New Jersey Health Statistics 1997
N1. GENERAL FERTILITY, TOTAL FERTILITY, AND AGE-SPECIFIC BIRTH
NEW JERSEY, 1970, 1980, 1990, AND 1997
|YEAR||GENERAL FERTILITY RATE||TOTAL FERTILITY RATE||AGE-SPECIFIC BIRTH RATES BY AGE OF MOTHER|
N1A. GENERAL FERTILITY, TOTAL FERTILITY, AND AGE-SPECIFIC BIRTH
RATES BY RACE AND ETHNICITY |
NEW JERSEY, 1997
|MOTHER'S RACE||GENERAL FERTILITY RATE||TOTAL FERTILITY RATE||AGE-SPECIFIC BIRTH RATES BY AGE OF MOTHER|
|* Hispanic ethnicity includes persons of any race.|
Fertility rates differ for black and white females (Table N1A). In 1997, the general fertility rate for black females was 19.7 percent higher than for white females, a larger gap than existed in 1996. While the white rate declined 1.5 percent, the black rate increased 1.1 percent. The fertility patterns continued to differ by age. Through age 24, black age-specific birth rates were considerably higher than white rates. In the age group 25 through 29, the rates were similar and for women in all other age groups through 49 years, white age-specific birth rates exceeded black rates by a substantial margin. The numbers of births to women of racial groups other than white or black were too small to permit calculation of stable rates. Hispanic women of any race had higher fertility rates then black and white women in ages 20 through 29 and rates lower than black women but higher than white women in all other age groups through age 39. At age groups 40 and over, Hispanic women had higher fertility rates than white and black women, although the rates are relatively low.
The total fertility rate for black females exceeded the rate for white females by 19.7 percent. The total fertility rate for black women continued to exceed the population replacement rate (by 3.9 percent), while the total fertility rate for white females remained below the population replacement rate (by 13.2 percent). The Hispanic fertility rate in 1997 was 15.6 percent above the population replacement rate.
Month and Day of Birth
In 1997, the month with the most New Jersey resident births was July (10,354 births or 9.1%) and February had the least (8,744 births or 7.7%). Taking into account the differences in the number of days per month, July had the most births on an average day (334.0) and November had the least per day (292.4). Overall, births occurred with greatest daily frequency in May through July and with the least frequency in March and November through January. This was different from the experience nationally (Ventura, S.J., et al., 1999).
As in the nation as a whole, in New Jersey more births occurred on weekdays than on Saturdays and Sundays (338.1 on an average weekday vs. 244.6 on an average weekend day). This difference has been attributed to cesarean deliveries and induced vaginal deliveries, many of which are scheduled on weekdays (Ventura, S.J., et. al., 1999).
Sex and Plurality
In New Jersey in 1997, as is the usual case, more males were born than females. There were 1,047 males born for every 1,000 females. By race, the male-female ratios were: 1.050 for whites, 1.004 for blacks, and 1.147 for races other than white or black (Table N2). For births to mothers of Hispanic origin (of any race), the ratio was 1.042. Resident births by sex for counties and selected municipalities are given in Table N10.
In 1997, 109,018 or 96.2 percent of births were single deliveries, 3,855 (3.4%) were part of a twin delivery, and 391 (0.3%) were part of a triplet or higher plurality delivery. Plurality was not stated on 68 birth certificates (0.1%) in 1997 (CHS, 2000a).
N2. RESIDENT BIRTHS BY RACE OF MOTHER AND SEX OF CHILD
NEW JERSEY, 1997
Attendant at Birth
The majority of New Jersey women had their babies delivered by a Doctor of Medicine (97,266 births or 85.8%), while the remainder used Doctors of Osteopathy (7,036 births or 6.2%), certified nurse midwives (5,662 births or 5.0%), or other midwives (59 births). The remaining babies were delivered by another person or the attendant was not stated on the birth certificate (CHS, 2000a).
Method of Delivery
The revised birth certificate implemented in January, 1989 in New Jersey included an item on method of delivery. This item consisted of a list of six types of delivery, with instructions to "check all that apply". Data tables on method of delivery are presented in Tables N3A and N3B. It should be noted that there were deficiencies found in the quality and completeness of reporting of this item in the early years following implementation of the new certificate. These problems appear to have diminished, with a decline in the number of records with no stated method of delivery and few records with an inconsistent configuration of delivery methods in 1997. These two types of reporting problems were particularly evident in 1989 and 1990 files.
In 1997, 71.6 percent of resident births were vaginal deliveries and 23.9 percent were cesarean sections. The remaining 4.5 percent of deliveries had no method stated (Table N3A). Of the 81,172 vaginal deliveries, 5,225 or 6.4 percent were vaginal deliveries of women who had had a previous cesarean section. Three of every five cesarean sections (62.8%) were first-time cesareans (primary cesareans) and the remaining 37.2 percent were repeat cesarean sections.
trend is evident in the total cesarean delivery rate; this rate has
been generally stable over the past six years (Table N3B) and stood
at 23.9 percent of total births in 1997. Also, the percent of first-time
cesarean deliveries to women who have never had a cesarean (primary
cesareans) has fluctuated over the past six years and was at 18.3 per
100 women who had not had a previous cesarean in 1997. More than one
in three deliveries in 1997 to women who had had a previous cesarean
were vaginal deliveries (34.2 per 100 live births to women with a previous
cesarean). This rate had increased steadily from 1989 when it was 15.3
per 100 live births to women with a previous cesarean until 1996 when
it peaked at 35.6 percent.
N3A. RESIDENT LIVE BIRTHS BY METHOD OF DELIVERY
NEW JERSEY, 1997
|METHOD OF DELIVERY||NUMBER OF BIRTHS||PERCENT OF TOTAL|
|WITHOUT PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION, NO OTHER METHOD||67,832||59.9|
|WITHOUT PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION AND WITH FORCEPS||2,478||2.2|
|WITHOUT PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION AND WITH VACUUM||5,389||4.8|
|WITHOUT PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION AND WITH FORCEPSAND VACUUM||248||0.2|
|AFTER PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION, NO OTHER METHOD||4,460||3.9|
|AFTER PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION WITH FORCEPS||280||0.2|
|AFTER PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION WITH VACUUM||456||0.4|
|AFTER PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION WITH FORCEPS AND VACUUM||29||0.0|
|TOTAL CESAREAN SECTION||27,031||23.9|
|PRIMARY CESAREAN SECTION, NO OTHER METHOD||16,780||14.8|
|PRIMARY CESAREAN SECTION WITH FORCEPS||20||0.0|
|PRIMARY CESAREAN SECTION WITH VACUUM||173||0.2|
|PRIMARY CESAREAN SECTION WITH FORCEPS AND VACUUM||10||0.0|
|REPEAT CESAREAN SECTION, NO OTHER METHOD||9,877||8.7|
|REPEAT CESAREAN SECTION WITH FORCEPS||17||0.0|
|REPEAT CESAREAN SECTION WITH VACUUM||154||0.1|
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