Marie Barry, Director
Office of Career Readiness
P.O. Box 500 Trenton, NJ 08625
Phone: (609) 633-0665 | Fax: (609) 984-5347
Structured Learning Experiences
for School-Sponsored Structured Learning Experiences
and Senior Experiences
Version (539 kb PDF )
INDEX FOR SECTION ONE: DEFINITIONS OF TERMS RELATING TO SLEs
I. ENABLING STATUTES AND CODES:
New Jersey Department of Education Administrative Code
New Jersey Department of Labor Laws
II. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
12th Grade Option
All Aspects of the Industry
Apprenticeship Agreement/Joint Approval
Business Professionals of America (BPA)
Career and Technical Student Organizations
Career Awareness and Exploration
Career Guidance and Academic
Career Orientation Education
Certificates of Completion of Apprenticeship
Community-Based Service Program
Community-Based Vocational Education
Community-Based Vocational Experience
Community-Based Vocational Instruction
Community-Based Vocational Program
Community-Based Vocational Training
Community Rehabilitation Program
Community Service Project
Competency-Based Vocational Experience
Cooperative Vocational Education
Core Curriculum Content Standards
Cross-Content Workplace Readiness Standards
DECA-An Association of Marketing Students
Eligible Age for Apprenticeship
Employment of Individuals With Disabilities
Employment Placement Standards
Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
FFA (Vocational Student Organization for Agriculture Education Students)
Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda (FBLA-PBL)
General Occupational Skills
Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA)
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Individual With Disability
In-School Work Experience
Job Coaching/Onsite Training
National and Community Service Project
Nontraditional Training and Employment
On Site Training
Record of Employment of Minors Under 19
Regular Hourly Wage
Senior Year Option
Service-Learning Teaching Methods
SkillsUSA/VICA (Vocational Student Organization for Trade and Industrial
Social Security Work Incentives
Structured Learning Experience (SLE)
Student With a Disability
Technology Student Association (TSA)
Twelfth Grade Options
Vocational-Technical Education for Life Skills and Paid Employment
Vocational Student Organization (VSO)
Vocational Work Study
Work Experience Career Exploration Program (WECEP)
New Jersey Model Agreement for Unpaid Structured Learning
New Jersey Model Agreement for Paid Structured Learning Experiences
New Jersey Model Agreement for Cooperative Education Experiences
New Jersey Model Check List for Supervising All Structured Learning Experiences
I. ENABLING STATUTES, CODES AND POLICY PAPERS:
New Jersey Department of Education (NJDOE) Administrative Code:
New Jersey Department of Labor (NJDOL) Statutes:
- Fair Labor Standards Act, (29
CFR 533.106), Chapter 5, Volunteers
- Fair Labor Standards Act, Compliance Assistance
- Individuals With Disabilities In
- Job Training Partnership Act, (29
U.S.C. 1503 (5)) Section 4,
- National Apprenticeship Act, (29
CFR Title 29), Standards of Apprenticeship USDOL
- National and Community Service Act
of 1990, (P.L. 106-170), [As amended through December 17, 1999]
- School-to-Work Opportunities Act
of 1994, (P.L. 103-239), Section 4 and School-to-Work Opportunities:
Glossary of Terms, June 1995.
- Social Security Administration,
Employment Support for People With Disabilities (http://www.ssa.gov/work/index.html)
- United States Department of Education, Office of Vocational
and Adult Education Career and Technical Education (USED-OVAE)
- United States Department of Labor E-law Advisors
- United States Departments of Labor and Education Statement of
Principle (1992) for the continued development and implementation
of individual education programs, in accordance with the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that will facilitate the
transition of students with disabilities from school to employment
within their communities.
NOTE: In the following section, language shown in [brackets]
and in italics represents clarifications for the purpose of
structured learning experiences and this language is not part of the
definition in the referenced statute, code or advisories.
II. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
- 12th Grade Option means a 12th grade pilot program
for all high school seniors that will increase their options to begin
preparing for a college education or a career following graduation.
Pilot programs follow two basic standards. First, participating students
must pass the High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA). Second,
the programs offered must provide multiple and diverse paths leading
to success for all students. 12th grade options are coordinated
through the Department of Education regional centers. Options include,
but are not limited to, the following:
(1) Dual enrollment in college courses (both in the high school
and at the college);
(2) Participation in structured learning experiences;
(3) Enrollment in technical courses (in the high school, college
and proprietary schools);
(4) Participation in mentorships with teachers at grade schools;
(5) Study abroad offered through partnerships with out-of-state/county
colleges through articulated agreements through exchange programs
or with nationally or regionally accredited institutions of higher
(6) Capstone projects involved with in-depth research projects designed
for mastery learning culminating with a detailed performance assessment
and exhibition that demonstrates research, learning, and involvement.
- Adult Volunteer (P.L. 106-170, National and Community Service
Act) means an individual, such as an older adult, an individual with
a disability, a parent, or an employee of a business or public or
private nonprofit organization, who
(1) Works without financial remuneration in an educational institution
to assist students or out-of-school youth, and
(2) Is beyond the age of compulsory school attendance in the state
in which the educational institution is located.
- All Aspects of the Industry (P.L. 105-332, Carl D. Perkins
Vocational and Technical Act of 1998) means strong experience in,
and comprehensive understanding of, the industry that the individual
is preparing to enter.
- Alternate Plan (N.J.A.C. 6A:19, NJDOE) means an educational
plan prepared by the district board of education responsible for
the student, and shall include educational activities in place of
the on-the-job training portion of cooperative vocational-technical
education during a temporary period of unemployment.
- Apprentice (N.J.A.C. 6A:8, NJDOE) means an
employee of legal working age [16 years old minimum age] who
meets the qualifications established by the apprentice sponsor and
who is employed under a written agreement [apprenticeship agreement/joint
approval] which provides that related training and on-the-job
experience received are in accordance with approved standards of
apprenticeship established by the U.S. Department of Labor and the
Equal Employment Opportunity in Apprenticeship and Training Act (29
CFR §§ 29.29 and 29.30), and is in conformance
with the Core Curriculum Content Standards.
- Apprenticeship Agreement/Joint Approval (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means a written training agreement between an apprentice
and an apprentice sponsor in accordance with approved standards of
apprenticeship, as established by the U.S. Department of Labor and
the Equal Employment Opportunity in Apprenticeship and Training Act
(29 C.F.R. §§ 29.29 and 29.30) and in conformance with the Core Curriculum
Content Standards (N.J.A.C. 6A:8-2). This agreement includes
the components of the training and is signed by the apprentice, apprentice
sponsor, apprentice coordinator, the commissioner [of education]
and the Federal Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training representative.
- Apprenticeship Ratio (National Apprenticeship Act, 29 CFR
Title 29, USDOL) means the numeric ratio of apprentices to journeymen
[workers] consistent with proper supervision, training, safety,
and continuity of employment, and applicable provisions in collective
bargaining agreements, except where such ratios are expressly prohibited
by the collective bargaining agreements. The ratio language shall
be specific and clear as to application in terms of jobsite, work
force, department or plant.
