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newjerseystatemuseumtrentonnewjerseyartistseries ThispublicationaccompaniestheNewJerseyArtistSeriesexhibitiononviewattheNewJerseyStateMuseumTrentonfromJanuary24throughMay102015TheNewJerseyArtistSerieshighlightstheworkofartistsbornlivingorworkinginNewJersey.exhibitioncuratorMargaretM.OReillycataloguedesignJulianneDomm2015NewJerseyStateMuseumTrentonWendelA.Whiteretainsallcopyrighttohisstatementsandorreproductionsofhisphotographs.Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanselectronicdigitalormechanicalwithoutwrittenpermissionofthepublisherexceptforportionsusedbyreviewersorbyeducatorsforclassroomuse.Unlessotherwisenotedallinformationimagesandstatementshavebeensuppliedbytheartist.coverimageLunchBoxLarkinFranklinSr.EatonvilleHistoricPreservationEatonvilleFL2014 newjerseystatemuseumtrentonnewjerseyartistseries ManifestprojectisanefforttoseekoutobjectsinpublicprivatecollectionsthatrepresentthematerialremainsofslaveryabolitionsegregationFrederickDouglassHarrietTubmanAlbionTourgeeZoraNealeHurstonHarlemtheU.S.CivilWarandtheCivilRightsEratonameafewofthenarrativesthatinspiredthesephotographs.Thesephotographsarerepresentationsofobjectsdocumentsphotographsandbooksstoredincasesandlecabinetsastreasuredhistoricalartifacts.Theoutcomeofthiseffortistotransformtheusuallysmallandoftenfragileremnantsofthestruggleforfreedomandequalityintoimageslargerinscalethantheoriginalsubjects.ThevariouscollectionsincludevernaculardocumentssuchasapaymentreceiptforabankloanlongheldobjectsofspecialimportanceinthehistoryofplacessuchasAtlanticCityNJEatonvilleFlorOmahaNEandvariousofcialmaterialsthatrecallthetransformationsofcommunitiesovertime.Iamincreasinglyinterestedintheresidualpowerofthematerialremainsofthepast.Theabilityofobjectstotranscendlivescenturiesandmillenniaoffersaremarkablemechanismforfoldingtimebringingthepastandthepresentintoasharedspacethatisuniquelysuitedtoartisticexploration.WhiletheartifactsareremarkableasvisualevidenceoflivesandeventsIalsointendtheviewertoconsiderthisinformalcatalogasasurveyoftheimpulseandmotivationtopreservehistoryandmemory.Thevariousprojectsthathaveoccupiedmyattentionduringthepasttwodecadesareinretrospectpartofasingularefforttoseekouttheghostsandresonantmemoriesexpressedinvariousaspectsofthematerialworld.Iamdrawntothestoriesdwellingwithinaspoonacowbellabookaphotographorapartiallyburneddocument.Allarepotentialagentsofvision.Thephotographsinthisportfolioaremadewithalargeformatlm-basedcameraplacedveryclosetothesubjectandprintedonpaperwithaninkjetprinter.WendelA.WhiteFatherFlanaganandPresidentCoolidgeatBoysTown.DouglassCountyHistoricalSocietyOmahaNE2014artistsSTATEMENTthe MORHowdidyougetyourstartinphotographyWWIreallystartedphotographyinhighschool.IwenttoMontclairHSandinoneofmyartclassesIhadateacherVernonMaximwhowasaceramicistbuthadaloveofphotography.Partoftheclasswasceramicsandpartofitlookedatphotographs.Irememberhimshowinga16mmdocumentaryaboutDorotheaLangeandthengettingtoworkinthedarkroom.Wewerebeingtaughtwitha35mmcamerabutalsowitha4x5viewcamera.Inhighschool.Itwaskindofremarkable.MORWereyouthinkingofcareeratthispointinhighschoolOrwereyouonanotherpathWWNonoIwaspathless.YouknowtherewerevariousthingsIwasinterestedin.IwasgoodatsciencebutyouknowflakyandbohemianasastudentIwasntreallyatthatagethinkingaboutwhataremycareerstepsgoingtobewhatcollegeamIgoingtogotothatwillleadtowhatcareeretc.MaybesometimestoadisadvantagebutthatswhereIwas.AndIthinkthetimelentitselftothat.AndIalsowasinafamilythatdidnthavemuchbackgroundorexperienceintheartssotheyreallywerenotdiscouragingbutbut..MORtheycouldntleadyou.Therewasnoexamplethere.Likeforalotofus.WWYesyes.Soitstartedthatwayandtookholdofme.ThroughouthighschoolIcontinuedtoandIthinkthatexperiencewasearlyinhighschool.WehadmovedfromPhiladelphiaandIhadswitchedovertoMontclairpartwayintothe9thgradeandsosomewherearound9thor10thgradeiswhenthathappened.IguessIgotkindofgoodatitandatonepointIgotcommissionedtocreateaphotomuralforthehighschoolofficesoduringthesummerIgotthecameraandaccesstothedarkroomandfilmandmaterialsandIwentaroundandphotographedthebuildinginwhatIrecallunfortunatelyIhavenodocumentationbutIcreatedthispiecethatwaskindofabstractmodernistimageryofbitsandpiecesofthebuildingthatweputtogetherintoakindofcollagemontagepieceofthefragmentsofthedifferentpartsoftheschool.Itwasputupintheofficeandstayedthereforsomewhile.MORThatmusthavegivenyousomecondenceWWAbsolutelyIthinkIevengotonehundreddollarsMORBigmoneyformanyofusbackthenWWYesexactly.MORClearlyhistoryisinyourwork.DidyouhavealoveofhistoryatthattimeWWWellIdontthinkIspecificallyhadaloveofhistory.Certainlynotinthecontextoftheclassroomandschool.IdidokaybutIthinkitreallycamefromINTERVIEWConfederateShellFortSumter1861.AlexanderLibrarySpecialCollectionsRutgersUniversityNewBrunswickNJ2014hotographerWendelWhiteinterviewedbyCuratorofFineArtMargaretOReillyonMondayDecember12014atRichardStocktonCollegeofNewJerseyGallowayNJP familyconversations.Ilovedthesortoffamilymealsthatweretypicallyholidaysbutsometimestheyweremorefrequentlythanspecificholidays.Whenpeoplecametovisit.MyparentsseparatedwhenIwasveryyoungandmymotherandImovedinwithmygrandmotherinPhiladelphia.Andshewassharingahousewithmyunclethetwoofthemhadpurchasedahousetogether.Myotherunclepurchasedahouseacoupleofblocksaway.Sotherewasafamilycommunitynearby.Andsoatholidaymealspeoplecametoherhouseandwewerealwaysthereandtheyalwayshadthesegreatstoriesaboutgrowingup.MORSothiswasalivinghistory.WWYes.Theytoldthesegreatstoriesaboutallthecharactersinthefamilydifferentexperienceseventhestoriesabouttheexperienceswithsegregationbecausetheyhadandwestillhaveinourfamilythefamilyfarmthatmygreat-grandfatherpurchasedaftertheCivilWar.Allofthemancestorsareburiedthere.Andtheywouldtellstoriesaboutgoingthere.Mymotherandherbrothersnotallofthembutseveralofthemwouldoftengoandspendtheirsummerdownatthefarm.TheylivedinNewJerseybutwouldgototheirgrandparentsfarm.MORAndwherewasthefarmWWOutsideAhoskieNorthCarolina.BertieCounty.IthinkitsoneofthepoorestcountiesinNorthCarolina.Interestingsortofplace.Stillveryruraldoesntlookmuchdifferentthanitdidthen.Andsoallofthatthewholenotionofhowsegregationaffectedtheirlivesbecausetheyhadlivesthatspannedthenorthandthesouth.ItwastheideathatyoudmovetraincarsasthetraingottoPhiladelphiaandthenyouwouldhavetoswitchtothecoloredcargoingsouth.OrevendrivingtheirfathermygrandfatherhadacarandwoulddrivethemdownonceyoupassedintoDelawareitwasknowingorfindingtheplacesyoucouldstopalongtheroadtoeatoruseabathroomoranythinglikethat.Soallofthatwasfascinatingtome.Andthewaytheytoldthosestories.MyunclesstoriesofWorldWarIIalsotalkedaboutsegregationduringthewarandinthemilitaryandtheirexperiencesinEurope.Interestingstoriesaboutwhitepeoplethatdidnttreatthemthesameaswhitepeoplehere.Eventhoughtheyhadsomegoodrelationswithwhiteshere.Agoodnumberofstoriesaboutthosekindsofthingsanddifferentmemoriesofthefamilysactivities.Mymotherwastheyoungestofallofthemsosomeofthestoriesstretchedbacktobeforeshewasborn.Especiallythe1930s1940sandintothe1950siswherethebulkoftheirstoriescamefromthekeytimestheytalkedabout.IrememberawonderfulstoryaboutmyuncletakingmygrandmothertoCubaforvacationbecauseitwastheplacetogo.HipperthanevenAtlanticCityatthetime.Therewerecasinosandthebeacheswerebeautifulmusicandfun.ItsfascinatingtothinkofitinthattimebeforeCastro.AndIhaveapictureinmymindofthem.AphotographofmyuncleandmygrandmotherinCubaonvacation.MORSowhendidthisinterestinphotographythatyoudevelopedinhighschoolandthisloveofyourfamilyhistorycometogetherOrdidtheytakealongtimetocometogetherWWWellyesconsciously.MymotherIthinkrecognizedmymotherwasgoodatencouragingalmostanythingIdid.EventhoughlikeIsaidshedidntnecessarilyhaveabackgroundinarts.MORShewasntgoingtostieyou.WWAndshewastheonewhoalsohadatremendousinterestinfamilyandfamilyhistory.Shemaintainedthatherwholelife.Intheearly1970ssheandherbrothersandmaybesomeothermembersofthefamilydecidedtheyweregoingtostartfamilyreunions.AndsotheystarteddoingthesefamilyreunionsinNorthCarolina.AndwiththatIhaveahardtimerecallinghowitcameaboutbecausetherewereacoupleofdifferenttimesbutbythenImphotographingandwhatnotsoImatapointwhereImreallybringingmycameraalotofplacesandtakingpicturesofthings. MORDidyouthinkofyourselfasaprofessionalWWNoImstillinhighschool.IstartphotographingthosefirstreunionsandIhavephotographsofthose.LateronIrememberjustmymotherandIwespecificallytookatriptovisitfamilymembersforthepurposethatIcouldphotographthem.AndsotherewasthisbeginningbutIthinkIwasatapointwithphotographyandartwhereitwasalljustopportunitiestomakepictures.IwasntthinkingabouthowwouldIusethis.WhatwouldthatbelikeAndIhadntyetbeenexposedtoakindofacademicenvironmentthatwouldleadmetothinkingaboutthephotographicimageinthatway.AssolidastheteacherswerethatIhadatMontclairandIwasonlythereforashorttimebutIcontinuedtogetalotofsupportatmysecondhighschoolinNewJerseybuttheywereallstillteachersofatypethatwerehappythatstudentsweredoinggoodworkandwereinterested.Someofthemtherewereacoupleofteachersthatwereactiveasartistsatthetimeandremainedactive.MORWeretheyexposingyoutotheworkofotherphotographersWWAlittlebit.ButIthinkthattheproblemwasthatnoneofthemwasreallyItwasrightatthatmomentIwasgoingwithmyfriendsintoNewYorkandvisitingtheoneortwogalleriesthatcoveredphotography.AndIverydistinctlyrememberLeeWitkinsgallerythatwasinhisapartmentuptowninthe60sbeforeopeningthegallerydowntown.Iremembergoingupandwalkingthroughtheselittleroomslookingatphotographyonthewallsandhavingthatexperience.TherejustwasntquiteenoughtogetmuchexposurethroughtheworldthatIwascomingthrough.TheyweretheseartiststeachersbuttheydidnthaveallthatmuchtooffertosayThisiswhatisgoingoninphotography.ButIgotbooksfrommyuncleandacoupleofdifferentpeoplesawthatIhadthisinterest.Iwasbeingencouraged.SomebodygavemeacopyandIstillhaveitofBruceDavidsonsEast100thStreet.AndofcourseGordonParkswastheothermodel.MymotherwaskindaofIknowGordonParksbuttheproblemforherwasbuttheresonlyGordonParkstheresnobodyelse.MORTheresonlyonesowhydoweneedanotherone.WWRightrightWhatarethechancesoffillinginanotherspotSothatwasthebeginning.ThenIwentontotheSchoolofVisualArtsandIhadsomegreatteachersandpeopleIvekeptincontactwithovertheyearsbutwhenIwentthroughtherewerenoartistsofcolorteachingphotography.MORWhatyearwasthisWWSeventy-fourseventy-fivetoeighty.Therewereacoupleofstaffpeopleandsometeachinginotherareasbutnotinphotography.AlthoughtheacademicadvisorwhowastheacademicadvisorforeverybodywasAfricanAmerican.OfcoursethestudentbodywasdiversebutIcannotrecallanyoneofcolor.MysenioradvisorwasJulioMitchellaLatinoartistandthatwastheclosestIcametoanybodyotherthanapredominatelywhitepredominatelymaletherewerejustahandfulofwomen.Thechairofthedepartmentwasawoman.IdontthinkIactuallyhadanyphotographyclasseswithanyofthefemalefaculty.ButIknewthatAliceBeck-Odettetaughtphotographyandacoupleofotherwomenwereteachingphotography.AndcertainlyIhadfemaleteachersinareaslikearthistoryandotherclassesbutphotographywasstillthiswhitemalebastionmoresothantheotherdisciplines.IlearnedalotbuttherewerenodiscussionsthatIrecalldealingwithcultureandtheideaofthehistoricalframeworkforimagery.MORWasitmoretechnicalorfocusedonaestheticsThefoundationsthatmanyofushaveearlyinourartmakingcareersWWExactlyexactly.MORTheideaofwhatyouwerephotographingwasnotdiscussedWWRight. MORSowheredidthatcomefromWhendidthatnotionenterintoyourconsciousnessWWIthinkingraduateschool.Ihadagoodmentor.AgainIwasinanotherprogramasmallerprogramthatwasdominatedbywhiteartistsforthemostpart.TherewereoneortwoAsianartiststeachingnoAfricanAmericanteaching.IwasattheUniversityofTexasUTinAustinin1980.ButmyprimarymentorMarkGoodmanwasfantastic.Itwasagoodcoincidence.HeandhiswifehadjustarrivedinAustintobeginteaching.GarryWinograndhadleft.HeGoodmanarrived.Iarrivedatthesametime.Hewascomingfromthenortheast.HisbasictrainingincollegewasasananthropologistbuthebecameaphotographerbyspendingyearsatApeironApeironWorkshopCentersinPhotographydoingstuffattheWorkshopandgraduallybeingmentoredbyvariousphotographers.Hedgottengrantsandfellowshipsandthingslikethatbuthecamefromthisanthropologybackground.ThiswasthefirsttimethatIwastalkingtosomebodyalotaboutphotographywhowasconcernedwithcontentaswellastheformalqualitiesbutverymuchconcernedwithconstructingsomethingwiththisinthisway.EventhoughmyseniorthesisinundergraduateschoolwasprojectorienteditwasreallynotuntilthenthatIreallyhadlengthyconversationsabouttheideaofworkingonlargerbodiesofworkinadifferentway.AndIthinkthatthatprobablymoldedalotofhowIstillworktoday.Thatinfluencewasverystrong.IwasattheirhouseeatingallthetimeIdgooutwithMarkphotographingtogetheralltheseconversationslunchestogetherbecauseIwashisTAteachingassistant.MORSothisbeginstoinformyourworkandyourworldview.WWYesmyworldviewexactly.MORWhatwasyourworklikethenWWActuallymyworkwasabsolutelynothinglikewhathewasdoing.Iwasdoingtheselandscapeswithcameramovementsotheywereveryimpressionisticviewsofthelandscapeveryexperimental.IwasalsomakingtheseotherpicturesatthesametimeIwasdoing35mmblackandwhiteimagesnotlookingthroughtheviewfinderandtheneditingandfindingbitsandpiecesthatIthoughtwereinterestinginthisveryexperimentalway.SoIhadayearafterIfinishedundergraduatethatIgotajobatVisualArtsforawholeyear.TheyhadafascinatingconceptatleastunderAliceBeck-Odettenotsureiftheystilldoit.Youhaveaoneyearjobandtheykickedyououtafterayear.Theypickedastudentwhowouldworkintheequipmentcageforoneyear.Theypickedsomebodygoodandsaidheresafull-timejobforayearbutthenyoureouttahere.Youhadtofigureoutwheretogobecausetheydidntwantyoutobecomejustanotherstaffpersonatthecollege.AndsoduringthattimeImetapainterwhowasvisitingNewYorkfromUTandthatshowIendedupgoingtoUT.IdidntknowMarkorhiswork.MORHowdidyoufeelaboutgoingtoTexasleavingtheNortheastWWItwasanadventure.Iwaslikethisisgreat.IwasstillnotanydifferentthanIdbeeninhighschoolImnotsurewhatImgoingtodo.MORSoyoudidntfeellikeImleavingtheNewYorkartsceneWWNo.MORYoumaynothavefeltlikepartofthatyetWWRightIdidntfeellikepartofit.Exactly.IdtriedtodoalittlecommercialworkanditwasnotsomethingIwashappywith.Itneverworkedoutfinanciallyformeassomebodystartingout.Itwasdifficult.SoIwentbecauseIthoughtitwouldbeagreatadventureanditseemedinteresting.AssomeonewhowasborninNewarklivedinNewJerseyNewYorkandPhillyTexasseemedexotic.TherewasasensethatIwasgoingsomeplacethatwaskindofunique.HairFrederickDouglass.RushRheesLibraryUniversityofRochesterNY2014 