September 13, 1845, Alexander J. Cartwright presented the first
20 rules of baseball. His list includes many rules that are
still followed today. The rules created the baseball diamond,
placed the batter at home plate, and created the strikeout,
force out, and fly out. Three outs made up a half-inning. The
ground-rule double and foul territory were also established.
A player could no longer get a runner out by throwing the ball
and hitting him. Below is a complete list of Cartwright's rules,
a number of which were simply club policies.
must strictly observe the time agreed upon for exercise and
be punctual in their attendance.
assembled for practice, The President, or Vice President
in his absence, shall appoint an umpire, who shall keep the
game in a book provided for that purpose, and note all violations
of the By-Laws and Rules during the time of exercise.
presiding officer shall designate two members as captains,
who shall retire and make the match to be played, observing
at the same time the players put opposite each other should
be as nearly equal as possible; the choice of the two sides
to be then tossed for, and the first in hand to be decided
in a like manner.
bases shall be from "home" to second base, 42 paces;
from first base to third base, 42 paces, equidistant.
stump match shall be played on a regular day of exercise.
there should not be a sufficient number of members of the
club present at the time agreed upon to commence exercise,
gentlemen not members may be chosen in to make up the match,
which shall not be broken up to take in members that may
afterwards appear; but in all cases, members shall have the
preference, when present at the making of the match.
members appear after the game is commenced they may be chosen
in if mutually agreed upon.
game to consist of 21 counts, or aces; but at the conclusion
of an equal number of hands must be played.
ball must be pitched, and not thrown, for the bat.
ball knocked out of the field, or outside the range of first
or third base, is foul.
balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught
is a hand out; if not caught is considered fair, and a striker
is bound to run.
ball being struck or tipped and caught either flying or on
the first bound is a hand out.
player running the base shall be out, if the ball is in the
hands of an adversary on the base, or the runner is touched
with it before he makes his base; it being understood, however,
that in no instance is a ball to be thrown at him.
player running who shall prevent an adversary from catching
or getting the ball before making his base is a hand out.
hands out, all out.
must take their strike in a regular turn.
disputes and differences relative to the game, to be determined
by the Umpire, from which there is no appeal.
ace or base can be made on a foul strike.
runner cannot be put out in making one base, when a balk
is made by the pitcher.
one base allowed when a ball bounds out of the field when