- Apprentice Sponsor (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE) means
an employer who is party to a written training agreement with an
apprentice that includes the components of the training in accordance
with approved standards of apprenticeship, as established by the
U.S. Department of Labor and the Equal Employment Opportunity in
Apprenticeship and Training Act (29 CFR. §§ 29.29 and 29.30) and
in conformance with the Core Curriculum Content Standards (N.J.A.C. 6A:8-2).
- Apprentice Training (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE) means
an employer-sponsored training program in which apprentices learn
a skilled trade or technical occupation that is clearly identified
and commonly recognized throughout an industry, and that is customarily
learned in a practical way through a structured, systematic program
of on-the-job supervised training. Apprentice training involves manual,
mechanical or technical skills and knowledge that requires a minimum
of 2000 hours of on-the-job work experience, with the precise number
of hours depending on the complexity of the occupation, and requires
related theoretical instruction to supplement the on-the-job training.
Apprentice training programs are registered with the Department and
the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training,
in compliance with 29 C.F.R.§§ 29.29 and 29.30.
- Apprenticeable Occupation (National Apprenticeship Act, 29
CFR Title 29, USDOL) means a skilled trade which possesses all of
the following characteristics:
(1) It is customarily learned in a practical way through a structured,
systematic program of on-the-job supervised training.
(2) It is clearly identified and commonly recognized throughout
(3) It involves manual, mechanical or technical skills and knowledge
which require a minimum of 2,000 hours of on-the-job work experience.
(4) It requires related instruction to supplement the on-the-job
- Business Professionals of America (BPA) (Career and Technical
Student Organizations, USED-OVAE). The mission of Business Professionals
of America is to contribute to the preparation of a world-class workforce
through the advancement of leadership, citizenship, academic, and
technological skills. Also see Vocational Student Organizations.
- Career and Technical Student Organizations (Career and Technical
Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) see Vocational Student Organizations.
- Career Awareness and Exploration (N.J.A.C. 12:56-18.1, NJDOL) means a structured school program
that enables student learners to
(1) Develop awareness of the many employment opportunities available;
(2) Develop awareness of the relevant factors to be considered in
making career decisions;
(3) Become familiar with occupational clusters and classifications;
(4) Explore key occupational areas and assess their own interests
and abilities; and
(5) Develop tentative occupational plans and arrive at a tentative
- Career Cluster® (N.J.A.C. 6A:9-2.1, NJDOE) means one
of the vocational-technical program areas recognized nationally and
by the New Jersey Department of Education. These include
- Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
- Architecture and Construction
- Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
- Business, Management and Administration
- Education and Training
- Government and Public Administration
- Health Science
- Hospitality and Tourism
- Human Services
- Information Technology
- Law, Public Safety and Security
- Marketing, Sales and Service
- Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
- Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
- Career Guidance and Academic Counseling (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means providing access to information regarding career awareness
and planning with respect to an individuals occupational and
academic future, including guidance and counseling about career options,
financial aid and postsecondary education options.
- Career Ladders (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work Opportunities
Act) means that within each large [economic] sector
that each produce a unique set of goods and services, there are a
wide variety of entry-level or more advanced career opportunities
that require different responsibilities and different types of skills.
Individuals typically enter their selected jobs at levels that correspond
to their present knowledge and ability and advance in their careers
by securing additional training and on-the-job experience over time.
- Career Orientation Education (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means programs which assist students to clarify career goals,
explore career possibilities, develop employability skills and make
the transition between school and work.
- Certificates of Completion of Apprenticeship (Apprenticeship
In New Jersey, NJDOE). Upon successful completion
of both the on-the-job training and the related classroom instruction,
graduating apprentices in New Jersey receive two Certificates of
Completion of Apprenticeship Training. Graduating apprentices receive
one Certificate of Completion from the federal Bureau of Apprenticeship
and Training, indicating that the apprentice has successfully completed
the OJT training component of the apprenticeship program. They also
receive a second Certificate of Completion from the New Jersey Department
of Education, indicating the apprentice has successfully completed
the related classroom instruction component of the apprenticeship.
Certificates of Completion are portable, meaning that they are recognized
throughout an industry because registered apprenticeship training
programs are based on nationally recognized industry standards.
- Clinical Experience see Internship.
- Community-Based Agency (P.L. 106-170, National and Community
Service Act) means a private, non-profit organization (including
a church or other religious entity) that
(1) Is representative of the community or a significant segment
of the community; and
(2) Is engaged in meeting human, educational, environmental, or
public safety community needs.
- Community Based Instruction (CBI) (Office of Specialized
Populations, NJDOE) means an instructional method involving
the use of sustained and repeated instructional activities that takes
place in various natural community environments outside of the school
building in order to facilitate skill development and generalization.
CBI goals are directly related to objectives written in the students'
Individual Educational Programs (IEPs), and therefore, they reflect
the individual needs of each student. CBI is designed for students
that need systematic instruction in functional and daily living skills.
CBI domains include
(1) Vocational: Students learn about community workers, go
on vocational field trips, and participate in on-campus as well as
off-campus career exploration. They also learn related employability
skills such as being on time; staying on task; following rules and
instructions; and other skills related to work. The student
is not paid nor does he/she provide benefit or advantage to the employer. Students
will earn high school credits towards graduation. Students
need to go beyond the classroom and into the community to develop
their competence. Students need to have employability and specific
vocational skills in order to gain a solid foundation upon which
to build their skills.
(2) Domestic: Skill areas under this domain are self care,
personal grooming, wellness and nutrition; and home care such as
laundry, housekeeping, cooking and meal planning.
(3) Community: Students learn about, and use, various transportation
modes; and visit and utilize assorted places in the community including
restaurants, libraries, shopping centers and malls, the post office,
and convenience stores.
(4) Recreation and Leisure: The focus of this domain is on
learning how to utilize various public recreation options and to
plan personal leisure time. Students also participate in recreational
activities at places like the local parks, the YMCA, bowling alleys,
movie theaters, amusement parks, and more.
Also see Community-Based Placement.
- Community-Based Organizations (Job Training Partnership Act,
Section 4, 29 U.S.C. 1503 (5)) means private nonprofit organizations
which are representative of communities or significant segments of
communities and which provide job training services. Included are
organizations serving nonreservation Indians as well as tribal governments
and Native Alaskan groups.
- Community-Based Placement (The U.S. Departments of Labor
and Education Statement of Principle) means that [student
placements in the community] will be youth with physical and/or
mental disabilities for whom competitive employment at or above the
minimum wage level is not immediately obtainable and who, because
of their disability, will need intensive on-going support to perform
in a work setting. In addition,
(1) Participation will be for vocational exploration, assessment,
or training in a community-based placement work site under the general
supervision of public school personnel.
