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New Jersey Health Statistics
1998

MORTALITY

Statistical Overview
There were 71,140 deaths of New Jersey residents in 1998 (Table M3). The crude death rate was 876.6 per 100,000 population and the age-adjusted rate was 441.9 (Tables M1-M2 and Figure M1). The age-adjusted death rate for males was 53.8 percent higher than the rate for females and the age-adjusted death rate for blacks was 54.4 percent higher than the rate for whites (Table M2 and Figure M2). Since Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic ethnicity reporting on death certificates is known to be of poor quality, mortality data are not presented separately for Asians and Pacific Islanders or for Hispanics. Asians and Pacific Islanders are included in the Other race group and each Hispanic was included in the race group indicated on his/her death certificate.

Inpatient deaths decreased 20.7 percent and DOA (dead on arrival) deaths decreased 62.2 percent from the rates in 1989. Deaths occurring in the residence of the decedent increased 36.5 percent and nursing home deaths increased 87.2 percent over the 1989 proportions (Table M7). Burials decreased 10.8 percent from 1989 to 1998, while cremations rose 44.3 percent and entombments increased 37.0 percent (Table M9).

To increase accuracy, three years of data were averaged to compute life expectancy at birth. For persons born in New Jersey in 1996-1998, average life expectancy was 77.2 years. For females, it was 79.7 years and for males it was 74.4 years. Life expectancy for whites was 78.1 years and 71.6 years for blacks (Table M10 and Figure M4).

Causes of Death
The top nine causes of death remained unchanged from 1997. However, in 1998, HIV infection was no longer among the top ten causes. It moved to eleventh place, while diseases of the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries took the tenth place (Table M11). The ten leading causes of death accounted for 80.8 percent of deaths in 1998 (Table M12 and Figure M5). The three leading causes of death among all races and both sexes were heart disease, cancer, and stroke. These three alone accounted for 63.0 percent of the total. The fourth through sixth leading causes for females were COPD, pneumonia and influenza, and diabetes, while unintentional injuries was the fourth leading cause of death among males, followed by COPD and diabetes (Table M19). There were racial differences in leading causes of death. For example, HIV infection was the fourth leading cause of death among blacks and the fifteenth among whites (Table M20).

There were 291,606 years of potential life lost before age 65 among New Jerseyans in 1998. This is the sum of all the years of life not lived by persons dying before reaching age 65. Cancer was the leading cause of YPLL (years of potential life lost), followed by unintentional injuries and heart disease (Table M21 and Figure M8). Unintentional injuries was the leading cause of YPLL among males (Table M22 and Figure M10). Among blacks, HIV infection was the leading cause of YPLL (Table M23 and Figure M12).

The age-adjusted death rate due to cancer was 11.8 percent lower in 1998 than it was in 1988. Age-adjusted deaths rates for all cancer sites decreased over the decade except for leukemia and other hematopoietic tissue. In 1998, lung and bronchus was the most common cancer mortality site, followed by colon/rectum and female breast (Table M24). Nearly 60 percent of cancer deaths occurred among those aged 45-64 (Table M27).

Firearms caused 374 deaths in 1998. Of those, 210 were suicides, 155 were homicides or legal intervention, 4 were accidental, and 5 were undetermined. The firearm death rate among males was 7.5 times the rate among females and the rate among blacks was 2.7 times the white rate (Table M30). Drug-related causes such as drug psychoses, drug dependence, nondependent abuse of drugs, accidental overdoses, and intentional poisonings resulted in 704 deaths and alcohol-related causes such as alcoholic psychoses, polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy, gastritis, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; alcohol dependence syndrome; nondependent abuse of alcohol; excessive blood alcohol level; and accidental alcohol poisoning resulted in 424 deaths in 1998. The drug-related death rate among males was three times that of females and the alcohol-related death rate among males was 3.4 times the rate among females (Tables M31-M32).

Infant, Fetal, and Maternal Mortality
The number and rate of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal deaths remained virtually unchanged from 1997 (Table M40). For the first time in this series of reports, the birth/infant death matched file was used to analyze infant mortality. In addition to having perinatal data to include in the analysis, race/ethnicity of the mother (rather than of the infant) was used to coincide with the denominators used to calculate rates. The infant mortality rate among black non-Hispanics remained three times as high as the rate among white non-Hispanics. The largest increase in infant mortality rate was among Asian and Pacific Islander non-Hispanics (Table M41). Seventy percent of infant deaths occurred in the neonatal period (within the first 27 days of life). Infants who were part of a multiple birth were five times as likely to die within the first year of life as singletons. Mortality was negatively related to birth weight and gestational age. Infants whose mothers received no prenatal care were nine times as likely to die within the first year of life as those whose mothers received prenatal care. Infant mortality rates were twice as high for infants of unmarried mothers versus married mothers and for mothers who smoked during pregnancy versus mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy (Table M44). Nearly two-thirds of infant deaths had a medical risk factor reported on their birth certificate. Incompetent cervix, hydramnios/oligodramnios, and previous preterm or small-for-gestational-age infant were the most commonly reported medical risk factors among infant deaths. Of newborns whose mothers had an incompetent cervix, 8.7 percent died within the first year of life (Table M45).

