New Jersey Climate Data
Studies that focus on New Jersey and the Northeast region are vital to understanding the statewide impacts of climate change. This research will help to inform the state’s policies to reduce greenhouse gases, improve resiliency and explore mitigation strategies. Click below to learn about the scientific indicators of Climate Change in New Jersey, statewide greenhouse gas emissions, and regional climate change research.
What are Climate Change Indicators?
Indicators are observations or calculations used to track specific conditions and trends. Climate Indicators help us understand how our environmental conditions are changing so we can plan for climate impacts.
New Jersey’s climate is changing. During the last century, New Jersey has experienced rising temperatures, increased rainfall, more frequent extreme weather events and rising sea levels. These changes are the result of increasing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere due to human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), agriculture, and land clearing. The indicators discussed below are those specific to New Jersey; and are not representative of all potential indicators of climate change. To learn more about climate change indicators, visit the U.S. Global Change Research Program.
How is New Jersey’s Climate Changing?
New Jersey is getting hotter!
- New Jersey’s average annual temperatures have increased by 2.2°F since 1900.
- Since 1980 New Jersey has begun to experience more rapid warming, with five of the warmest years occurring after 1998.
- 2012 was the warmest year on record for New Jersey, with an average temperature that was 2.8°F above the 1981-2010 mean.
This figure shows the average statewide temperature over the last 120 years, dating back to 1895. It illustrates the upward trend in New Jersey’s temperature. Source: Developed by the Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist with data from NOAA - National Centers for Environmental Information.
New Jersey is getting wetter!
- In the past century, New Jersey has experienced an upward trend of 4.1" (9% increase) in precipitation per 100 years. Most of the upward trend comes from changes in precipitation during the spring and fall.
- 2011 was the wettest year on record for New Jersey, with August 2011 setting the record for all-time wettest month.
- The heaviest precipitation amount for six of the last twelve calendar months (March, April, June, August, October and December) in New Jersey has occurred since 2003.
Percent Change in Very Heavy Precipitation
This figure shows the average statewide percipitation dating back to 1895. It illustrates the upward trend in New Jersey’s annual rainfall. Source: Developed by the Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist with data from NOAA - National Centers for Environmental Information.
Extreme weather events are happening more frequently in New Jersey!
- New Jersey is experiencing more heavy rainfall events
- Heavy precipitation events have increased significantly in the past two decades, occurring more than twice as often in recent years than during the past century
This map shows the percent change in very heavy precipitation across the United States. Percent increases in the amount of precipitation falling in very heavy events is defined as the top 1% of all daily events from 1958 to 2011 for each region. Source: Developed by the Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist with data from National Climate Assessment, 2014.
Frequency of Heavy Precipitation Events
in the Northeastern United States
This figure shows the dramatic increase in the frequency of Heavy Precipitation events over the last two decades. Source: Developed by the Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist with data from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center.
- New Jersey is also experiencing increased intensity, frequency and duration of storm events.
- Major floods (those that have caused extensive inundation of structures and roads; those that cause significant evaucations of people and/or transfer of property to higher elevations) that have occured in New Jersey in recent years have occured in 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2016.
- From 1980 — 2018 (April), New Jersey has sustained 42 extreme weather events with nationwide cumulative losses exceeding $1 billion (CPI Adjusted).
- Hurricane Sandy (October 2012) was one of the most extreme meteorological events to affect New Jersey. The most destructive element of Sandy was the powerful storm surge. The storm surge was 9-10 feet above normal high tide levels in many areas along the New Jersey coast, and caused extensive damage and loss of life
The images above were captured after Hurricane Sandy (2012) and illustrate the magnitude of damage along the New Jersey Coast. The most destructive element of Sandy was the powerful storm surge. Copyright © 2012, Pictometry International Corp. All rights reserved.
- Nationally, 2017 was a historic year of weather and climate disasters. In total, the U.S. was impacted by 16 separate billion-dollar disaster events, tying 2011 for the record number of billion-dollar disasters for an entire calendar year. 2017 ranks as the costliest year on record, with more than $300 billion in cumulative damages!