(2) Community-based placements will be clearly defined components
of individual education programs developed and designed for the benefit
of each student. The statement of needed transition services established
for the exploration, assessment, training, or cooperative vocational
education components will be included in the student's Individualized
Education Program (IEP).
(3) Information contained in a student's IEP will not have to be
made available; however, documentation as to the student's enrollment
in the community-based placement program will be made available to
the [New Jersey] Departments of Labor and Education. The student
and the parent or guardian of each student must be fully informed
of the IEP and the community-based placement component and have indicated
voluntary participation with the understanding that participation
in such a component does not entitle the student-participant to wages.
(4 )The activities of the students at the community-based placement
site do not result in an immediate advantage to the business. Also
see Community-Based Instruction and Competitive Employment.
- Community-Based Service Program (P.L. 106-170, National and
Community Service Act) means a program that provides for meaningful
human, educational, environmental, or public safety service by participants
who shall be school-aged youth.
- Community-Based Vocational Education see Community-Based
Instruction and Community-Based Placement.
- Community-Based Vocational Experience see Community-Based
Instruction and Community-Based Placement.
- Community-Based Vocational Instruction see Community-Based
Instruction and Community-Based Placement.
- Community-Based Vocational Program see Community-Based Instruction and
- Community-Based Vocational Training see Community-Based Instruction and
- Community Rehabilitation Program (N.J.A.C. 12:45-1.2,
NJDOL) means a program that provides directly, or facilitates
the provision of, vocational rehabilitation services to individuals
with disabilities and that provides, singly or in combination, for
an individual with a disability to enable the individual to maximize
opportunities for employment, including career advancement.
- Community Service Project see National and Community Service
- Competency see Occupational Competency.
- Competency-Based Vocational Experience see Community-Based
- Competitive Employment (N.J.A.C. 12:45-1.2, NJDOL) means
(1) In the competitive labor market that is performed on a full-time
or part-time basis in an integrated setting; and
(2) For which an individual is compensated at or above the minimum
wage, but not less than the customary wage and level of benefits
paid by the employer for the same or similar work performed by
individuals who are not disabled.
- Contextual Learning (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work Opportunities
Act) means learning that is designed to blend the teaching of skills
and knowledge in a specific industry or occupational area, including
(1) Instruction that imparts knowledge within the context in which
it will later be used.
(2) Linking abstract concepts with real-life problems to enables
students to personally test and prove academic theories via tangible,
(3) Stressing the development of authentic problem-solving skills.
- Cooperative Education (N.J.S.A. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE)
means a component of a vocational-technical education program
by which individuals receive work-based instruction through written
cooperative arrangements between a district and employers. This instruction
may include required academic courses and related vocational and
technical education instruction, by alternation of study in school
with paid employment in an occupational field. Such alternation shall
be planned and supervised by the district and employer so that each
contributes to the education and employability of the individual.
- Cooperative Vocational Education see cooperative education.
- Core Curriculum Content Standards (N.J.A.C. 6A:8,
NJDOE) means statements adopted by the State Board of Education on
May 1, 1996, and as thereafter revised by the State Board, which
describe the knowledge and skills all New Jersey students are expected
to acquire by the benchmark grades of four, eight, and 11-12. These
standards, published by the New Jersey Department of Education as
document PTM 1400.06, are established for the provision of a thorough
and efficient education pursuant to N.J.S.A. 18A:7F-4 and
as a basis for the evaluation of school districts in accordance with N.J.A.C. 6A:30-1.4.
New Language Arts Literacy, Mathematics and Science standards were
passed by the Board in 2002.
- Cross-Content Workplace Readiness Standards (N.J.A.C. 6A:8,
NJDOE) means statements adopted as an integral part of the Core Curriculum
Content Standards, in accordance with N.J.A.C. 6:8-2.1(a)
3 and 4, by the State Board of Education, and published by the New
Jersey Department of Education in document PTM 1400.06, which are
infused across all academic content areas and address the knowledge
and skills needed to prepare all students to maximize their ability
to be self-sufficient and contributing members of society.
- DECA-An Association of Marketing Students (Career and Technical
Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) means a national association of
marketing education students. The Association provides teachers and
members with educational and leadership development activities to
merge with the education classroom instructional program. Also see
Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.deca.org/)
- Disability (N.J.A.C. 6A:8, NJDOE) means a physical
or mental impairment that constitutes or results in a substantial
impediment to employment.
- Eligible Age for Apprenticeship (National Apprenticeship
Act, 29 CFR Title 29, USDOL) means the minimum qualifications required
by a sponsor for persons entering the apprenticeship program, with
an eligible starting age not less than 16 years.
- Employee (N.J.S.A. 12:56-2.1, NJDOL) includes any
individual employed by an employer, except [for students, student
learners, trainees and volunteers]. Also see Student,
Student Learner, Trainee, and Volunteer.
- Employer (N.J.A.C. 12:56-2.1,
NJDOL) includes any individual, partnership, association, corporation
or any person or group of persons acting directly or indirectly in
the interest of an employer in relation to an employee.
- Employment Certificate (N.J.S.A. 34:2-21.1,
NJDOL), [also known as working papers], means a certificate
granted by the issuing officer [school district staff person]
authorizing the employment of a child [student under the age of
18] as permitted under this act.
- Employment of Individuals With Disabilities (N.J.A.C. 12:56-9.1,
NJDOL) includes the following:
(1) Individual With Disability means an individual whose
earning capacity is impaired by a physical or mental disability and
who is being served or eligible to be served in accordance with the
recognized rehabilitation program of a sheltered workshop, education
institution, or other program of rehabilitation approved by the New
Jersey Commissioner of Labor.
(2) Sheltered Workshop means a charitable organization or
institution conducted not for profit, but for the purpose of carrying
out a recognized program of rehabilitation for individuals whose
earning capacity is impaired by age, physical or mental deficiency
or injury, and to provide such individuals with remunerative employment
or other occupational rehabilitating activity of an educational or
- Employment Placement Standards (N.J.A.C. 6A:19, NJDOE) means
A. Vocational-technical students [meeting] the following
categories will be considered employment placements:
(1) Vocational-technical students who have been placed full-time
in the occupation or related field in which they were trained;
(2) Vocational-technical students who have passed occupational
competency tests for entry level employment skills and have entered
the military service;
(3) Vocational-technical students entering full-time postsecondary
education in the program area or related field in which they
(4) Special needs students who have met alternative assessments
for occupational competencies or Individualized Education Program
(IEP) assessments established by the district board of education;
(5) Vocational-technical students who are employed a minimum
of 20 hours per week in the occupation or related field in which
they were trained and who are enrolled in postsecondary education
for a minimum of 12 credit hours per academic year in the program
area or related field in which they were trained; and
(6) Vocational-technical students who are employed part-time
an average of 20 hours per week or more in the occupation or
related field in which they were trained.