Congenital anomalies, disorders relating to short gestation and unspecified low birth weight, and respiratory distress syndrome remained the three leading causes of infant deaths. Maternal complications of pregnancy was the third leading cause of white non-Hispanic infant deaths and SIDS was the third leading cause among black non-Hispanic infants (Table M46).

The fetal mortality rate was slightly higher than it was in 1997 (Table M40). Mothers aged 40-44 had a higher rate than other age groups. The rate among black non-Hispanics was twice as high as the rate for white non-Hispanics and Hispanics (Table M47).

The Technical Notes section contains information on sources of data, allocation of data by residence or occurrence, quality of data, racial and ethnic classification, definitions, rates and ratios, and cause of death rankings.

MORTALITY DATA TABLES 
Table M1 Crude Race-, Sex-, and Age-Specific Death Rates, 1988-1998
Table M2 Age-Adjusted Death Rates by Race and Sex
Table M3 Mortality by Detailed Race Groups
Table M4 Mortality by County of Residence
Table M5 Mortality in Selected Municipalities
Table M6 Mortality by Month and Day of the Week
Table M7 Place of Death, 1989-1998
Table M8 Place of Death for Leading Causes of Death
Table M9 Disposition of Decedents, 1989-1998
Table M10 Life Expectancy at Birth by Race and Sex
Table M11 Leading Causes of Death, 1988-1998
Table M12 Leading Causes of Death by Age Group
Table M13 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among 1-4 Year Olds, 1988-1998
Table M14 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among 5-14 Year Olds, 1988-1998
Table M15 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among 15-24 Year Olds, 1988-1998
Table M16 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among 25-44 Year Olds, 1988-1998
Table M17 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among 45-64 Year Olds, 1988-1998
Table M18 Leading Causes of Death in 1998 Among Residents 65 and Over
Table M19 Leading Causes of Death by Sex
Table M20 Leading Causes of Death by Race
Table M21 Leading Causes of YPLL, New Jersey and United States
Table M22 Leading Causes of YPLL by Sex
Table M23 Leading Causes of YPLL by Race
Table M24 Cancer Mortality by Site, 1988 and 1998
Table M25 Cancer Mortality Among Males by Age and Site
Table M26 Cancer Mortality Among Females by Age and Site
Table M27 Cancer Mortality by Age and Site
Table M28 YPLL due to Cancer by Sex
Table M29 YPLL due to Cancer by Race
Table M30 Firearm Mortality by Age, Race, Sex, and Intention
Table M31 Drug-Related Mortality by Age, Race, and Sex
Table M32 Alcohol-Related Mortality by Age, Race, and Sex
Table M33 Fatal Injuries at Work by Age and Sex
Table M34 YPLL due to Unintentional Injury by Race
Table M35 Alcohol-Related, Drug-Related, and Injury Deaths by County of Residence
Table M36 Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36A White Male Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36B White Female Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36C Black Male Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36D Black Female Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36E Other Race Male Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36F Other Race Female Mortality by Cause and Age Group
Table M36G Male Mortality, Race Not Stated, by Cause and Age Group
Table M36H Female Mortality, Race Not Stated, by Cause and Age Group
Table M37 Deaths by Detailed Cause and Age Group
Table M38 Deaths by Cause Group and County of Residence
Table M39 Deaths by Detailed Cause and County of Residence
Table M40 Infant, Neonatal, Postneonatal, Fetal, and Maternal Mortality, 1989-1998
Table M41 Infant Mortality by Race/Ethnicity of Mother, 1989-1998
Table M42 Infant, Neonatal, Postneonatal, Fetal, and Maternal Mortality by County
Table M43  Infant, Neonatal, Postneonatal, Fetal Mortality in Selected Municipalities
Table M44 Infant Mortality by Selected Characteristics and Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Table M45 Infant Mortality by Medical Risk Factors and Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Table M46 Infant, Neonatal, and Postneonatal Deaths by Cause
Table M47 Fetal Mortality by Age and Race/Ethnicity of Mother
MORTALITY ILLUSTRATIONS 
Figure M1 Crude and Age-Adjusted Death Rates, 1988-1998
Figure M2 Age-Adjusted Death Rates by Race and Sex
Figure M3 Age-Adjusted Death Rates by County
Figure M4 Life Expectancy by Race and Sex
Figure M5 Leading Causes of Death
Figure M6 Average Number of Deaths per Day by Cause
Figure M7 Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Leading Causes of Death, 1988 and 1998
Figure M8 Leading Causes of YPLL
Figure M9 YPLL Rates for Leading Causes, New Jersey and the United States
Figure M10 Leading Causes of YPLL by Sex
Figure M11 YPLL Rates for Leading Causes by Sex
Figure M12 Leading Causes of YPLL by Race
Figure M13 YPLL Rates for Leading Causes by Race
Figure M14 Cancer YPLL by Site
Figure M15 Drug, Alcohol, and Firearm Death Rates by Race and Sex


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