures and information from geographical studies to develop products and services for this industry.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.6 Identify effects of the economy on this industry to effectively plan products and services.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.7 Compare and contrast management styles that are appropriate to various types of establishments in this cluster to gain familiarity with the requirements for all venues.                                                                                                              
Communication Skills: All clusters rely on effective oral and written communication strategies for creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas that incorporate technical terminology and information.
9.4.12.I.8 Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.9 Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.10 Locate, organize, and reference written information from various sources to communicate with others.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.11 Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.12 Use correct grammar, punctuation, and terminology to write and edit documents.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.13 Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.14 Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.15 Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.16 Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.17 Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.18 Exhibit public relations skills in order to increase internal and external customer satisfaction.                                                                                                              
Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking: Critical and creative thinking strategies facilitate innovation and problem-solving independently and in teams.
9.4.12.I.19 Employ critical thinking skills (e.g., analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.20 Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.21 Identify, write, and monitor performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.22 Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.23 Demonstrate the principles of budgeting and forecasting to maximize profitability and growth of establishments in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.24 Examine comments and suggestions from the customer service area to formulate improvements in services/products and to enhance training of staff.                                                                                                              
Information Technology Applications: Technology is used to access, manage, integrate, and disseminate information.
9.4.12.I.25 Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.26 Operate electronic mail applications to communicate.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.27 Operate Internet applications to perform tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.28 Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare communications.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.29 Operate presentation applications to prepare and deliver presentations.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.30 Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.31 Employ database applications to manage data.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.32 Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.33 Employ computer operations applications to manage tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.34 Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.                                                                                                              
Systems:
  • Roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment impact business operations.

  • Key organizational systems impact organizational performance and the quality of products and services.

  • Understanding the global context of 21st-century industries and careers impacts business operations.
9.4.12.I.35 Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.36 Describe and use quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.37 Evaluate organizational systems used in this cluster to determine which more effectively serve customers.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.38 Identify and compare services and products from related industries to understand how they affect hospitality and tourism products and services.                                                                                                              
Safety, Health, and Environment: Implementation of health, safety, and environmental management systems and organizational policies and procedures impacts organizational performance, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement.
9.4.12.I.39 Demonstrate knowledge of personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.40 Demonstrate knowledge of employee rights and responsibilities and employers’ obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.41 Identify emergency procedures that are necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.42 Identify response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.43 Explain health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.44 Evaluate organizational policies and procedures that contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.45 Maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments in this cluster to promote well-being.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.46 Demonstrate knowledge of employee rights and responsibilities and employers’ obligations concerning occupational safety and health in order to promote safe and healthful working conditions in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.47 Assess types and sources of workplace hazards common to hospitality and tourism work settings in order to demonstrate a working understanding of key health and safety concerns in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.48 Demonstrate knowledge of methods used in this cluster to control hazards and maintain safe environments.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.49 Review safety and sanitation procedures and apply them to ensure a safe and healthy work environment.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.50 Analyze the effects of nutrition, stress, and exercise on employee performance in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.51 Analyze the potential effects of exposure to common chemicals and other hazardous materials used in this cluster in order to prevent health problems that may result from their use.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.52 Recognize potential, real, and perceived hazards and emergency situations common to this cluster and implement appropriate safety and security measures.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.53 Evaluate security measures to protect customers and limit business liability.                                                                                                              
Leadership and Teamwork: Effective leadership and teamwork strategies foster collaboration and cooperation between business units, business partners, and business associates toward the accomplishment of organizational goals.
9.4.12.I.54 Employ leadership skills to accomplish goals and objectives.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.55 Employ organizational skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.56 Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members’ talents effectively.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.57 Establish and maintain effective relationships in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.58 Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.59 Employ mentoring skills to assist others.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.60 Demonstrate knowledge of how conflict resolution strategies are used in this cluster to resolve conflicts and satisfy others.                                                                                                              
Ethics and Legal Responsibilities: Legal responsibilities, professional ethics, and codes of conduct affect management practices, business performance, and regulatory compliance, as well as the confidence of customers, business partners, and investors.
9.4.12.I.61 Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of situations in order to make ethical decisions.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.62 Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures that help workers perform their tasks according to employer rules and expectations.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.63 Describe the ethical and legal responsibilities of businesses in this cluster and explain their implications for guest/customer and employee conduct.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.64 Examine professional and workplace ethics and legal responsibilities to develop guidelines for responsible conduct in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.65 Identify ethical issues and concerns in this cluster to aid in making career choices.                                                                                                              
Employability and Career Development: Employability skills and career and entrepreneurship opportunities build the capacity for successful careers in a global economy.
9.4.12.I.66 Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to succeed in the classroom and/or to be employable.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.67 Develop a Personalized Student Learning Plan to meet career goals and objectives.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.68 Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment in a desired job.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.69 Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills, and experience in a career field.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.70 Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.71 Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.72 Identify and explore careers in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.73 Examine requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.74 Research professional development opportunities needed to keep current on relevant trends and information within the cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.75 Examine licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the national, state, and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.76 Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.77 Explain written organizational policies, rules, and procedures that are common to this cluster and that are used to help employees perform their jobs effectively.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.78 Compare and evaluate career pathways within this cluster to build understanding of the requirements across multiple pathways.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.79 Compare opportunities in independently owned and chain-affiliated businesses in this cluster to understand the advantages and disadvantages of working in each.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.80 Demonstrate understanding of advancement procedures and the promotional work ladder in this cluster to plan career objectives.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.81 Demonstrate understanding of roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment and identify how they affect the quality of the product or service this cluster offers.                                                                                                              
Technical Skills: Technical knowledge and skills play a role in all careers within the cluster and pathway.
9.4.12.I.82 Employ information management techniques and strategies to assist in decision-making.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.83 Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.84 Demonstrate recognized customer service skills and technology needed to be successful in this cluster.                                                                                                              
9.4.12.I.85 Demonstrate understanding of different types of payment options that customers use to pay for services in this cluster.                                                                                                              