B. Vocational-technical students not considered placements include:
(1) Vocational-technical students who are unemployed;
(2) Vocational-technical students who work fewer
than 20 hours per week; and
(3) Vocational-technical students who are employed
in an occupation or field not related to their training.
C. All other students shall not be included in calculations for job
- Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) (Career
and Technical Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) means a vocational
student organization for young men and women in family and consumer
sciences education in public and private school through grade 12.
Also see Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.fcclainc.org/)
- FFA see National FFA.
- Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda (FBLA-PBL) (Career
and Technical Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) means an organization
of young people preparing for success as leaders in business, government,
and the community. Also see Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.fbla-pbl.org/)
- General Occupational Skills (P.L. 101-392, The Carl
D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990, Sec.
521) means experience in and understanding of all aspects of the
industry the learner is preparing to enter, including planning, management,
finances, technical and production skills, underlying principles
of technology, labor and community issues and health, safety and
environmental issues. Also see All Aspects of the Industry.
Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA) (Career and
Technical Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) means a student organization
whose mission is to promote career opportunities in health care and
to enhance the delivery of quality health care to all people. Also
see Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.hosa.org/)
- IEP Team (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3, NJDOE) means the group
of individuals who are responsible for the development, review and
revision of the students individualized educational program
(IEP). The members of IEP team are listed at N.J.A.C. 6A:14-2.3(i)2.
- Individualized Education Program (IEP) (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3,
NJDOE) means a written plan developed at a meeting according to N.J.A.C. 6A:14-2.3(i)2
which sets forth present levels of performance, measurable annual
goals and short-term objectives or benchmarks and describes an integrated,
sequential program of individually designed instructional activities
and related services necessary to achieve the stated goals and objectives.
This plan shall establish the rationale for the students educational
placement, serve as the basis for program implementation and comply
with the mandates set forth in this chapter.
- Individual With Disability (N.J.A.C. 12:56-9.1, NJDOL)
means an individual whose earning capacity is impaired by a physical
or mental disability and who is being served or eligible to be served
in accordance with the recognized rehabilitation program of a sheltered
workshop, education institution, or other program of rehabilitation
approved by the New Jersey Commissioner of Labor.
- Incidental (N.J.A.C. 12:56-18.1, NJDOL) means any irrelevant, occasional productive work which
is not part of achieving learning objectives [during a students
structured learning experience taking place at a work site].
- In-School Work Experience (Guidelines for Community-Based
Instruction) means, for students with disabilities, a work
(1) Occurs directly for the school district;
(2) The time period must not exceed one hour on the average per
school day; and
(3) Work completed for an outside vendor within the school must
meet Department of Labor regulations regardless of length of work.
Many school districts contract with outside vendors such as bus transportation,
school lunches and janitorial services. Students working with outside
vendors within the school must follow the New Jersey Department of
Labor regulations, and is not considered an In-School Work Experience
and are entitled to at least minimum wages.
- Internship (N.J.A.C. 12:56-18.1, NJDOL) means a program of study for a student which includes
supervised practical training.
NOTE: Internships may be paid or unpaid structured learning
experiences and may occur in hazardous and non-hazardous occupations,
as per NJDOE and NJDOL requirements.
- Issuing Officer (N.J.S.A. 34:2-21.1, NJDOL) means any superintendent of schools, supervising
principal, or teacher in a school district who is designated by the
board of education in the district to issue [employment] certificates
[also known as working papers] or permits in accordance with
the provisions of N.J.S.A. 34:2-21.1. Also see Employment
- Job Coaching/On Site Training (Office of Specialized Populations,
NJDOE) means the training of a supported employee by a designated
individual. The job coach uses structured intervention techniques
to help the supported employee learn to perform job tasks to the
employer's specifications and to learn the interpersonal skills necessary
to be accepted as a worker at the job site and in related community
contacts. In addition to job-site training, job coaching includes
related assessment, job development, counseling, advocacy, travel
training and other services needed to maintain the employment of
a supported employee. Examples of applied job coaching techniques
include the following:
(1) Specialized job placement following a thorough task analysis
and matching the employment to the interests and strengths of the
individual with a disability;
(2) Intensive on-site instruction of the worker, coworkers, and
supervisor based on situational assessment;
(3) Continuous evaluations by collecting, recording and reporting
data and modifying the job-site training as appropriate;
(4) Advocating for the supported employee both at and away from
the job; and
(5) Proactive extended services at and away from the job site, as
necessary to assist
the worker to remain employed in the integrated labor market.
Also see Supported Employment.
- Job Sampling see Vocational Assessment.
- Job Shadowing (N.J.A.C. 12:56-18.1, NJDOL) means the
process by which a student determines by observation, interview and
study the pertinent information related to an occupation. Information
can include such factors as qualifications for employment, functions
performed, necessary skills and knowledge, equipment and material
used, and physical demands and working environment.
- Learning Plan see Training Plan.
- Learning Experience (Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor) means
a [structured learning] experience at an employer's work site
that includes all of the following elements [and would therefore
not be considered employment]:
(1) A planned program of job training and work experience for the
student, appropriate to the student's abilities, which includes training
related to pre-employment and employment skills to be mastered at
progressively higher levels that are coordinated with learning in
the school-based learning component and lead to the awarding of a
(2) The learning experience encompasses a sequence of activities
that build upon one another, that increase in complexity and promote
mastery of basic skills;
(3) The learning experience has been structured to expose the student
to all aspects of an industry and promotes the development of broad,
transferable skills; and
(4) The learning experience provides for real or simulated tasks
or assignments which push students to develop higher-order critical
thinking and problem-solving skills.
- Mentor see Workplace Mentor.
- Mentoring (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work Opportunities
Act) means pairing a student with an individual over an extended
period of time during which the individual helps the student master
certain skills and knowledge the individual possesses, models workplace
behavior, challenges the student to perform well and assesses the
student's performance. Mentoring may be combined with other work-based
learning activities, such as internships or on-the-job training.
- National and Community Service Project (P.L. 106-170, National
and Community Service Act) means any project, program or undertaking
designed to provide, or assist in providing, activities or services
to promote conservation, restoration or preservation of natural resources,
open space of the environment, or the public health, education and
welfare among the general population or segments of the population
having identifiable needs or deficiencies.
- National FFA (Career and Technical Student Organizations,
USED-OVAE) means a vocational student organization that is an integral,
intracurricular part of public agricultural instruction under the
National Vocational Education Acts for agricultural education
students. Also see Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.ffa.org/)
- Natural Jobs (Understanding Options for Career Exploration,
NJDOE) means jobs that students obtain on their own while
attending school. Typically, work is done outside of school hours
and students receive some compensation for their employment. Natural
jobs vary in scope and often include positions associated with retail,
food services, newspaper routes, child care, etc. These jobs may
not necessarily be associated with the students post-secondary
career plans, but can be valuable in providing transferable work
experience and development of Cross-Content Workplace Readiness Standards.
