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Congestion Buster Task Force


Glossary


Accessibility - The potential for people to travel to reach certain opportunities within a given travel time.

Capacity - The maximum rate of flow of persons or vehicles that can be reasonably expected to traverse a segment of roadway or other element of the transportation system during a specified time period under prevailing conditions.

Congestion Buster Task Force (CBTF) – A statutorily mandated task force to study and make recommendations concerning the reduction of traffic congestion in the State. The Commissioner of the Department of Transportation appointed the task force members.

Complementary Strategies - Strategies, developed in conjunction with adding additional lane capacity on highways, that reduce transportation demand and vehicle trips.

Congestion – The condition that results when travel demand approaches or exceeds the capacity of a transportation facility to provide service at performance levels acceptable to the users.

Congestion Management System (CMS) - A management system required by federal law for Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in air quality non-attainment areas. A CMS uses a systematic process that provides information on transportation performance, and is used as a decision support tool to monitor congestion, develop and evaluate alternative strategies, provide analysis for future congestion, and identify and evaluate future projects.

Congestion Pricing – Pricing systems that require motorists to pay for the use of congested transportation facilities. In theory, the fee represents the incremental cost that his or her trip imposes on other users of the system.

Decentralization – Moving of people and activities away from the central city out to locations on the outer parts of the city or to the suburbs.

Delay – Excess time spent traveling due to congestion.

Functional Integrity – The intended function and usage of transportation facilities to maintain the desired traffic operation, flow, and safety.

Intelligent Transportation Systems – The use of automated systems and information technologies on our transportation network including communications and safety systems to assist in traveler decisions and traffic flow.

Intermodal Facilities - passenger facilities where several modes of transportation are physically and operationally integrated, providing for passengers changing between modes.

Level of Service (LOS) – A qualitative measure describing operational conditions of the traffic flow on roadways or other transportation facilities expressed in quality of transportation flow ranging from Excellent (Level A – free-flowing traffic) to Unsatisfactory (Level F – bumper-to-bumper, stop-and-go traffic). LOS is based on performance measures such as speed, travel time, delay, freedom to maneuver and traffic interruptions.

Load Factor – The ratio of the number of passengers occupying a transit vehicle to the seating capacity of the vehicle. A ratio above 1.0 indicates that there are more passengers than the vehicle is safely designed for, resulting in passengers standing.

Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO) – The forum for cooperative transportation decision making for metropolitan planning areas, required by federal law. MPO responsibilities include preparation of a Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) which includes all federally funded projects.

Municipal Land Use Law (MLUL) – New Jersey statute enacted in 1975 whose purpose is to encourage municipal action to guide the appropriate use or development of all land in the State. (N.J.S.A. 40:55D-1 et al.)

Mixed Use – Locations where there are multiple types of land uses together, including residential, commercial, and/or public uses.

Mobility – The ability to travel by taking advantage of accessibility to reach opportunities within a given travel time or distance using available travel modes.

Modal Distributions – Distributions of usage of various types of public and private modes for travel, i.e., auto, transit, walking.

Mode Choice – Decision of persons to choose among various public and private transportation modes of travel.

Multi-occupant Vehicles – Vehicles containing two or more people traveling together in the same vehicle.

NJDOT – New Jersey Department of Transportation.

NJTP – New Jersey Turnpike Authority.

Non-attainment Areas – Areas where the Federal Air-Quality standards (NAAQS) have not been met for a transportation-related pollutant.

Operational Changes – Improvements to roadways and transportation facilities to improve traffic flow without adding additional lanes or infrastructure.

Peak Hour – The 60-minute period observed during the analysis day containing the largest amount of travel on the transportation system by people and/or vehicles.

Person Miles of Travel (PMT) – Total distance traveled in a time-period by all people.

Preferential Treatment – Giving preferences to certain vehicles or transportation modes to use a transportation facility, when others must wait or use a different facility. The purpose is to promote the use of a particular mode or operation.

Ramp Metering – A method used to limit vehicular access from a ramp onto a freeway to improve traffic flow on the mainline freeway.

Regional Travel Patterns – General travel patterns involving large numbers of travelers between and within large geographic areas, such as cities, suburbs, counties, metropolitan areas, and states.

Roadway Congestion Index (RCI) – Measure of vehicle travel density on major roadways or vehicles per road space. A RCI over 1.0 means the system is operating at an undesirable congestion level.

State Development and Redevelopment Plan (SDRP) – Plan adopted pursuant to the State Planning Act which is designed for use as a statewide tool for assessing suitable locations for infrastructure, housing, economic growth and conservation. The SDRP recognizes that it is in the public interest to encourage development, redevelopment and economic growth in locations that are well situated with respect to present or anticipated public services and facilities. (N.J.S.A. 52:18A-196 et al.)

Single Occupant Vehicle (SOV) – Vehicle containing one person traveling in it.

Smart Moves for Business (SMFB) Program – A program administered by NJDOT that encourages New Jersey employers to develop and implement voluntary employer trip reduction programs. Tax credits and challenge grants are available under the program.

Spatial Distributions – The distributions of the locations and concentrations of residences, employment and other uses.

System Performance – The overall operation of traffic flow within a highway or geographic area in terms of travel times, delays, speeds, congestion, and safety.

Telecommuting – Work-based employer demand management program reducing the number of work trips by having employees work at home, or reducing the trip length by having employees work at satellite telework centers.

Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) – A land use technique to protect and preserve undeveloped open land by transferring the “rights to develop” from one area to another. The goal is to concentrate development in areas having transit sustainability.

Transportation Management Association (TMA) – Independent, non-profit, private/public partnerships that work closely with employers, government and commuters to implement demand management programs in their respective service areas.

Travel Delay – A time-based measurement commonly used to determine additional travel time in excess of the amount that would be reasonably desired by users of a transportation facility.

Travel (Transportation) Demand - The amount of users desiring to use to transportation system.

Travel Rate Index (TRI) – Measures the amount of additional time it takes it takes to travel during the peak period. It provides a system ratio for travel time during the peak period as compared to free-flow conditions.

Value Pricing – Pricing systems that charges motorists for the use of uncongested roadways. SOV drivers pay fees to gain access to uncongested alternative facilities.

Volume / Capacity Ratio (V/C) – The ratio of the volume of the demand flow of vehicles (or persons) using a segment of a transportation facility to the maximum number of vehicles (or persons) that can reasonably use the segment during a given time period. V/C ratios of 0.75 or greater typically indicate congested travel conditions.

Vehicle Miles of Travel (VMT) – Total distance traveled in a time-period by all vehicles.


 
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  Last Updated:  February 11, 2008