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New Jersey Health Statistics
1998

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
The definition of AIDS was expanded in 1993 to include individuals with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and one or more of the following conditions: a CD4+ T-lymphocyte count of fewer than 200 cells per microliter; a CD4+ T-cell percentage under 14; pulmonary tuberculosis; recurrent pneumonia within a 12 month period; or invasive cervical cancer. The number of AIDS cases diagnosed among New Jersey residents peaked in 1993 and has been declining ever since. The number of new AIDS cases diagnosed in 1998 was the lowest since 1987 (Table C1). The majority of AIDS cases in 1998 were identified due to a low CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (Table C2). By 1998, two-thirds of the reported cumulative cases of AIDS had died (Table C1 and Figure C1).

In New Jersey, the highest proportion of adult and adolescent AIDS cases diagnosed in 1998 were acquired through injecting-drug use. Heterosexual contact and male sex with male contact were the second and third leading modes of transmission reported among adults and adolescents. In the United States as a whole, male sex with male contact accounted for the highest proportion of transmission, followed by injecting-drug use and then heterosexual contact (Table C3). The incidence rate of AIDS among New Jersey males was twice that of females. The highest rate of AIDS occurred among those 30-49 years old. The AIDS rate among black non-Hispanic males was 14.3 times that of white non-Hispanic males and the rate for black non-Hispanic females was 24.7 times that of their white non-Hispanic counterparts. The rates for Hispanic males and females fell between those for black and white non-Hispanics (Table C4). Essex County had an incidence rate 3.6 times the statewide rate of 20.0 per 100,000 population (Table C5).

Tuberculosis (TB)
For the fifth year, the number of reported TB cases declined (Table C6 and Figure C2). The highest rates of TB occurred among those aged 25-34 and 65 and over. The rate for males was 1.5 times the rate for females. Whites had the lowest TB rates, followed by blacks and persons of races other than white or black, respectively. The highest rates were among other race males aged 25-34 (68.7 per 100,000 population) and black males aged 45-54 (61.8) (Table C7). Hudson and Essex Counties had rates more than twice that of the state as a whole (Table C8).

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
In 1998, syphilis cases continued to decline while gonorrhea and chlamydia cases remained fairly stable (Table C9). The highest rate of syphilis occurred among those aged 25-29, while gonorrhea's highest rate was among 20-24 year olds and chlamydia's was among those 15-19 (Table C10). Essex County had syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates more than twice that of the state. Camden County's syphilis and gonorrhea rates were more than double the state rate and Mercer County had a gonorrhea rate twice the statewide rate (Table C11).

Other Reported Diseases
As in 1996 and 1997, approximately 2,000 cases of Lyme disease were reported in 1998 (Table C12). More than a quarter of the Lyme disease cases were in Hunterdon County alone where the rate was 437.8 per 100,000 population (Tables C13 and C14). This was the highest county rate of any communicable disease reported to the State. Most Lyme disease cases were reported among those 25-64 years old and more than half were reported in June and July (Tables C15 and C16).

About 1,500 cases of salmonella were reported in 1998. This was similar to the numbers reported in 1996 and 1997 (Table C12). Nearly one-third of salmonella cases were reported among those under age five and the majority of cases occurred during the summer (Tables C15 and C16).

The Technical Notes section contains information on sources of data, allocation of data by residence or occurrence, quality of data, racial and ethnic classification, definitions, and rates and ratios.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE DATA TABLES 
Table C1 AIDS Cases by Year of Diagnosis, Vital Status, and Cumulative Cases,
1981-1998
Table C2 AIDS Cases by Classification
Table C3  Adult and Adolescent AIDS Cases by Mode of Transmission and Sex,
New Jersey and the United States
Table C4 AIDS Cases by Age, Race/Ethnicity, and Sex
Table C5 AIDS Incidence by County of Residence
Table C6 Tuberculosis Incidence and Mortality, 1988-1998
Table C7 Verified Tuberculosis Cases by Age, Sex and Race
Table C8 Tuberculosis Incidence by County
Table C9 Reported Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1988-1998
Table C10 Reported Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases by Age Group
Table C11 Reported Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases by County
Table C12 Reported Cases of the Most Frequently Reported Communicable Diseases
Table C13 Reportable Communicable Diseases by County
Table C14 Reportable Communicable Disease Rates by County
Table C15 Reportable Communicable Diseases by Age
Table C16 Reportable Communicable Diseases by Month of Onset
MORBIDITY ILLUSTRATIONS 
Figure C1 AIDS Cases by Year of Diagnosis and Vital Status, 1981--1998
Figure C2 Tuberculosis Incidence, 1988-1998


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