- Nominal Fee (Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 CFR 553.106)
means a nominal monthly or annual stipend or fee that an individual
who volunteers to provide periodic services on a year-round basis
may receive without losing volunteer status. A nominal fee is not a
substitute for compensation and must not be tied to
productivity. The following factors will be among those examined
in determining whether a given amount is nominal:
(1) The distance traveled and the time and effort expended by
(2) Whether the volunteer has agreed to be available around-the-clock
or only during certain specified time periods; and
(3) Whether the volunteer provides services as needed or throughout
Individuals do not lose their volunteer status if they receive a nominal
fee from a public agency. Also see Volunteer Status.
- Nonprofit (Individual With Disabilities In Education Act) as
applied to a school, agency, organization or institution, means a
school, agency, organization or institution owned and operated by
one or more nonprofit organizations or associations no part of the
net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit
of any private shareholder or individual.
- Nontraditional Training and Employment (N.J.S.A. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means occupations or fields of work, including careers in
computer science, technology, or other emerging high skill occupations,
for which, nationally, individuals from one gender comprise less
than 25 percent of the individuals employed in each such occupation
or field of work.
- Occupation (N.J.S.A. 12:56-2.1, NJDOL) means any occupation,
service, trade, business, industry, or branch or group of industries
or employment or class of employment in which employees are gainfully
- Occupational Competencies (N.J.S.A. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE)
means the essential elements of vocational programs, the knowledge
and skills that students must master for employment in the fields
of their choice.
On Site Training see Job Coaching/On Site Training.
- On-the-Job Training (P.L. 101-157, Fair Labor Standards Act)
means training that is offered to an individual while employed in
productive work that provides training, technical and other related
skills, and personal skills that are essential to the full and adequate
performance of such employment.
- Out-of-Pocket Expenses see Training Expenses.
- Performance Assessment (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3, NJDOE)
means demonstrations of what students know and can do, including
such things as open-ended or constructed response questions, essays,
portfolios of student work, projects, and reports of laboratory or
- Practicum (N.J.A.C. 6A:9-2, NJDOE) means a
course of study designed especially for the preparation of educational
services candidates that involves the practical application of previously
studied theory under the supervision of college/university faculty.
As part of the practicum, candidates write diagnostic and instructional
- Project-Based Learning (Cross Content Workplace Readiness
Standards Framework, Chapter 2, NJDOE) means a teacher-guided learning
activity designed to assist students in understanding self as the
curriculum/lesson relates to the following:
(1) Applying self as a learner to the situation;
(2) Framing questions;
(3) Tackling a project;,
(4) Working as part of a team;
(5) Monitoring individual programs;
(6) Selecting a career; and
(7) Developing his/her skills and knowledge in order to be successful
in a career choice.
NOTE: Project-based learning activities may take place in district
or in a school-sponsored, external placement.
- Public Agency (29 U.S.C. 201, et.seq., Fair Labor Standards
Act) means the Government of the United States; the government of
a State or political subdivision thereof; any agency of the United
States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or any interstate
governmental agency. The public agency definition does not extend
to private companies that are engaged in work activities normally
performed by public employees.
- Record of Employment of Minors Under 19 (N.J.S.A. 34:2-21.6,
NJDOL.) Every employer shall keep a record, in a form approved by
the New Jersey Department of Labor, which shall state the name, date
of birth and address of each person under 19 years of age employed,
the number of hours worked by said person on each day of the week,
the hours of beginning and ending such work, the hours of beginning
and ending meal periods, the amount of wages paid, and such other
information as the department shall by regulation require. Such record
shall be kept on file for at least one year after the entry of the
record and shall be open to the inspection of the New Jersey Department
of Labor, of attendance officers and of police officers. Nothing
in this section shall apply to the employment of minors in agricultural
pursuits, or in domestic service in private homes, or as newspaper
boys [girls] as provided in this act.
- Regular Hourly Wage (N.J.S.A. 34:11-56, NJDOL) means the amount that an employee is
regularly paid for each hour of work as determined by dividing the
total hours of work during the week into the employee's total earnings
for the week, exclusive of overtime premium pay.
- Related Instruction (National Apprenticeship Act, 29 CFR
Title 29, USDOL) means [for apprenticeship programs] an organized
and systematic form of instruction designed to provide the apprentice
with knowledge of the theoretical and technical subjects related
to his/her trade.
- Related Services (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3, NJDOE) means
transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive
services as are required to assist a student with a disability to
benefit from special education as specified in the students
IEP, and includes speech-language pathology and audiology services,
psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation,
early identification and assessment of disabilities in children,
counseling services including rehabilitation counseling, orientation
and mobility services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation
purposes. The term also includes school nursing services, social
work services in schools and parent counseling and training. These
terms are defined according to 34 CFR §300.24, incorporated herein
by reference, as amended and supplemented.
- Related Training (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE) means
one or more courses in a school in which the apprentice or cooperative
vocational education student acquires concepts, competencies, understanding
and attitudes appropriate to training station assignments, occupational
program areas and career objectives.
- School-Based Enterprise (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work
Opportunities Act) means [school-based activities undertaken to]
assist students in developing the competencies needed to own and
manage an enterprise/business. Students maintain complete and accurate
records as they work at the enterprise site on a weekly basis.
- School-Sponsored Enterprise (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work
Opportunities Act) means the production of goods or services by students
for sale to or use by others. School-sponsored enterprises typically
involve students in the management of the project. Enterprises may
be undertaken on or off the school site.
- School-to-Work Program (N.J.A.C. 12:56-18, NJDOL)
For non-paid activities the following conditions shall
be met to allow for non-paid activities of students [who are participating in school-sponsored,
external, structured learning experiences] at for profit and
(1) The student shall be at least 16 years of age;
(2) The activity must be related to a formal school-to-work transition
plan [training plan] for a student learner;
(3) There is collaboration and planning between worksite staff and
school staff resulting in clearly identified learning objectives
related to the non-paid activities;
(4) Any productive work is incidental to achieving learning objectives;
(5) The student receives credit for time spent at the worksite and
the student is expected to achieve the learning objectives;
(6) The student is supervised by a school official and a workplace
(7) The non-paid activity is of a limited duration, related to an
educational purpose and there is no guarantee or expectation that
the activity will result in employment; and
(8) The student does not replace an employee.
Also see Incidental.
- Senior Year Option see 12th Grade Option.
- Service-Learning (P.L. 106-170, National and Community Service
Act) means a method
A. under which students or participants learn and develop through
active participation in thoughtfully organized service that
(1) Is conducted in and meets the needs of a community;
(2) Is coordinated with an elementary school, secondary school,
institution of higher education or community-services program and
with the community; and
(3) Helps foster civic responsibility; and
(1) Is integrated into and enhances the academic curriculum of the
students, or the education components of the community service program
in which the participants are enrolled; and
(2) Provides structured time for students or participants to reflect
on the service experience.