ContentArea 21st-Century Life and Careers
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical EducationAll students who complete a career and technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees. (For descriptions of the 16 career clusters, see the Career Clusters Table.)
Strand I. Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster
Pathway (1) Restaurants & Food & Beverage Services
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
12
Academic Foundations: Academic concepts lay the foundation for the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within the career cluster.
9.4.12.I.(1).1 Use basic reading, writing, and mathematical skills to provide food production and services to ensure a positive guest/customer experience.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Communication Skills: All clusters rely on effective oral and written communication strategies for creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas that incorporate technical terminology and information.
9.4.12.I.(1).2 Use knowledge of cultures and information from geographical studies to guide guest/customer service decisions.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(1).3 Demonstrate listening, writing, and speaking skills to enhance guest/customer satisfaction.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Systems:
  • Roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment impact business operations.

  • Key organizational systems impact organizational performance and the quality of products and services.

  • Understanding the global context of 21st-century industries and careers impacts business operations.
9.4.12.I.(1).4 Improve staff performance by planning staffing decisions using accepted managerial skills.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(1).5 Research costs, pricing, and market demands, as well as effective marketing strategies used in the pathway, to manage business profitability.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(1).6 Manage problems in ways that ensure continuity of quality service in industry businesses.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(1).7 Evaluate companies’ standard operating procedures related to food and beverage production and guest services to understand how they help ensure the provision of quality products and services.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Safety, Health, and Environment: Implementation of health, safety, and environmental management systems and organizational policies and procedures impacts organizational performance, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement.
9.4.12.I.(1).8 Demonstrate knowledge of safety and sanitation procedures used in this industry and apply these procedures to maintain safe environments.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Ethics and Legal Responsibilities: Legal responsibilities, professional ethics, and codes of conduct affect management practices, business performance, and regulatory compliance, as well as the confidence of customers, business partners, and investors.
9.4.12.I.(1).9 Demonstrate knowledge of ethical and legal responsibilities for guest/customer and employee conduct and explain their role in maintaining high quality standards in the industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Employability and Career Development: Employability skills and career and entrepreneurship opportunities build the capacity for successful careers in a global economy.
9.4.12.I.(1).10 Research and compare career opportunities and qualifications to broaden awareness of careers available in this industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Technical Skills: Technical knowledge and skills play a role in all careers within the cluster and pathway.
9.4.12.I.(1).11 Use computerized systems to manage food service operations and guest/customer services.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

ContentArea 21st-Century Life and Careers
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical EducationAll students who complete a career and technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees. (For descriptions of the 16 career clusters, see the Career Clusters Table.)
Strand I. Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster
Pathway (2) Lodging
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
12
Information Technology Applications: Technology is used to access, manage, integrate, and disseminate information.
9.4.12.I.(2).1 Use telecommunications equipment to accomplish tasks.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Systems:
  • Roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment impact business operations.

  • Key organizational systems impact organizational performance and the quality of products and services.

  • Understanding the global context of 21st-century industries and careers impacts business operations.
9.4.12.I.(2).2 Develop a staffing guide to schedule various lodging departments or specific staff positions.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).3 Explain how businesses in this industry manage inventories to maintain adequate quantities of both recycled and non-recycled items.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).4 Analyze functions performed by different divisions and departments within a lodging operation and explain the interactions among areas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Safety, Health, and Environment: Implementation of health, safety, and environmental management systems and organizational policies and procedures impacts organizational performance, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement.
9.4.12.I.(2).5 Explain how security and other control procedures are used to protect guests/customers and minimize risks in this industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).6 Explain how cash control procedures are used to protect funds in this industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).7 Explain how guests/customers and property are protected in this industry to minimize business losses and liability.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Employability and Career Development: Employability skills and career and entrepreneurship opportunities build the capacity for successful careers in a global economy.
9.4.12.I.(2).8 Research the duties of and qualifications for managerial positions in back-of-the-house lodging operations to guide career choices.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).9 Research the duties and qualifications for managerial positions in front-of-the-house lodging operations to guide career choices.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).10 Compare and contrast entry-level, skilled level, and managerial positions in the lodging industry and distinguish qualifications and characteristics needed for each type of position.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).11 Compare opportunities in independently owned and chain-affiliated businesses in this industry to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).12 Describe the importance of housekeeping standards to assure guest/customer satisfaction.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Technical Skills: Technical knowledge and skills play a role in all careers within the cluster and pathway.
9.4.12.I.(2).13 Explain procedures used in this industry to meet guest/customer needs, including procedures for registration, rate assignment, room assignment, and determination of payment methods.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).14 Understand the importance of check-out procedures to ensure guest/customer satisfaction and verify settlement of account.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).15 Employ effective reservation procedures to meet guest/customer needs and to maximize occupancy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).16 Determine the size of an annual linen purchase needed to maintain desired quantities based on varying occupancy levels.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(2).17 Explain the relationship between a status report and maintaining a property’s quality and quantity standards for housekeeping.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