AndMarkswifeSybilalsoaphotographerwasdoingalotofworkwithcoloratthetime.ShewasinvestigatingandendedupwritingabookaboutphotographsintheUTcollectionbyanitinerantphotographer.ShehadstartedintheAmericanStudiesprogram.ShewasagoodfriendandconvincedmetotakeclassesbecauseIcouldelectiveclassesinmyMFAprogram.SoItookacoupleofclassesinAmericanStudieswithfolksthatweredealingwithphotography.AndsoatthesametimeIwasmakingtheseimpressionisticimagesIwasmakingtheseculturalimagestakingthe8x10viewcameraoutphotographingwithlargecolornegatives.Istillhaveallthat.ButIwasntdoinganythingwithitatthetime.Sothattookmethroughgraduateschool.MORSoyounishgraduateschoolandtheworldiswaitingforyou.WhatdidyoudecidetodoWWTherewerenojobstheresoIcamebacktoNewYork.GotajobinacamerastoresoIcouldmakesomemoney.AndbythenIwasmarried.MywifesfamilyhadanapartmentinBrooklynthattheycouldgiveusreallycheapsowewerekindofset.Wecouldgobacktoacheapapartment.Andwedidthatforfiveorsixyearsnofouryears.Itseemedlonger.MORAndyouretakingphotographsthewholetimeWWYestakingphotographsthewholetimemeetingpeopleexhibitingatthenowdefunctThirdEyeGalleryandatMidtownYPhotographyGallery.MichaelSpanowasdirectorandhewasrealsupportive.AndIwasinacamerastorewhereallthesereallyinterestingphotographerscamein.TimothyGreenfield-SanderswascominginandtheseguysthatwereprintingforexhibitionsattheMetyouknowprintingJamesVanDerZeeprints.Theycameinbecausewespecializedinphotographicpaperandthingslikethatmoresothansomeotherplaces.MORYouremeetinginterestingpeopleintheeld.WWYesinterestingpeoplesomeIknewandmeetingsomothers.RosalindFoxSolomonstillhavesomeautographedthings.AllofthatandImstartingtoexhibit.ImetDeborahWillisartistcuratorauthoreducatorbecauseinterestinglyoneofthefacultyatUTalsocamefromtheNortheastcamefromNewYorkandshewenttoschoolwithDebatPratt.AndwhenIwascomingbackEllenWallensteinsaidtomeOhyouregoingbacktoNewYork.MyfriendDebWilliswhoIwasinthegraduateprogramwithisattheSchomburgCenterforResearchinBlackCulture.Youshouldshowheryourwork.AndsoIcalledherandshesaidSurecomeonup.Fromthenwebecamefriendsandshebecamesupportiveofmyworkandhasincludedmeinanumberofbooksandshowsandthingslikethat.TheresstillapiecethatsoutthereinthePosingBeautyshowthatsbeentravelingaroundforever.AndIwasoneofonlytwoorthreecontemporaryphotographersgotincludedinthebookthatsheandBarbaraKrauthamerdidcalledEnvisioningEmancipationBlackAmericansandtheEndofSlavery.Thatsbeenagreatproductiverelationship.Shealsointroducedmetootherpeople.SothroughDebIwentofftomeetpeoplelikeDannyDawsonphotographerwhoImstillintouchwithImetJanetBordengalleristMarvinHiefermanphotographerandPeterMacGillgallerist.Andthereskindofagaprightthere.WhenIwasingraduateschoolIsuddenlyrealizedthatthelifesoundergraduateschooleverybodywasanadjunctfacultymemberatVisualArts.Idontthinktherewereanyfulltimefaculty.Sothatdidntseemsoattractive.MORRightpiecingtogether5or6jobs.WWButthatshowtheywereabletorunthatschool.ButinTexasheresMarkandhesgotthisfulltimejobandhesgottimetodohisworkandthatskindofdesirable.SoIcamebackreallywiththatinmind.IdidntgotoTexasandIdidntgointoagraduateprogramthinkingthatIwouldcomeouttoteach.Ididntevensortofconceptualizethatthatwouldbeanoutcomeassomanystudentsdotoday.SomanystudentsthinkifIgetmyMFAIllbeabletoteach.IwaslikethatsoundsgoodIlldothat. MORYoudidnthaveave-yearplanWWIdidnt.Ididntknowtherewerefive-yearplansSoDebwasreallygreatatmakingthoseintroductions.OhJulesAllenwasanotherpersonsheintroducedmeto.Andallofthemwerereallyhelpful.WestonNaefhewasattheMet.Ididntknowwhattodowithallthosecontacts.Ididntunderstandnetworking.MORYeahowtoapplynetworkingtoyourlife.WWIwentandtheywerereallysweettomeandtheytalkedtome.ButIsortofdidntunderstandhowtokeepgoingbacktothemandhowthatmightleadtosomething.BecauseIdidntquiteenvisionWellwherewouldthattakemeSotherewassortofafailingofmineandalsoIwouldsaynotthatIblameitofthewholearteducationthatIhadwasnotreallybuiltaroundthat.BecauseevenbythetimeofgraduateschoolMarkwassortofantiartworld.Hehadthisideathatyoujustmadepureworktherestofitwasjustnonsense.Sohewasneveronetosayhereshowyouhavetodoit.MOROrjointhisartistsgroupormeetthesepeopleandhavethemmentoryou.Ithinkthatwastrueforalotofusthough.WWYeaitwas.SoJanetBordenwasreallysweetandsheactuallytooksomeworkonconsignment.AnumberofpeoplewerenicebutdidntsaytomeatthetimeIwanttodosomethingwithyou.ButIdidntrecognizeJanetdidnthaveagalleryatthetime.Imetheractuallyinherapartment.Ishowedherworkandshewasnice.ItalkedtoherrecentlyshestillhasthatworkMORThatconsignmentcontractsgottobeupbynowWendelWWIdidntunderstandthatIneededtokeepthatconnectionaliveinasense.Andwhatitmeanttokeepitaliveandhowtogoaboutitandthatsortofstuff.SoIhadthisfirstintroductionfromDeborahtoallthesedifferentpeoplebutIdidntknowwhattodowithit.Andalotofthemwerenotdoinganything.PeterMacGilldidnthaveagalleryatthetimehehadleftLightGalleryandhehadntopenedhisnewgalleryyet.JanetBordenhadntopenedhergalleryyet.IdidntreallyknowwhotheonlypersonwhowasataninstitutionwasWestonNaefandIdidntgetthechancetositdownwithhimfacetoface.HewaswillingtotakeaportfoliotolookatandhegavemeahandwrittennotebackIthinkbecauseIhadcomewiththisrecommendationfromDebWillis.DannyDawsonwasattheStudioMuseumofHarlemandhewasverysupportivebutagainIdidntknowwhattodo.MORSoundslikeyoudidntknowtosayyoudonthaveagallerybutdoyouknowwhoelseIshouldtalktoOrhowtomakethosenextsteps.WWSoIdidntknowwhattotherebutIdidhavethisideathatIdliketoteach.AndthathadcomefromseeingwhatMarkGoodmanwasdoingandwhathislifewaslike.SoIstartedworkingonthat.IgotanopportunityandIstartedteachingasanadjunctfacultymemberattheSchoolofVisualArts.NotreallyknowingbetterIstartedsomeonecameinthecamerastoreonetimeandsaidWouldyoubeinterestedinvolunteeringImpartofagroupcalledVolunteerPhotographersIcantrememberthenameofthegroup.Buttheywereagroupofphotographersthatvolunteeredtheirservicestoteachatvariousaroundthecity.AndIsaidsureandIwoundupgoing.IgotassignedtoteachanditwasgreatbecauseitwasnearbybecauseIwasworkingon43rdStreetIgotassignedtoteachatthehighschoolinsideBellevuePsychiatricHospitalBellevuehadthiswardthestudentslivedthereandwerebeingtreated.Theywerentcomingandgoingtheystayedthere.AndtheyhadaNewYorkCityschoolthatwasinsidethebuilding.Itwasreallyahallway.Thestudentsthatweredoingwellandhadearnedtheprivilegeoftakingthisphotographyclasswerepartofmyclass.AndIalwayshadateacherwithme.WewouldgooutandphotographalittlebitintheneighborhoodandthenIdshowthemalittlebitinthedarkroom.Andeventuallywewouldputtogetherworkandwehadanexhibitionupon 