- Service-Learning Coordinator (P.L. 106-170, National and
Community Service Act) means an individual who provide services to
a local education agency by
(1) Providing technical assistance and information to, and facilitating
the training of, teachers who want to use service-learning in their
(2) Assisting local partnerships
in the planning, development,
and execution of service-learning projects; and
(3) Carrying out such other duties as the local education agency
may determine to be appropriate.
- Service-Learning Teaching Methods (P.L. 106-170, National
and Community Service Act) means combining academic instruction,
meaningful service, and critical reflective thinking to enhance student
learning and civic responsibility. Service-learning differs from
community service or volunteerism in two distinct ways:
(1) The service activity is integrated with academic curriculum
(2) Students engage in structured reflection of their service experiences
and apply their learning in real-life activities.
- Service Sponsor (P.L. 106-170, National and Community Service
Act) means an organization, or other entity, that has been selected
to provide a placement [for a service learning student or participant].
- Sheltered Workshop (N.J.A.C. 12:56-9.1,
NJDOL) means a charitable organization or institution conducted not
for profit, but for the purpose of carrying out a recognized program
of rehabilitation for individuals whose earning capacity is impaired
by age, physical or mental deficiency or injury, and to provide such
individuals with remunerative employment or other occupational rehabilitating
activity of an educational or therapeutic nature.
- SkillsUSA/VICA (Career and Technical Student Organizations,
USED-OVAE) means a national organization serving high school and
college students and professional members who are enrolled in technical,
skilled, and service occupations, including health occupations. Also
see Vocational Student Organizations. (http://www.skillsusa.org/)
- Social Security Work Incentives (Social Security Administration)
means a program for Social Security Income (SSI) eligible, transition
age students with disabilities who are participating in a [community-based
placement]. The SSI programs work incentives, which are
designed to increase students overall income while engaging
in employment during and after secondary education, include Student
Earned Income Exclusion (SEIE); Impairment-Related Work Expense (IRWE);
Plan for Achieving Self Support (PASS); and Blind Work Experience
NOTE: Visit the Social Security Administration Website for
a definition of SEIE, IRWE, PASS and BWI.
- Special Education (N.J.A.C. 6A:14, NJDOE) means specially
designed instruction at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique
needs of students with disabilities according to 34 CFR §300.26,
incorporated herein by reference as amended and supplemented.
- Special Populations (N.J.S.A. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE) means
(1) Individuals with disabilities;
(2) Individuals from economically disadvantaged families;
(3) Foster children;
(4) Individuals preparing for nontraditional training and employment;
(5) Single parents, including single pregnant women;
(6) Displaced homemakers;
(7) Individuals with limited English proficiency;
(8) Students who are migrant workers or from migrant families; and
(9) Individuals with other barriers to educational achievement.
- Stipend see Nominal Fee and Training Expenses.
- Structured Learning Experience (SLE) (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means experiential, supervised educational activities designed
to provide students with exposure to the requirements and responsibilities
of specific job titles or job groups, and to assist them in gaining
employment skills and making career and educational decisions. A
structured learning experience may be either paid or unpaid, depending
on the type of activities in which the student is involved. All structured
learning experiences must adhere to applicable State and Federal
child labor laws and other rules of the State Departments of Education
and Labor. Structured learning experiences may include, but are not
(2) Community service;
(3) Cooperative education;
(5) Job shadowing;
(6) School-based enterprises;
(7) Volunteer activities;
(8) Vocational student organizations; and
(9) Work Experience Career Exploration Program (WECEP)
- Student (Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor). Under the Fair
Labor Standards Act, an individual who is enrolled in a [school
sponsored, external, structured learning experience] would
not be considered an employee if all of the following student criteria
(1) The student receives ongoing instruction at the employer's [or
agencys] worksite and receives close on-site supervision
throughout the learning experience, with the result that any productive
work that the student would perform would be offset by the burden
to the employer from the training and supervision provided;
(2) The placement of the student at a worksite during the learning
experience does not result in the displacement of any regular employee
-- i.e., the presence of the student at the worksite cannot result
in an employee being laid off, cannot result in the employer not
hiring an employee it would otherwise hire, and cannot result in
an employee working fewer hours than he or she would otherwise work;
(3) The student is not entitled to a job at the completion of the
learning experience -- but this does not mean that employers are
to be discouraged from offering employment to students who might
successfully complete the training; and
(4) The employer, student, and parent or guardian understand that
the student is not entitled to wages or other compensation for the
time spent in the learning experience -- although the student may
be paid a stipend [training expenses] for expenses such as
books or tools.
- Student Learner (N.J.S.A. 12:58-1.2, NJDOL) means
a person who is
(1) Enrolled in a course of study and training in a cooperative
vocational training program under a recognized State or local educational
authority or in a course of study in a substantially similar program
conducted by a private school;
(2) Between the ages of 16 years and 18 years of age;
(3) Employed under a written agreement which provides that:
i. Work in a particularly hazardous occupation is incidental to
the minor's training;
ii. Work is intermittent and of short duration, and under the
direct and close supervision of a qualified and experienced person;
iii. Safety instruction is given by the school and correlated
by the employer with on-the-job training.
- Student With A Disability (N.J.A.C. 6A-19, NJDOE)
means a student who is eligible for special education and related
services as set forth in N.J.A.C 6A:14 (Special Education Administrative
- Supported Employment (P.L. 99-506, Rehabilitation Act of
1973) means competitive work in integrated settings
(1) For individuals with severe handicaps for whom competitive employment
has not traditionally occurred, or
(2) For individuals for whom competitive employment has been interrupted
or intermittent as a result of a severe disability, and who, because
of their handicap, need ongoing support services to perform such
Further defined, supported employment is paid competitive work that
offers ongoing support services in integrated settings for individuals
with the most severe disabilities. Supported employment is intended
for individuals for whom competitive employment has not traditionally
occurred or has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a most
severe disability. This employment outcome is obtained by providing
intensive services and is sustained through the provision of extended
services. The level of employment participation may be full or part-time
based on the interests and abilities of the individual.
- Technical Education (N.J.S.A. 6A:19-1.2, NJDOE) means
a program of instruction that provides students with the skills and
knowledge needed for employment or entry into post-high school education
programs which require relatively complex and detailed information,
considerable proficiency in college preparatory mathematics, and
the extensive application of laboratory physical science.