ContentArea 21st-Century Life and Careers
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical EducationAll students who complete a career and technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees. (For descriptions of the 16 career clusters, see the Career Clusters Table.)
Strand I. Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster
Pathway (3) Travel & Tourism
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
12
Academic Foundations: Academic concepts lay the foundation for the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within the career cluster.
9.4.12.I.(3).1 Identify time zones and explain how they impact travel arrangements.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).2 Explain how information about seasons and domestic and international maps are used to create or enhance travel.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).3 Employ unit and time conversion skills to develop schedules and to compute cost, distance, and time (including travel time).                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).4 Explain global positioning systems (GPS) and how they are used for travel.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).5 Develop an awareness of diverse cultures to enhance travel planning.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Communication Skills: All clusters rely on effective oral and written communication strategies for creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas that incorporate technical terminology and information.
9.4.12.I.(3).6 Select the most effective communication techniques and media venues to convey marketing information to a target audience.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Safety, Health, and Environment: Implementation of health, safety, and environmental management systems and organizational policies and procedures impacts organizational performance, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement.
9.4.12.I.(3).7 Observe and summarize potential, real, and perceived hazards of surroundings to recognize and implement appropriate safety and security measures (e.g., lighting, walking surface remediation, etc.).                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).8 Create a proactive solution to address common safety hazards, including hazards involving lighting, sound, and surface areas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).9 Establish procedures to educate customers about identified safety and security issues.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Technical Skills: Technical knowledge and skills play a role in all careers within the cluster and pathway.
9.4.12.I.(3).10 Demonstrate familiarity with industry-specific terminology, including acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions, and use this terminology to communicate within the industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).11 Identify diverse transportation, lodging, cruise, and food service options that can be used to produce a customized product.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).12 Identify and compare services and products from related industries to understand how they affect travel and tourism products and services.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).13 Identify the community characteristics necessary to develop and maintain cooperative tourism efforts.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).14 Match customer needs, wants, and expectations to appropriate travel products.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(3).15 Design promotional packages to effectively market travel and tourism products.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            

ContentArea 21st-Century Life and Careers
Standard 9.4 Career and Technical EducationAll students who complete a career and technical education program will acquire academic and technical skills for careers in emerging and established professions that lead to technical skill proficiency, credentials, certificates, licenses, and/or degrees. (For descriptions of the 16 career clusters, see the Career Clusters Table.)
Strand I. Hospitality & Tourism Career Cluster
Pathway (4) Recreation, Amusements, & Attractions
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
12
Systems:
  • Roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment impact business operations.

  • Key organizational systems impact organizational performance and the quality of products and services.

  • Understanding the global context of 21st-century industries and careers impacts business operations.
9.4.12.I.(4).1 Analyze each venue in this pathway to determine its merchandising, program, and product potential as well as the maintenance technology on which it depends.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Safety, Health, and Environment: Implementation of health, safety, and environmental management systems and organizational policies and procedures impacts organizational performance, regulatory compliance, and continuous improvement.
9.4.12.I.(4).2 Identify safety and security issues unique to each venue in this pathway to implement appropriate safety and security measures.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).3 Create a resource base to help manage emergency situations in this industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).4 Examine identified safety and security issues in this industry that require customer education in order to maintain a safe and accident-free venue.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Employability and Career Development: Employability skills and career and entrepreneurship opportunities build the capacity for successful careers in a global economy.
9.4.12.I.(4).5 Identify career opportunities in this pathway to broaden awareness of careers available in the cluster.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Technical Skills: Technical knowledge and skills play a role in all careers within the cluster and pathway.
9.4.12.I.(4).6 Examine identified admission procedures to manage and control individuals and groups.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).7 Compare different ticket sales options to establish best practices and to maximize sales.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).8 Evaluate the types of information and directions a guest/customer needs at facility entry points to become familiar with their surroundings.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).9 Identify effective marketing strategies used in this pathway.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).10 Examine the different venues in this pathway to gain knowledge of merchandising, program, and product potential.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).11 Explore the types of products available in this pathway to gain awareness of the operational requirements of each.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
9.4.12.I.(4).12 Examine and implement admission and traffic control procedures to manage and control people, groups, and vehicles.