6thAvenuesomeplacewhereverthevolunteerphotographersgrouphadgottenabigspaceonthegroundfloorofacorporatebuilding.Andtheydisplayedthisworkthekidshaddonefromalloverthecity.Youknowitwasreallynice.Ididthatforayear.AndIwasapplyingforfulltimeteachingjobsatvariousplacesaroundthecountryandgotaninterviewforhereStocktonCollege.AfterthefactIfoundoutthatoneofthethingstheyweremostinterestedinwasthefactthatIhadbeenteachingatBellevuePsychiatricHospital.SothatstoodouttothemasaninterestingthingMaybeitmademeseemmorebattleworn.Kindoflikeifhesabletoworkwiththosekindsofkidsinphotographythenhesnotgoingtobeflusteredintheclassroom.Idontreallyknowwhattheperceptionwas.Idoknowthatissomethingtheyfoundcompelling.Sothatwasgreat.AndIstartedteachinghere.In1986IcametoStockton.MywifeCarmelaColon-WhitedidntwanttogiveupherjobsowesplitthedifferenceandwemovedtoFreehold.ShewascommutingintoNewYorkworkingatCitiBankatthetime.Iwascommutingdownhere.Thatlastedforalittlewhile.ThenshewaspregnantanddecidednottoreturntothejobinNewYorkaftermydaughterwasborn.ImhavingtroublerememberingthesequencebutshedidgobacktoworkatsomepointandwemoveddownherewhenmydaughterwasaboutfouryearsoldsowestayedinFreeholdaboutfiveyears.MORSohowdidyouadapttoteachingWWIfeltlikeIadaptedprettywell.IfeltIstartedeasybecauseIhadtaughtclassesatVisualArtsItaughtworkshopsatICP.ThatwasapersonwhocontinuedtohaveanimpactonmylifewasCharlieStainbackformerDirectorofExhibitionInternationalCenterofPhotography.CharlieinvitedmetoteachworkshopsatICP.MORSoteachingwasntforeigntoyouanymoreWWNoitwasnt.Althoughdoingitinthiscontextwasalittledifferent.WhenIcameIwasgivenaclassinthehistoryofphotography.IstillwassortofnewandittookmeawhileotherthaninastudioclasstofigureoutwhatIneededtodotoprepareforlectureclasses.MORSuretheskillsetisdifferent.WWExactly.IthinkIgotbetteratthat.Butmystrengthisstillinthestudio.ThatswhereIthinkIcaninteractmorefluidlywithpeopleonanindividualone-on-onebasis.IhavemylecturesandpresentationsanddemosbutthenmystrengthisthatindividualgoingfromstudenttostudentHereswhatyoumightwanttodo.Heresanidea.Heresapossibility.AndholdingallofthatinmyheadsothatwhenIcomebacktothemahalfhourlaterIstillrememberwhattheirproblemwas.Thedirectcontactandtheabilitytoholdallofthesedetailsinmyheadduringclasstimeissomethingthathasalwayscomenaturallytome.MORWhatwasyourownworklikeatthistimeDiditchangedrasticallyWWDuringthetimewewerelivinginBrooklynandIwasworkinginNewYorkbeforeIgotthisjobImadeaswitchfromthatmoreexperimentalworktosuddenlydoingmoreformalblackandwhiteimagesofthelandscape.AndIbecameveryinterestedintheindustriallandscapeintheGowanusCanalRedHookareaandthateventuallyspreadtotheJerseyside.IwasphotographingRahwayLindenthatareaandeventuallyafriendofminethathadgonetoBloomsburgoutinPennsylvaniaandknewsomeoftheindustrialareastheretookmeonadriveoutandshowedmealltheindustrialareas.Hewasalsoaphotographersowephotographedtogether.ButitwasthatBrooklynRedHookGowanusareathatIwasjustfascinatedwithandIwouldjustwalkaroundthoseareasandphotograph.ThirdAvenuethebridgethatcomesover.AndthatwastheworkIwasdoingwhenIfirstcamehere.InfactthatwastheworkthatMichaelBzdakandCharlieStainbackincludedinStatedasFactPhotographicDocumentsofNewJerseya1989groupphotographyexhibitionattheNewJerseyStateMuseum.ClubHarlemAtlanticCitySouvenirMallet.VickiGoldCollectionNewYorkNY2014 IhadoneotherjobbeforeIcamehere.Ileftthestore.DebcalledmeandsaidthatherfriendFoWilsontheartdirectoratEssenceMagazineneededsomeonetohelpthemorganizeapicturecollection.AnddidIthinkIwouldbeabletodoitAttheUniversityofTexasoneofthethingstheyhadusdowascatalogingcartes-de-visiteandthingslikethatsoIsaidIhavealittleexperiencewiththiskindoforganization.OnethingledtoanotherandIleftthestoreandworkedatEssenceoccasionallyfillinginatthestorefromtimetotimewhentheyneededme.AtEssenceIwasworkingthreeorfourdaysaweekhelpingthemorganizestuffthatwasjustthrownintrunksonthefloorafterashootwasover.ThensomebodywouldcomeandsayHeyweneedapictureofBillCosby.Wellweshothimitssomewhereoverthere.Myjobwastoputsomeordertothis.SoIorganizeditsincetheyessentiallyhadanindexwithalltheissuesIordereditbyissuesotheycouldsearchthatway.WhenIlefttocometoStocktonDebandIhadlunchtogether.SortofcongratulationsgoodluckoutinJersey.Shetoldmethestoryaboutthissmalltownthatsheusedtogoto.ShegrewupinthePhiladelphiaareaandhadcousinsinWhitesboroNewJerseywhichisrightbyWildwoodandusedtogooutthereinthesummertimewhenshewasakid.Shesaiditsthisveryinterestinglittleblacktownyoumightbeinterestedintakingsomephotographsofit.SoafterIwashereforacoupleofyearsonedayIdecidedtogo.Istartedtowalkaroundthereandtalkedtoacoupleofpeopleandstartedphotographing.ThenIkeptphotographingthosetownsandonetownledtoanothertownledtoanothertownledtoanothertown.MORAndwhenyouweredoingthisdidyouhaveaseriesinmindWereyoujustdoingitforyourselfWWIwasdoingitmainlyformyself.MyfriendhadtoldmeshethoughtitwouldbeinterestingsoIthoughtIwouldgiveitatry.IhadnoideathatIwouldincorporatetext.Ihadnoideathatthehistorypiecewouldbeincorporated.ThatwasjustsomethingthatemergedbecauseIthenstartedhavingconversationswithpeopleinthesetownsthatwereliketheconversationsthatIrememberedinmychildhoodwithmyfamilyabouttheirexperiencethehistoryoftheircommunitywhathadhappenedallofthesethingsthathadgoneoninsidetheircommunity.Andthatsthefirsttimeitcamebackaroundforme.MORButnoconceptthatSmallTownsSmallTownsBlackLivesAfricanAmericanCommunitiesinSouthernNewJerseyabookbyWendelWhiteandDeborahWillisthebookwasgoingtocomeoutofthisWWThesecondyearIwasdoingitDebwasputtingashowtogethercalledConvergenceEightPhotographersanothertravelingshow.ItwasorganizedbytheVisualStudiesWorkshopandopenedatPRCinBostonandtraveledtoadozenlocationsaroundthecountry.AndthatwasthefirsttimeIexhibitedtheworkanditwasthecemeteryworkwiththenarrativeandphotographs.EvenwhenIwenttoWhitesboroIwasrecordingtheconversationsandtakingnotesbutIdidntknowwhy.ItwasjustsomethingtodowhileIwastalkingtopeople.IdidntknowthatIwasactuallygoingtouseit.ItwasnotuntilIstartedtophotographthecemeterieswheretherewerenopeoplethatIkindofconceptualizedtheideathatanarrativewouldmakesenseherebecausethereisnotown.Thesewouldjustbepicturesofheadstonesthatwouldbemeaninglessinawaytomostpeoplewithoutthenarrativeoftheseremarkablecommunities.MORSowhetherconsciouslyorunconsciouslyyouwerebecomingaculturalhistorian.Maybeinspiteofyourself.WWRightalthoughIalwaysholdbackjustalittlebitfromsayinghistorian.ImalwayshonoredbythatnotionthatpeoplefeellikeImdoingthisbutImreallynottrained.MORIthinkthatswhywesayculturalhistorianbecauseyouaretakingparticularaspects.AlotofusincuratorialeldswhoknowandrespectyourworkIthinkwevecometothinkofyouthatway.Theyarebeautifulneartphotographsbuttheyaredocumentarytoo.Theyarefallingsomewhereinbetween.Theystandontheirownbutthenarrativeaddstothembuttheyareinnowaydiminishedwithoutthenarrative.Youareaculturalhistorian.Youcanacceptthatterm.Youshould.WWIndoingSmallTownsBlackLivesIdidntalwaysputthetimeandweightintoCommunityAthatmightbemorehistoricallyimportantthanIdidinCommunityBwhichmightnotbeasimportantbuttomevisuallywasreallyinteresting. MORSothevisualstillcomesrstWWYestherewerethesewonderfulstructuresthatIcouldphotographorpeopleinvitedmeintotheirhomesandthosehomeseemedtolendthemselvesreallywelltothephotographsthatIwasmaking.Therewereavarietyoffactorsthathadanimpact.IfyougothroughthatbookaperfectexampleisatownlikeGouldtown.ThereareonlyoneortwopicturesthatIdidinGouldtown.InrealitythatsmuchmoreimportanthistoricallythanthecemeteryinPortRepublicbutIgotmorecaughtupinthenarrativeinPortRepublicthanIdidinGouldtown.MORButthatgoesbacktothenotionofpersonalizingit.Bringsyoubacktonarrativesandthefamilystoriesyouheardasachild.MORSohowdidSchoolsfortheColoredgrowoutofSmallTownsItdidgrowoutofitdirectlydidntitYouhadgreatsuccesswithSmallTowns.Itwasacceptedittraveled.Ifwedidntknowyoubeforeweallknewyouandyourworkthen.WWThatwasabitofluckbutalsoabitofconsciouswantingtodosomethingandIwasntsurewhat.InfactIhadaconversationwithLillianLevyaboutthisandIsaidIvegotthisbodyofworkandImnotsure.ShewasencouragingShesaidIhadtokeepwithit.IhadanexhibitionatHopkinsHouseinHaddonTownship.SomehowthepersonatthereatthattimewasintouchwiththepeopleinWhitesboroandwithStedmanGrahamandtheyallsaidtohertheresthisguywhosbeencomingdownandphotographing.Thiswasnow1999or2000.SoIgottheHopkinsHouseexhibition.JaioMingthecuratorfromTheNoyesMuseumOceanvilleNJsawthatexhibitionandcametomeandaskedifIhadmoreandlearnedmoreabouttheproject.BecausethepicturesatHopkinswereonlyofWhitesboro.SoItoldherIhadimagesofothersouthJerseycommunities.Shesaidletsdoanexhibition.ItwasalsofortunatethatLarrySchmidtwasthereformerNoyesExecutiveDirectorandhehadahistorybackgroundanditwasthe20thanniversaryoftheMuseumsoallthosethingscametogether.AndsheJaiocamefromapublicationbackgroundattheMetandwestartedthinkingaboutwhowedputinit.SoDebWilliswasselected.AndStedmanGrahamstillhadinterestsohewroteandweaskedClemthelatehistorianClementA.Pricetowritethesubstantialhistoricalpiece.WhenJaioMinglefttheMuseumwewereinanoddplaceandIknewitwouldtakeawhiletogetsomeonesoIsuggestedthattheyhireaguestcuratorandsoCharlieStainbackcamebackintoit.Andhealsocontributedanessay.Soitallworkedtogether.YearsbeforeIhadappliedforsupportfromtheGuggenheimFoundation.IhadtrieditforacoupleofyearsandthenIgaveupIgottiredofit.ButbecauseIwasputtingallthisstufftogetherfortheNoyesexhibitionIputasmallportfoliotogetherandwenttothreepeoplewhoallwroteformeanditwasremarkablethatitcamethroughinthespringtime.Allofthatreallycametogetherinawaythatishardtoimagine.Thepublicationcameout.MattMaripaulNYTimescameacrossmywebsiteandwantedtodoanarticleandthatcameouttheMondayaftertheshowopened.AndIwasgettingthisfeedbackfromallaroundtheplaceincludingadministratorsattheUniversityofTexas.SoIsatdownwiththePresidentofStocktonCollegeandweworkedoutanoptionformetohaveaslightlyreducedworkloadforthefollowingyearbecauseoftheGuggenheimfellowshipbecauseIwasnteligibleforasabbaticalatthetime.WiththatinmindIsetoutthinkingwhatIreallywanttodoiscontinueSmallTownsoutsideofNewJersey.AndIreadthisbookAmericasFirstBlackTownBrooklynIllinois1830-19152002bySundiataKeitaCha-JuaaboutatowncalledBrooklynIllinoiswhichwasoneofthefirstincorporatedAfricanAmericancommunitiesinAmerica.SoIthoughtIllgoout.Actuallyitwasnttoofarfromwheremybrother-in-lawlivedsoIthoughtIdhaveaplacetostayandIcanstartonthisprojectoutthere.WhenIgotthereImetsomebodyjustonthestreetwhoturnedouttobeateacherandaformerstudentandaformerprincipalintheschoolinthetown.IhadreadthestoryinCha-JuasbookwherehesaidtherehadbeenatonepointintimeasectionofthetownthatcontainedawhitepopulationandeventhoughtheBoardofEducationwasmadeupentirelyofAfricanAmericanstheyweremaintainingaseparateschoolforwhitestudents.Itdidntlast forverylongbutIwasfascinatedbythisideathattherewasawhiteschoolinablacktown.Ihadthisconversationabouttheschoolandthenatureofitwiththisgentlemaninthecommunityjuststandingonthestreetactually.AndthatsortofclickedformeandIthoughtschoolsarereallytheplacewhereweworkouttheseideasofraceinawaythateventodayremainsunresolved.SoIbeganworkingoutthatideaandforatimeIstartedmakingpicturesoftheschoolsanddoingthesamethingIhaddonewithSmallTownsBlackLiveswhichwasIhadatextpanelanarrativewiththeimage.AndgraduallyIgrewtiredofthatandeventuallyIstartedisolatingthebuildingagainstthelandscapebecauseIwantedtomakethatconnectiontoW.E.B.DuBoisandtheveil.MORSothatbringsusheretoManifestaclearthreaddirectlyfromSmallTownsBlackLivesandSchoolsfortheColored.TheseareindividualstoriesthattellthebroaderstoryoftheAfricanAmericanculturallandscapeandthehistoryofthecommunity.WWThiswasadirectconnectiontoSchools.IhadasabbaticalandwasinvitedtobeavisitingfacultymemberatRITsoIwentupforaquarter.IdecidedtostayinthelandscapeandwantedtoexploretheNiagaraMovementandtheestablishmentoftheNAACP.IplannedtogoovertoBuffaloandgoovertotheCanadianside.InresearchingthatIgotfascinatedwiththefactthatFrederickDouglasshadalltheserootsinRochester.OnethingledtoanotherandIfindoutthattheyhavealockofhishairattheUniversityofRochesterLibrary.AndthatjustblewupformeandIstartedgraduallylookingalloverwesternNewYorkinallofthesecollectionsthathadobjectsrelatedtoAfricanAmericanhistory.InfactthepeopleattheUniversityofRochesterLibraryweresokind.ThefirsttimeIwentthereandphotographIdidntreallyknowwhatIwasdoinginthesensethatIhadntformulatedwhatthiswouldlooklike.SoIreallyjustphotographedthingsonthetable.MORHowmuchresearchdoyoudobeforeyoupickupthecameraDoyouallowfortheserendipityofthemomentwiththecameraordoyouwanttohavesomekindofideabeforeyougoinWWIwouldsayitsalittleofboth.ItypicallygoinwithonlyahintofanideathatIthinkisinteresting.MORItsoundslikeyoureopentopossibilities.WWYesImopentopossibilitiesandthenImlookingtoseewhatwillcapturemyimaginationonceIgetthere.MOREarlyinyourcareeritwascertainlythevisualthatcapturedyou.IsitthenarrativenowthatdrawsyouinOraretheyintandemWWTheyareintandem.Itcantbeonlyvisual.AndinparticularIaminterestedinthearchivalobject.Theobjectthathadbeenheldthathavebeeninthelivesofpeople.MORMostlytheseareephemeralobjectsnotoriginallymeanttobekeptforever.WWManyofmyfavoritesarethosealthoughmanyweremeanttobetreasuredasinthecaseofFrederickDouglassshair.Thatwassomethingthatwasgivenandreceivedandheldonto.Andmyphotographofthesethingshasnotmuchtodowiththecontentofthething.EventhoughthatstoryisimportanttomeastowhyIphotographit.Imakethephotographbecausetheobjectiscompellingtometolookatorthereisaqualitythatevokesakindofghostlyspirit.MORFirstofallthereisanideaoflandscapeinallofthesewhichisreallyinterestinginthesesingularobjects.Andthereisthismystery.Youhaventshotadocumentaryphotograph.Icantreadeverywordonsomethingorthecolormaynotbetruebecauseofthewayyouveshotitorthewayitslit.Butyetthereisasenseofitandasenseofwantingtoknowwhatisbehindthisobject.Ilovethatyouveletthemysterybeasimportantasthedocumentaryportionofit.SlaveCollar.AlexanderLibrarySpecialCollectionsRutgersUniversityNewBrunswickNJ2014 WWIrealizedIdontalwayswanttoshowallthatmuchabouttheobject.SomeobjectsaremoredifficultthanotherstodothatwithsoIdontholdmyselftoaruleaboutit.Sosomearemorereadablethanothers.Sometimesthemorereadableobjectsareactuallymoreambiguousintermsofwhatitistobeginwith.MORAndthelackofscalecreatesambiguityaswell.WWAndtheideathatthelandscapeisveryimportant.IgraduallyrealizedwhatIwantedtodowastiealltheseobjectsintothesamespace.Sotheyallsitinthesamevisualspaceeventhoughtheyallphysicallysitinplacesallaroundthecountry.MORYouvemadetheseobjectsintojewels.Forsomeonelikemecuratorarchiviststhereisaseductionofobjects.Ithinkthatiswhatdrewmetothesephotographstobeginwith.WhataretheyandwhyamIbeingcompelledtolookatthesephotographsForuswhoarekeepersofobjectsandkeepersofstoriesIthinkyouvecapturedthatfeelingintheManifestimages.DoyoutakealotmorephotographsthanyoushowOrdoyousortofhaveamethodorformulasoyoureallyjustgettheshotsyouwantWWIdobutitvariesalittlebit.IthinkthatatthispointtheratioofimageshascomedownalittlebitbecausenotonlydoIhaveasenseofwhatIwantbuttheyhavetofitintothemotifthatIveestablishedforallofthis.SoforbetterorworserightnowIhaventbeentryingtoseeifthereisanythingelsetodowiththeobjectyet.ButImlikelyto.IhadntthoughtofituntilIhadtheSchoolsfortheColoredupattheWoodrowWilsonSchoolPrincetonUniversityandMichaelBzdakarthistoriancuratorandDirectorofCorporateContributionsatJohnsonJohnsoncamebyandsaidThereissomethingveryEdRuschaconceptualartistaboutthis.Ihadntthoughtaboutthat.ThereisaqualitythatIvealwayslikedabouthisworkthatrepetitionandcreatingalotofsomethingthathasasortofweighttoitthatIwanttosurroundpeoplewith.Thesameidearepeatedoverandoverwithvariationsallaroundallthewaythrough.MORIknowsomeofourvisitorswillwanttoknowaboutthetechnicalpartofyourworksocanyoutellmewhatcamerasyouareusinghowareyoulightinghowareyouprintingWWAllofthemaredonewithaviewcamera.ThevastmajorityaredonewithfilmbutIhavebeenexperimentingwithaspecialbackthatallowsmetoslidemydigitalcameraalongthebackoftheimageandproducearesolutioncomparabletowhatIgetwiththe4x5negative.AndIhaventbeenabletoperceivethedetaildifferencesthatarethere.SoprimarilyitslargeformatandthereasonforthelargeformatisthatIwanttocontroltheplaneoffocusinawaythatthatcameraworksverywell.Iliketheideathatthecamerawillallowmetocontrolhowtheplaneoffocusintersectstheobject.Thatsthecamera.Thelightingthereactuallyisntanylighting.FromearlyonIsettledontheideathatthelightwouldbethelightinthecollection.Eventhoughtheobjectexistsonthisblackvelvettheobjectsarealllitbywhatevertheextantlightisinsidethecollection.MORYetitseemssoplanned.WWRight.Anditsonwhatevertabletheyallowmetosetupon.Andthenallofthenegativesarescannedanddigitallyprinted.MORIstheresomemanipulationWWYesthereissomemanipulationThemanipulationthatoccursisthatImightchangetheorientationofanobjectandinacoupleofcasesIhavecombinedtwoimagesintooneasinthesouvenirphotographfromtheCottonClub.TheinsideofthesouvenirandtheoutsidearetwoseparatephotographsthatImarried. MORSoheresperhapsthehardestquestionoftheinterview.WhatresponsibilitydoesanartisthaveifanyWWMyshortanswerisnone.Thereisaresponsibilitytoauthenticitybutthatauthenticityisdifferentthansaytheresponsibilityofgoingbacktoourearlierconversationthehistorian.IfeelarealhistorianisresponsibleforatleastattemptingbecausetheresbiasculturalbiasbiasbuiltintoalmosteverythingbutthereisanefforttosayImtryingtoprovideyouwiththefactualinformation.Imtryingtoputitinbalance.Imtryingtogiveyouthewholestory.Idontfeelanyofthat.IfeellikeIdomovefromplacetoplaceandobjecttoobject.Captivatedbycertainthings.AndinsomecasesImsureIhaveactuallymovedthemeaningoftheobjectfromunimportantortrivialtoimportantbecauseitsthisbiggesturesasmallobjectandIvemadeitthisbiggesturesalargerobject.Nobodyevercaredaboutitanditdidnthaveanyimpactonanythingbutsuddenlyitseemssignificantinacontextoftheblackworldwithoutitnecessarilyeverhavinganymoresignificancethanithadtomaybeoneperson.Andmaybeeventothatpersonitwasinsignificantbutmaybesomebodyelsethoughtthisiscoolmaybeweshouldputthisinthedrawertogotothehistoricalsocietyortothelibraryorwhereveritwoundup.MORButyouthatsnotinformingyourideas.Youreservingthephotographandwhateverworksbestfortheimage.WWAbsolutely.AndIalsodonthavearesponsibilitytohaveadesignatedpath.WithSchoolsthedesignatedpathwasimposedafterwards.IdidntknowwhenIstartedSchoolsthatitwouldcoveraspecificgeographyandthatthatspecificgeographywouldbemeaningfultotheproject.Butitdidbecomethat.AsIworkeditemerged.IrealizedImworkinginthesouthernportionofthenorthernstateswherethereisakindofterrainandlandscapeinmanyplaceswhereitsambiguouswhetheritsnorthorsouth.Thesearentbigindustrialcenters.IhaveawonderfulphotographofSouthStreetSchoolinNewarkbutIdontuseitbecausethecolonnadesareinthebackgroundMORItssoother.WWYessoother.AndsoIgraduallyrealizedthatSchoolswasgoingtobeaboutthosekindsofplaces.ThemostIhaveisabuildinginTrenton.ButinawayTrentoninsomewayshasaqualitythatcouldbeasoutherncitywithitsscale.Itdoesnthaveallthegrandstuff.EventheCapitolthescaleisdifferent.WithSchoolsIwasreallyfollowingaqualitybutwithManifestitopensupthatalittlebitbecauseIcangowhereverbecauseIcreatethelandscapeinasensewhichistheblackspacefortheobjecttositin.SoitsNewYorkStateitsIowaNebraskaFloridaNewJerseyandwhereverelsecomesnext.AndtoanswerthatquestionIhaventfeltlikeOhIhavetogethereoritwontberight.ThereareplacesIwanttogotophotographbutonlybecauseImkindofinterestedinthemnotbecauseIfeelliketheprojectwontberightifIdontdothis.MORSoundslikeyoudonthaveabeginningmiddleandendsoyouarenotalwaysstrivingtomovethestoryforward.DoyoufeelthattheothertwoseriesarenishedWWIthinkso.ImnotsureaboutSchools.Itsveryhardformetoknowwhenitsfinished.Thatsatoughoneformeasanartist.Ishouldbebetteratthat.ButtheboundariesaresoporousandtheyoverlapandthenextprojectstartswhileImstillworkingonthepreviousone.MORThisgoesbacktowhatIsaidaboutyoubeforeyouareopentopossibilities.Soitcanbeanopenendedproject.WWYesIvestartedtwonewprojects.MORSoyouarelookingbeyondManifest.WWAtsomepointthoseprojectsmaypushManifestout.ThetimeandenergyIdevotetoitwillchangebecauseIllbespendingmoretimeandenergyontheotherprojects. endelA.Whitewasbornin1956NewarkNewJerseyandgrewupinNewYorkPennsylvaniaandNewJersey.HewasawardedaBFAinphotographyfromtheSchoolofVisualArtsinNewYorkandanMFAinphotographyfromtheUniversityofTexasatAustin.WhitetaughtphotographyattheSchoolofVisualArtsNYTheCooperUnionfortheAdvancementofScienceandArtNYtheInternationalCenterforPhotographyNYRochesterInstituteofTechnologyandiscurrentlyDistinguishedProfessorofArtatTheRichardStocktonCollegeofNewJersey.HehasreceivedvariousawardsandfellowshipsincludingaJohnSimonGuggenheimFoundationFellowshipinPhotographytwoartistfellowshipsfromtheNewJerseyStateCouncilfortheArtsaphotographygrantfromtheGrahamFoundationforAdvancedStudiesintheFineArtsandaNewWorksPhotographyFellowshipfromEnFocoInc.HisworkisrepresentedinmuseumandcorporatecollectionsincludingEnFocoNewYorkNYRochesterInstituteofTechnologyNYtheMuseumofFineArtHoustonTXMuseumofContemporaryPhotographyChicagoILHaverfordCollegePAJohnsonandJohnsonNewBrunswickNJChaseManhattanBankthePaulR.JonesCollectionofAfricanAmericanArtatUniversityofDelawareHaggertyMuseumofArtatMarquetteUniversityWIandtheNewYorkPublicLibrarysSchomburgCenterforResearchinBlackCultureNY.HisworkisincludedinvariouspublicationsPosingBeautybyDeborahWillisexposuremagazineNeuvaLuzandPhotoReviewamongmanyothers.ImagesfromVillageofPeaceAnAfricanAmericanCommunityinIsraelwerepublishedinTransitionmagazineVol.97bytheW.E.B.DuBoisInstituteforAfricanandAfricanAmericanResearchatHarvardUniversity.WhitehasservedontheboardofdirectorsfortheSocietyforPhotographicEducationKodakEducationalAdvisoryCouncilNJSaveOutdoorSculptureNewJerseyBlackCultureandHeritageFoundationtheNewJerseyCouncilfortheHumanitiesandtheNewJerseyMartinLutherKingJr.Commission.abouttheARTISTTintype.FentonHistoryCenterJamestownNY2014W