- Technology Student Association (TSA) (Career and Technical
Student Organizations, USED-OVAE) means a national non-profit organization
devoted exclusively to the needs of elementary, middle and high school
students with a dedicated interest in technology. Also see Vocational
Student Organization. (http://www.tsaweb.org/)
- Trainees (N.J.S.A. 12:56-2.1, NJDOL) means individuals
[who] are not employees [because] they are involved
in a program in which [meets the following criteria]:
(1) The training is for the primary benefit of the trainee;
(2) The employment for which the trainee is training requires
some cognizable trainable skill;
(3) The training is not specific to the employer, that is, is
not exclusive to its needs, but may be applicable elsewhere for
another employer or in another field of endeavor;
(4) The training, even though it includes actual operation of
the facilities of the employer, is similar to that which may be
given in a vocational school;
(5) The trainee does not displace a regular employee on a regular
job or supplement a regular job, but trains under close tutorial
(6) The employer derives no immediate benefit from the efforts
of the trainee and, indeed, on occasion may find his or her regular
operation impeded by the trainee;
(7) The trainee is not necessarily entitled to a job at the completion
(8) The training program is sponsored by the employer, is outside
regular work hours, the employee does no productive work while
attending and the program is not directly related to the employee's
present job (as distinguished from learning another job or additional
(9) The employer and the trainee share a basic understanding that
regular employment wages are not due for the time spent in training,
provided that the trainee does not perform any productive work.
If a trainee does not meet all of the above-listed criteria, the trainee
shall be considered to be an employee.
- Training Expenses (Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 CFR
553.106) means employer reimbursements for trainee expenses, including
transportation costs, books, materials, supplies, uniforms, food,
[and tools] for private individuals who volunteer services
to public agencies. Also see Volunteer and Volunteer Status.
NOTE: Training expenses are not a substitute for compensation
and must not be tied to productivity.
- Training Plan (N.J.A.C. 6A:19, NJDOE) means a plan
that identifies training site experiences, program objectives, individual
responsibilities and measurable outcomes. The training of all students
shall be developed with a training plan. Also see Structured Learning
NOTE: All structured learning experiences must be accompanied
by a training plan.
- Transition Plan (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3, NJDOE) means
a plan that includes long-term goals and short-term objectives, timelines,
measurable expected outcomes and identification of persons who are
responsible for teaching and monitoring the plan to ensure that the
goals and objectives are met. This plan should be written as part
of the Individual Education Program (IEP) and not as a separate document.
The secondary age IEP is a transition plan.
- Transition Services (N.J.A.C. 6A:14-1.3m, NJDOE) means
a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an
outcome-oriented process, that promotes movement from school to post-school
activities, including post-secondary education, vocational training,
integrated employment (including supported employment), continuing
and adult education, adult services, independent living, or community
participation. Transition services for students with disabilities
may be special education, if provided as specially designed instruction,
or related services, if required to assist a student with a disability
to benefit from special education.
- Twelfth Grade Options see 12th Grade Options.
- Vocational Assessment (Meeting the Needs of Youth with Disabilities)
means a component of [community-based instruction] which
helps determine individual training objective for students with a
disability. In this component, the student undertakes work assignments
in various settings [job sampling] under the direct supervision
of school personnel and employees. Assessment data are systemically
collected concerning the students interest, aptitudes, special
needs, learning styles, work rotates among various work settings
corresponding to the students range of employment preferences
as situational assessments are completed by school personnel and
assessment site employees. As a result, students select work settings
in which they can best pursue career or occupational areas matching
their interest and aptitudes. Future training objectives are matched
with these selections. These training objectives become a part of
the students subsequent IEP. Also see Community-Based Instruction.
- Vocational-Technical Education for Life Skills and Paid Employment (N.J.A.C. 6A:19,
NJDOE) means the following:
(1) Instruction related to paid employment in the career or careers
for which the students are being trained;
(2) Classroom related academic and technical instruction, field,
shop, laboratory instruction, structured learning experience, apprenticeship
or other occupational experiences;
(3) Instruction provided for employment or instruction designed
to upgrade or update workers in occupational skills and knowledge
in order to enhance stability or upward mobility in employment;
(4) Remedial or other instruction designed to correct educational
deficiencies or accommodate disabilities which prevent secondary
school students from benefiting from instruction designed to teach
technical competencies in occupations; and
(5) Instruction in life-skills that will help students achieve personal
and professional goals and help them engage effectively as productive
citizens in their communities.
- Vocational Exploration (Meeting the Needs of Youth with Disabilities)
means a component of [community-based instruction] that
exposes student briefly to a variety of work settings to help them
make decisions about future career directions or occupations. The
exploration process involves investigating interests, values, beliefs,
strengths and weaknesses in relation to the demands and characteristics
of work environments. Through vocational exploration, students
gain information watching work being performed, talking with employees,
and actually trying out work under direct supervision of school personnel.
Exploration enables students to make choices regarding career or
occupational areas they wish to pursue. Also see Community-Based
- Vocational Student Organizations (VSO) (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOE) means those organizations for students enrolled in vocational-technical
education programs which engage in activities as integral parts of
the appropriate instructional programs. Such organizations may have
State and national units which complement the development of leadership
and career-related competencies in vocational-technical education
at the local level. VSOs include DECA, FBLA-PBA, FFA, FCCLA, HOSA,
TSA, and SkillsUSA-VICA.
- Vocational-Technical Education (N.J.A.C. 6A:9-2.1,
NJDOE) means an organized educational program that offers a sequence
of courses that provides individuals with the academic and technical
knowledge and skills that individuals need to prepare for further
education and for careers in current or emerging employment sectors.
- Vocational Training (Meeting the Needs of Youth with Disabilities)
means a component of [community-based instruction] which
places the student in various employment work experiences. The student,
parents, and school personnel develop a detailed, written training
plan which includes the competencies to be acquired, method(s) of
instruction, and procedures for evaluating the training experience.
Training is closely supervised by a representative of the school
or a designated employee/supervisor. The purpose of this component
is to enable students to develop the competencies and behavior needed
to secure paid employment. As the student reaches the training objectives
in a particular employment setting, the student moves to other employment
environments where additional related learning or reinforcement of
current competencies and behavior can occur. Also see Community-Based
- Vocational Work Study see Work Study.
- Volunteer (N.J.A.C. 12:56-2.1, NJDOL) means a person
who donates his or her service for the protection of the health and
safety of the general public. Such a person would include, among
others, a volunteer fire fighter, rescue worker, and aide in the
care of the sick, aged, young, mentally ill, destitute and the like
or assistant in the religious, eleemosynary, educational, hospital,
cultural and similar activities.
Also, the Fair Labor Standards Act Advisor defines individuals who
volunteer or donate their services, usually on a part-time basis, for
public service, religious or humanitarian objectives, not as employees
and without contemplation of pay, are not considered employees of the
religious, charitable or similar non-profit organizations that receive
Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, employees may not volunteer services
to for-profit private sector employers. On the other hand, in the vast
majority of circumstances, individuals can volunteer services to public
sector employers [public agency]. When Congress amended the Fair Labor
Standards Act in 1985, it made clear that people are allowed to volunteer
their services to public agencies and their community with but one
exception - public sector employers may not allow their employees to
volunteer, without compensation, additional time to do the same work
for which they are employed. There is no prohibition on anyone employed
in the private sector from volunteering in any capacity or line of
work in the public sector.
- Volunteer Status (29CFR 553.106,
Fair Labor Standards Act) [Individuals volunteering
for state and local governments will retain their status as a volunteer
and will not be considered employees if they receive from the employer
or agency expenses, fees, or benefits that meet the following conditions]:
(1) Volunteers may be paid expenses, reasonable benefits, a nominal
fee, or any combination thereof, for their service without losing
their status as volunteers.
(2) An individual who performs hours of service as a volunteer for
a public agency may receive payment for expenses without being deemed
an employee for purposes of the Fair Labor Standards Act. A school
guard does not become an employee because he or she receives a uniform
allowance, or reimbursement for reasonable cleaning expenses or for
wear and tear on personal clothing worn while performing hours of
volunteer service. (A uniform allowance must be reasonably limited
to relieving the volunteer of the cost of providing or maintaining
a required uniform from personal resources.) Such individuals would
not lose their volunteer status because they are reimbursed for the
approximate out-of-pocket expenses incurred incidental to providing
volunteer services, for example, payment for the cost of meals and
(3) Individuals do not lose their status as volunteers because they
are reimbursed for tuition, transportation and meal costs involved
in their attending classes intended to teach them to perform efficiently
the services they provide or will provide as volunteers. Likewise,
the volunteer status of such individuals is not lost if they are
provided books, supplies, or other materials essential to their volunteer
training or reimbursement for the cost thereof.
(4) Individuals do not lose their volunteer status if they are provided
reasonable benefits by a public agency for which they perform volunteer
(5) Benefits would be considered reasonable, for example, when they
involve inclusion of individual volunteers in group insurance plans
(such as liability, health, life, disability, workers' compensation)
or pension plans or ``length of service'' awards, commonly or traditionally
provided to volunteers of State and local government agencies, which
meet the additional test in paragraph (f) of this section.
(6) Individuals do not lose their volunteer status if they receive
a nominal fee from a public agency. A nominal fee is not a substitute
for compensation and must not be tied to productivity. However, this
does not preclude the payment of a nominal amount on a ``per call''
or similar basis to volunteer firefighters. The following factors
will be among those examined in determining whether a given amount
- The distance traveled and the time and effort expended by the
- whether the volunteer has agreed to be available around-the-clock
or only during certain specified time periods;
- and whether the volunteer provides services as needed or throughout
(7) An individual who volunteers to provide periodic services on
a year-round basis may receive a nominal monthly or annual stipend
or fee without losing volunteer status.
(8) Whether the furnishing of expenses, benefits, or fees would
result in individuals' losing their status as volunteers under the
Fair Labor Standards Act can only be determined by examining the
total amount of payments made (expenses, benefits, fees) in the context
of the economic realities of the particular situation.
- Wages (N.J.S.A. 34:11-56, NJDOL) means any monies due an employee from an employer
for services rendered or made available by the employee to the employer
as a result of their employment relationship including commissions,
bonus and piecework compensation and including any gratuities received
by an employer to an employee.
Wage Schedule (National Apprenticeship Program, 29 CFR Title
29, USDOL) means [for apprenticeship training] a progressively
increasing schedule of wages to be paid the apprentice consistent
with the skill acquired. The entry wage shall be not less than the
minimum wage prescribed by the Fair Labor Standards Act, where applicable,
unless a higher wage is required by other applicable Federal law,
State law, respective regulations, or by collective bargaining agreement.
- Work-Based Instruction see Cooperative Education.
- Work-Based Learning see Structured Learning Experience.
- Work Experience Career Exploration Program (WECEP) (N.J.A.C. 6A:19-1.2,
NJDOL) means a school-to-career or college transition program designed
for at-risk students who have experienced substantial difficulties
with a standard classroom environment and schedule. Pursuant to the
requirements of 29 C.F.R. Part 570, the program allows for the employment
of minors between the ages of 14 and 16 in a school supervised, school
administered work experience program for up to 23 hours per week,
when school is in session, and for no more than three hours in any
one day. Indicators of program success include number of participants,
academic improvement, improvement in attendance and retention in
school beyond the age of 16.
- Work Hours (N.J.A.C. 2:56-2.1, NJDOL) means
the actual hours suffered or permitted to work.
- Working Papers see Employment Certificate.
- Work Process (National Apprenticeship Act, 29 CFR Title 29,
USDOL) means an outline of the work processes [occupational skills]
in which the apprentice will receive supervised work experience and
training on the job [as part of an apprenticeship program],
and the allocation of the approximate time to be spent in each major
process [occupational skill area].
- Work Study (N.J.A.C. 6A:19, NJDOE) This term
been eliminated by the New Jersey State Board of Education because
that term has been widely misinterpreted and because the concept
of vocational work study has been superseded by [structured learning
experiences] and cooperative education programs. Also see Structured
- Workplace Mentor (P.L. 103-239, The School-to-Work Opportunities
Act) means an employee or other individual, approved by the employer
at a workplace, who possesses the skills and knowledge to be mastered
by a student and who instructs the student, critiques the performance
of the student, challenges the student to perform well and works
in consultation with classroom teachers and the employer of the student.
New Jersey Model Agreement for Unpaid Structured Learning Experiences
This form may be used for the following unpaid placements as defined
in Section II: 12th grade options, job shadowing, school-based
enterprise, service learning, school-to-work activities, sheltered workshops,
vocational assessment, vocational-technical education for life skills
and paid employment, vocational exploration, and volunteering.
Link to Unpaid Structured Learning Experience Form: http://www.nj.gov/education/cte/mod_agr.pdf
New Jersey Model Agreement for Paid Structured Learning Experiences
This form may be used for the following paid placements as defined in
Section II: 12th grade options, career exploration experiences,
community-based instruction, community-based placements, career orientation
education, community-based service, community rehabilitation programs,
in-school work experience, project-based learning, school-based enterprise,
school-to-work activities, service learning, sheltered workshops, Social
Security work incentives, supported employment, vocational assessment,
vocational exploration, vocational-technical education for life skills
and paid employment, vocational training, and work experience career
NOTE: This form may not be used for apprenticeships, cooperative
education programs, placements in hazardous occupations of any kind,
internships or other placements that are a part of a vocational-technical
Link to Paid Structured Learning Experience Form: (TBA)
New Jersey Model Agreement for Vocational Technical Education Programs/Cooperative
This form may be used for the following hazardous/non-hazardous paid
placements, as defined in Section II: apprenticeships, cooperative education,
Link To Cooperative Education Form: (TBA)
New Jersey Model Check List for Supervising All Structured Learning
This form may be used by districts to document the on-site supervision
of students placed into all structured learning experiences as defined
in Section II:.
Link to Model Check List: http://www.nj.gov/education/cte/unpaid_sle.pdf
NOTE: Additional Resources Will Be Added.