www.wendelwhite.comSoloExhibitions2015WendelA.WhiteManifestNewJerseyStateMuseumTrentonNJ2013BemisCenterforContemporaryArtOmahaNEAljiraACenterforContemporaryArtNewarkNJDrumthwacketFoundationOfcialResidenceoftheGovernorofNewJerseyPrincetonNJ2012EatonvilleEmbodiedJohnPinderhughesandWendelWhiteZoraNealeHurstonNationalMuseumofFineArtEatonvilleFLMid-AtlanticCenterfortheArtsandHumanitiesCapeMayNJ2011BernsteinGalleryPrincetonUniversityNJCaliforniaInstituteforIntegrativeStudySanFranciscoCA2009NewJerseyHistoricalSocietyNewarkNJ2007Mid-AtlanticCenterfortheArtsCapeMayNJ2006StocktonCollegePomonaNJNewarkPublicLibraryNewarkNJ2005SetonHallUniversitySouthOrangeNJAtwaterKentMuseumPhiladelphiaPA2003TheMorrisMuseumMorristownNJJohnsonandJohnsonNewBrunswickNJTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJ2002StedmanGalleryRutgers-CamdenCenterfortheArtsCamdenNJAtlanticCityArtsCenterAtlanticCityNJ2001ManchesterCraftsmanGuildPittsburghHopkinsHouseGalleryHaddonNJ2001MonmouthUniversityNJ1988ThePhotographyGalleryFloridaInternationalUniversityMiamiFL1987-9JohnsonandJohnsonNewBrunswickNJ1986GalleryPolyneroIIBelgiumRoseGallerySt.EdwardsUniversityAustinTX1984MidtownYGalleryNewYorkNYGroupExhibitionsselected2015ForgetMeNotPhotographyBetweenPoetryandPoliticsMechanicalHallGalleryUniversityMuseumsUniversityofDelawareNewarkDE2014ObservingConnectionsPhotographsfromtheTeachingCollectionandInvitedPhotographersCVAGalleryBrookdaleCommunityCollegeLincroftNJLandscapeSocialPoliticalTraditionalRiderUniversityArtGalleryLawrencevilleNJPosingBeautyVirginiaMuseumofFineArtRichmondVA2013OnPhotographyCultureHistoryandtheNarrativeMasonGrossGalleriesRutgersUniversityNewBrunswickNJEnFocoInFocusSelectedWorksfromthePermanentCollectionTheArtsatCIISSanFranciscoCATheFogelCollectionACollectionWithinaCollectionMarshallFineArtsCenterAtriumGalleryHaverfordCollegeHaverfordPAPosingBeautyCollegeofWoosterArtMuseumWoosterOHEnFocoNewWorksCrossingBoundariesBRICArtsRotundaGalleryBrooklynNY2012VisualizingEmancipationSchomburgCenterforResearchinBlackCultureNewYorkPublicLibraryNewYorkNYPosingBeautyFiggeMuseumofArtDavenportIAEnFocoInFocusSelectedWorksfromthePermanentCollectionAljiraACenterforContemporaryArtNewarkNJNewJerseyStateCouncilontheArtsFellowshipExhibitionTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJPosingBeautyEverhartMuseumScrantonPAEnFocoInFocusSelectedWorksfromthePermanentCollectionArtMuseumoftheAmericasWashingtonDC2011PosingBeautyUSCFisherMuseumofArtLosAngelesCAPosingBeautyTheNewarkMuseumNewarkNJEnFocoInFocusSelectedWorksfromthePermanentCollectionLightworkSyracuseNYcurriculumVITAESlaveBillofSale.DivisionofRareandManuscriptCollectionsCornellUniversityLibraryIthacaNY2014 2010NewWorks13FellowshipsCuratedbyMarisolDiaz.HPGalleryCalumetPhotographicNewYorkNYArtChicago2010DeanJensenGalleryMilwaukeeWIChicagoILEnduranceHopkinsHouseGalleryofContemporaryArtNJ2009DeanJensenGalleryMilwaukeeWIPosingBeautyNewYorkUniversityTischSchooloftheArtsNewYorkNYArborMichaelMazzeoGallerycuratedonlineexhibitionNewYorkNYGreenContemporaryLandscapeStedmanArtGalleryRutgers-CamdenUniversityCamdenNJ6thPhotographicImageBiennialExhibitionWellingtonB.GrayGalleryEastCarolinaUniversityNC2008ProspectArtthatRenegotiatesStandardizedLocationsinOurEnvironmentCRLGalleryAustinTXOnlineandPrintPortfolioCenterforFineArtPhotographCO2007SaturdayNightSundayMorningDeltaBluesMuseumClarksdaleMS2006SaturdayNightSundayMorning40AcresGallerySacramentoCA2005SaturdayNightSundayMorningCityGalleryEastAtlantaGASaturdayNightSundayMorningAfricanAmericanMuseumofPhiladelphiaPA2004LookingSouth70NWGalleryMilfordPALoveNowNordstromDepartmentStores15storesnationwide200320YearsofGraduatePhotographyCreativeResearchLaboratoryUniversityofTexasatAustinTX2001TakeFiveTheAmericanLandscapeJamesAbbottRitaBernsteinDavidGrahamJerryLodrigussWendelWhiteCenterforthePhotographicImageatNexusFoundationforTodaysArtPhiladelphiaPA2000ReflectionsinBlackSmithsonianInstitutionArtsandIndustriesWashingtonDCCenterfortheArtsthree-artistsMarltonNJ1999MillenniumSalonExhibitionMaryGearhartGalleryNewYorkNYDistinguishedArtistsofSouthernNewJerseyLongBeachIslandFoundationoftheArtsandSciencesLoveladiesNJSalonExhibitionMaryGearhartGalleryNewYorkNYCamdenCountyCulturalandHeritageCenterHaddonTownshipNJ1998AtlanticCityArtCenterAtlanticCityNJ1996Afro-AmericanMuseumPhiladelphiaPATrentonCityMuseumatEllarslieTrentonNJ1995SouthernNewJerseyArtistsIXStedmanArtGalleryRutgersUniversityCamdenNJ1990-5Convergence8PhotographersClarksonGalleryPotsdamNYUniversityofColoradoColoradoSpringsCOTampaMuseumofArtTampaFLOlinGalleryKenyonCollegeGambierOHGeorgiaMuseumofArtAtlantaGAPenn.SchoolofArtandDesignLancasterPAUniversityofAlbanyNYHammondsHouseGalleryAtlantaGAUniversityofCaliforniaatIrvineHoustonCenterforPhotographyFilmintheCitiesSt.PaulVisualStudiesWorkshopRochesterNYPhotographicResourceCenteratBostonUniversityMA19931993NJArtsCouncilFellowshipsStedmanArtGalleryRutgersUniversityCamdenNJ1991HandsOffNewSchoolforSocialResearchNewYorkNYParkandRideRaritanValleyCommunityCollegeNorthBranchNJ1989StatedasFactPhotographicDocumentsofNewJerseyNewJerseyStateMuseumTrentonNJNewExpressionsTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJ1988USBiennialIIIMuseumofArtUniversityofOklahomaNormanOKInnityGalleryGovernorsStateUniversityUniversityParkILNewJerseyStateCollegeBoardNJ1987ContemporaryBlackArtKennesawStateUniversityKennesawGABenShahnGalleriesWilliamPatersonUniversityWayneNJ1986TheLightFactoryCharlotteNC24ExposuresUnionSquareGalleryNewYorkNY1985AtlantaLifeInsuranceCo.AtlantaGA19841984SocialCommentaryandthePhotographMoodyAtriumGalleryAustinTXMentalBlockDanceteriaNewYorkNYAtlantaLifeInsuranceCo.AtlantaGA198314PhotographersContemporaryPhotographersintheSchomburgCollectionSchomburgCenterforBlackCultureNewYorkPublicLibraryNewYorkNYTheLightFactoryCharlotteNCPhotoworksIIA.U.A.NM1982PatrickGalleryAustinTXGallery104AustinTX GrantsandFellowships2011Artist-in-ResidenceBemisCenterforContemporaryArtOmahaNE2010NewWorksFellowshipEnFocoNY2009ArtistFellowshipNewJerseyStateCouncilontheArts2005GrahamFoundationforAdvancedStudiesintheFineArtsGrantIL2003JohnSimonGuggenheimMemorialFoundationPhotographyFellowship1993ArtistFellowshipNewJerseyStateCouncilontheArtsWebProjectsSmallTownsBlackLivesAfricanAmericancommunitiesinSouthernNewJerseyhttpblacktowns.orgPublicCollectionsThePaulR.JonesCollectionofAfricanAmericanArtUniversityofAlabamaTheArtsatCIISSanFranciscoCAAustinHistoryCenterAustinTXBemisCenterforContemporaryArtOmahaNEChaseManhattanBankNANewYorkNYThePaulR.JonesCollectionofAfricanAmericanArtUniversityofDelawareUniversityMuseumsUniversityofDelawareNewarkDEEnFocoInc.BronxNYErieArtMuseumEriePAGeorgeWashingtonCarverMuseumAustinTXGrahamFoundationfortheAdvancementofFineArtsChicagoILHaggertyMuseumofArtMarquetteUniversityWIHaverfordCollegeHaverfordPAJohnsonJohnsonNJMuseumofContemporaryPhotographyChicagoILTheMuseumofFineArtHoustonTXRochesterInstituteofTechnologyRochesterNYSalemCountyCulturalandHeritageCommissionSalemNJSchomburgCenterforResearchinBlackCultureNewYorkPublicLibraryNewYorkNYRichardStocktonCollegeofNewJerseyGallowayNJRelatedProfessionalActivitiesPanelDiscussionLandscapeSocialPoliticalTraditionalRiderUniversityLawrencevilleNJOct22014DigitalPhotographyWorkshopLeaderArtistTeacherInstituteGallowayNJJuly2014HonoredEducatorLectureSocietyforPhotographicEducationMid-AtlanticRegionalConferenceOct.192013DigitalPhotographyWorkshopLeaderArtistTeacherInstituteGallowayNJJuly2013PhotographyWorkshopLeaderStanleyHolmesVillageAtlanticCityNJAugust2013LecturePanelistPanelPresentationAljiraCenterofContemporaryArtNewarkNJSept72013PanelistReviewerArtistinResidencyProgramBemisCenterforContemporaryArtOmahaNEApril192013ExternalReviewerDepartmentofArtandArtHistoryProvidenceCollegeProvidenceRIApril2013LectureYoungAudiencesTeacherWorkshopsGroundsforSculptureHamiltonTwpNJ2012VisitingArtistMasonGrossSchooloftheArtsRutgersUniversityNewBrunswickNJApril2012ArtistConversationAlanCohenandWendelWhitemoderatedbyChristineCarrThePhotographandthePowerofPlaceTaubmanMuseumRoanokeVAFeb112012LectureSchoolsfortheColoredTheLandscapeandArchitectureofSegregationThePrincetonPrizeSymposiumonRacePrincetonUniversityNJMay62011ArtistConversationWendelWhiteandLeighRaifordMuseumoftheAfricanDiasporaSanFranciscoCAJan212011ArtistGalleryPresentation.EnFocoNewWorks13ExhibitionHPGalleryCalumetPhotographicNewYorkNYJuly2010NewJerseyCouncilfortheHumanitiesChair.TrentonNJ2010to2014NewJerseyCouncilfortheHumanities.Vice-ChairTrentonNJ2008-2010NewJerseyBlackCultureandHeritageFoundation.BoardDirector2007-presentWendelA.White.JurorPhoto-ExRiverfrontRenaissanceCenterfortheArtsMillvilleNJAugust2010WendelA.White.SchoolsfortheColoredEnFocoInc.HPGalleryCalumetPhotographicNewYorkNYJuly62010WendelA.WhiteSchoolsfortheColoredSocietyforPhotographicEducationPhiladelphiaPAMarch72010WendelA.White6thAnnualJohnRockLectureinBlackHistorySalemCountyHistoricalSocietySalemNJOct.2009VisitingProfessorSchoolofImagingArtsandSciencesRochesterInstituteofTechnologyFall2008 PortfolioReviewandPanelPresentationSouthJerseyCulturalAllianceOctober2007LectureRecentWorksJerseyCityAfro-AmericanHistoricalMuseum2007LectureRecentWorksHopkinsHouseGalleryNJ2007PanelPresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesMidAtlanticCenterfortheArtsNJ2007LectureSmallTownsBlackLivesSchoolsfortheColoredandPicturesfromtheNewWorldCollegeofSaintElizabethConventStationNJFebruary2006SecretaryBoardofDirectorsNJCouncilfortheHumanities2000-05LectureSetonHallUniversityS.OrangeNJSeptember152005LectureDiscussionWorkingasanArtistandwithaJobTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJSeptember142005WaltWhitmanPreservationAwardforCommunityPartnershipHeritageCollaborativeCamdenNJMay32005WorkshopThePhotoEssayTheAfricanAmericanMuseumofPhiladelphiaMay142005PresentationTheAfricanAmericanExperienceinPhotographyDiscussionwithDeborahWillisPennsylvaniaBlackHistoryConferencePhiladelphiaPAApril242005LectureDistinguishedVisitorProgramHaverfordCollegeHaverfordPAMarch22005PresentationSchoolsfortheColoredSouthernRegionDept.ofEducationNewJerseyMay112004PanelModeratorScreeningsPublicandPrivateTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJMarch62004LectureSchoolsfortheColoredParsonsNewSchoolUniversityNewYorkNYMarch12004PanelPresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesMorrisMuseumMorristownNJOct192003ImagemakerPresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesSocietyforPhotographicEducationnationalconferenceAustinTXMarch2003LecturePresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesTheNoyesMuseumofArtOceanvilleNJFeb62003PanelPresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesArtistConversationSeries.AmistadFoundationWadsworthAtheneumHartfordCTOctober2002LecturepresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesPhotoSession2001ThePrintCenterPhiladelphiaPA2001PanelistTheProblematicsofTeachingPhotographyinaDigitalContextwithBlaiseTobiaandJeanniePearceSocietyforPhotographicEducationregionalconferenceBaltimoreMD2001LecturePresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesCapeMayCountyLibraryNJ2001LecturePresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesManchesterCraftsmanGuildPittsburghPA2001LecturePresentationSmallTownsBlackLivesLawnsideHistoricalSocietyandCamdenCountyCulturalandHeritageCommissionLawnsideNJ2001ConsultantPhotographylabRenovationandRedesignMonmouthUniversityNJ2000PanelistTechnologyinPhotographyJamesAPorterColloquiumonAfricanAmericanArtSmithsonianAnacostiaMuseumandCenterforAfricanAmericanHistoryandCultureandHowardUniversityApril2000SocietyforPhotographicEducationChair1996-99SocietyforPhotographicEducationBoardDirector1993-99SocietyforPhotographicEducationChair-NationalConferenceAtlanta1995PanelistEducationandTechnologyCollegeArtsAssociationNationalConference1995KodakEducationalAdvisoryCouncil1991-94Co-ChairSocietyforPhotographicEducationMulticulturalCaucus1992-93BoardofDirectorsAtlanticCityHistoricalMuseum1989topresentCo-CuratedandfabricatedCharlesK.DoblesAtlanticCityPhotographs19301953andImagesofAfricanAmericansinAtlanticCity1900to1965aspartoftheopeningexhibitionPlaygroundoftheNationReviewerExploringBlackandWhitePhotographysecondedition1993ReviewandrecommendationsforthepublisherWm.CBrownPublishers1990PanelistPhotographyNewFormsCollegeArtAssociationNationalConferenceNY1990PanelistAutobiographicalIssuesandConcernsTheContemporaryBlackPhotographerSocietyofPhotographicEducatorsNationalConference1988GuestCuratorSurveyofPhotographicExpressionsSchoolofVisualArts1984PublicationsWhiteWendelA.SmallTownsBlackLivesAfricanAmericanCommunitiesinSouthernNewJersey.OceanvilleNJ.TheNoyesMuseumofArt2003WendelA.White.StoryofDailyLivesPhiladelphiaInquirer.February232003WendelA.White.EntertheCityPhotographsbyLouisDraperExhibitioncatalogueRichardStocktonCollege1989InternationalCenterofPhotographyEncyclopediaofPhotographyCrownPub.1984contributingeditorWilliamBroeckerchiefeditoret.al.Diary.DivisionofRareandManuscriptCollectionsCornellUniversityLibraryIthacaNY2014 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BOARDOFTRUSTEESStevenM.RichmanPresidentAdamKaufmanVicePresidentKarenS.AliMargaretM.M.KooDr.JaneL.RohlfGeorgiaT.SchleyDoloresYazujianEX-OFFICIOMEMBERSLt.GovernorSecretaryofStateKimGuadagnoChairSenatorSamuelD.ThompsonSenatorShirleyK.TurnerAssemblymanDanielR.BensonAssemblywomanDonnaM.SimonAnthonyGardnerExecutiveDirectorBOARDOFTRUSTEESKarenS.AliPresidentGabrielleDeenVicePresidentLarryContiTreasurerDorothyBartarisJanetBickalJenniferWadeBredinMaryGuessFlamerSusanPalsirHuberBeverlyNesterDorothyPlohnJaclynPolinStevenM.RichmanJulieDixonThomasDoloresYazujianHONORARYMaudeBelliMarciaDeweyChristopherForbesLynnFormidoniSallyLaneGraffIngridHammondJacquieJohnsonGeorgeKornFleuryMackieJanetMoonJoyceMooreLibbyMooreMaryAnneMountfordBarbaraPeskinCarolRosenthalH.L.BoyerRoyalKathyRyanGeorgiaT.SchleyBarbaraStokesPamSwitlikSTATEOFNEWJERSEYTheHonorableChrisChristieGovernorTheHonorableKimGuadagnoLieutenantGovernorSecretaryofStateNicoleJannotteExecutiveDirectorKarenKlinkStoreManager newjerseystatemuseumSTAFFAnthonyGardnerExecutiveDirectorPaulaAndrasRegistrarCulturalHistoryWarterryBarlowCustomerServiceOperationsElizabethBeitelSupervisorMuseumExhibitsDebraBudgickSr.PrincipalClerkTypistArchaeologyEthnographyNaturalHistoryDianeBushmanAssistantCuratorEducationNicholasCiotolaCuratorCulturalHistoryBethCooperCuratorEducationKarenA.FlinnAssistantCuratorArchaeologyEthnographyHenryJ.HosePreparatorFineArtCulturalHistoryAmeliaJohnsonMISTechnicianOperationsRichardLargeModelMakerIExhibitsGregoryD.LattanziAssistantCuratorArchaeologyEthnographyJennyMartin-WicoffRegistrarFineArtKristenMartinezTechnicalAssistantIIAdministrationVanessaMcCall-HuttonAdministrativeAssistantIIIOperationsJeraldMorrisReservationistOperationsBillMurrayPlanetariumTechnicianPlanetariumWilliamNutterAsst.ManagerOperationsMargaretM.OReillyCuratorFineArtDavidC.ParrisCuratorNaturalHistoryRodrigoPellegriniRegistrarNaturalHistoryJasonScheinAssistantCuratorNaturalHistoryJaySchwartzAssistantCuratorPlanetariumJenaroVazquezModelMakerIIExhibitsLyndaYoungerTechnicalAssistantIIIAdministrationStephaneeBrownMariaChavesEvelynChupikEricEubanksSusanGreitzMelissaKellyChristopherLapinskiLuisNunezTomOGaraDennyOgrodnickKerryScottReneeSteinRorySullivanLeoraWeinsteinKevinWilliams NEWJERSEYSTATEMUSEUMPOBox530205WestStateStreetTrentonNJ08625-0530609-984-3844www.newjerseystatemuseum.org