1980-2018* Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters (CPI-Adjusted)
*as of April 6, 2018
This map summarizes the number of times each state has been affected by weather and climate events over the past 30 years that have resulted in more than a billion dollars in damages. New Jersey has sustained 42 extreme weather events since 1980. Across the nation, 2017 ranks as the costliest year on record, with more than $300 billion in cumulative damages. Source: NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters 2018). https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/.
Sea level has risen faster along the New Jersey shore than the global average!
- In Atlantic City, the sea level has risen by an average rate of 1.5 inches per decade, which is approximately double the global rate of sea level rise. The greater rate of sea level rise along the NJ coast can be attributed to a combination of land subsidence (the gradual settling or sudden sinking of the Earth’s surface owing to subsurface movement of earth materials) and rising water levels.
Atlantic City’s Sea Level Rise
This figure shows the monthly mean sea level and the long term linear sea level trend, including its 95% confidence interval. Source: NOAA Sea Level Rise Trends, 2018. Atlantic City Sea Level records date back to 2012. Learn More
- New Jersey will continue to experience Sea Level Rise. A 2016 study led by Rutgers scientists has projected the following future rates of sea level rise:
- By 2050 the sea level along New Jersey’s coast is projected to rise from 1.0 - 1.8 ft.
- By 2100, under a low emissions scenario the sea level along New Jersey’s coast is project to rise from 1.7 - 3.1 ft.
- By 2100, under a high emissions scenario the sea level along New Jersey coast is projected to rise from 2.4 - 4.5 ft.
- According to the National Climate Assessment (2014) report, sea level rise of two feet, without any changes in storms, would more than triple the frequency of dangerous coastal flooding thouhgout most of the Northeast.
- A sea level rise in line with median projections would threaten much of New Jersey’s coastlines. These effects will be magnified during storm events, increasing the severity of storm-related flooding and associated erosion in coastal and bay areas. Atlantic City is predicted to experience floods as severe as those that today happen only once a century, to every year or two by the end of the century.
Total Estimated Sea Level Rise Projections
in 2050 and 2100, New Jersey
|Table 1. Sea level rise projections for New Jersey. The baseline is year 2000 sea level. 1|
|Year||Central Estimate||Likely Range|
|2050||1.4 ft.||1.0 - 1.8 ft.|
|2.3 ft.||1.7 - 3.1 ft.|
|3.4 ft.||2.4 - 4.5 ft.|
More ResourcesNew Jersey and Northeast Climate Change Resources
- NJDEP - Climate Change Trends Report (2018) (pdf)
- Northeast National Climate Assessment
- NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information - New Jersey Climate Summary
- State of the Climate: 2013 New Jersey (2013)
- New Jersey Climate Report Card (2010)
- Union of Concerned Scientists Confronting Climate Change in the US Northeast (2007)(pdf)
- USGS - Potential for Shoreline Changes Due to Sea-Level Rise Along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region (2007) (pdf)
- Vulnerability of New Jersey’s Coastal Habitats to Sea Level Rise (pdf)
- NJDEP - Coastal Vulnerability Index Mapping Tool
- Rutgers - NJ Flood Mapper
- US Climate Resilience Toolkit
- EPA Climate Report (2016). What Climate Changes Means for New Jersey (pdf)
- NJDEP Trends Report (2018). Climate Change in New Jersey: Temperature, Precipitation, Extreme Events and Sea Level (pdf). NJDEP, Division of Science, Research, and Environmental Health.
- Rutgers Climate Institute (2013). State of the Climate: New Jersey. Broccoli, A., Kaplan, M., Loikith, P., and Robinson, D.
- New Jersey State Climate Summary (2017). NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. Runkle, J., K. Kunkel, S. Champion, R. Frankson, B. Stewart, and W. Sweet. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 149-NJ, 4 pp.
- Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist and the Rutgers NJ Weather Network presentation [PowerPoint slides] (2018). Robinson, David.
- NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (2018) U.S. Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters.
- Miller, Kenneth G., Robert E. Kopp, Benjamin P. Horton, James V. Browning, and Andrew C. Kemp, 2013. A Geological Perspective on Sea-Level Rise and its Impacts along the U.S. MidAtlantic Coast. AGU Earth’s Future, doi:10.1002/2013EF00013 5. A geological perspective on sea‐level rise and its impacts along the U.S. mid‐Atlantic coast.
- United States Geologic Survey (USGA), 2016. New Jersey Flooding Events. Last Modified February 5, 2016.
What is CO2 MMT?
1 Million Metric Tons of CO2 is comparable to...
214,133 Cars Driven for 1 Year!
Energy Consumed by 107,980 Homes for 1 year!
What is CO2e?
CO2 is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1
CO2 equivalents are used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their Global Warming Potential.
For a particular gas, the CO2e is derived by multiplying the tons of gas by its Global Warming Potential.
1 Million Metric Tons of CO2
is approximately equivalent to...
of Methane (CH4)
of Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
of Fluorinated Gases
The latest greenhouse gas Emissions Inventory Report for 2015 (pdf) covers statewide emissions for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015. Estimated net greenhouse gas emissions are as follows:
- 2013 - 105.3 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (MMTCO2e)
- 2014 - 111.8 MMTCO2e
- 2015 - 100.9 MMTCO2e
The emission trends from 1990 to 2015 show significant progress toward achieving the goals of the Global Warming Response Act (GWRA), as depicted in the chart below.
New Jersey’s Estimated Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector Over Time
New Jersey’s estimated greenhouse gas emissions by activity over time. “Estimated Total Net Emissions” considers net sequestration (carbon released thru land clearing + sequestered by forests and other land uses). Source: NJDEP Greenhouse Gas Emissions in New Jersey Trends Report (2018) (pdf)
The DEP estimated New Jersey greenhouse gas emissions based on fuel consumption data obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) and from other information, including estimated emissions of methane from indirect pipeline losses, highly warming gases (e.g. Hydrofluorocarbons used as solvents and refrigerants), and carbon released from land clearing and sequestered through forest growth.
New Jersey’s estimated greenhouse gas emissions have increased slightly in recent years, 2015 levels remain below the 2020 Global Warming Response Act limit (which is equivalent to the 1990 level). To achieve the 2050 Global Warming Response Act limit (of 80% below the 2006 value), New Jersey would need to reduce estimated greenhouse gas emissions by 78%, or about 2.2% per year on average, between 2014 and 2050.
Achievement of the 2050 emissions reduction goal will require a degree of emissions reduction that is far more pronounced than will be necessary to achieve the 2020 limit, although New Jersey’s attainment of the 2020 reduction goal years ahead of schedule attests to the success of efforts thus far.
Is New Jersey Achieving its Emissions Targets?
New Jersey’s most recent emissions inventory (2015) confirms that the state is already well below the 2020 Global Warming Response Act emissions target (which is equivalent to its 1990 greenhouse gas emissions). To achieve the 2050 Global Warming Response Act limit (of 80% below the 2006 value), New Jersey will need to reduce estimated greenhouse gas emissions by 78%, or about 2.2% per year on average, between 2014 and 2050. Source: Developed with data from the NJDEP Greenhouse Gas Emissions in New Jersey Trends Report (2018) (pdf)
According to the latest greenhouse gas emissions estimate (2015), Statewide releases were a little over 100 MMT CO2e, with close to 90% coming from the combustion of fossil fuels to satisfy energy demand (electricity generation, residential, commercial and industrial) and transportation. The category with greatest contribution to greenhouse gas emissions in New Jersey since 1990 has been in the on-road transportation sector. This is most likely due to an increase in vehicle miles traveled in New Jersey despite a minor increase in the fuel efficiency of the overall U.S. motor vehicle fleet. There was a consistent annual increase in vehicle miles traveled in New Jersey until 2008, which coincided with a global economic downturn.
What is the scientific community saying about climate change?
World climate scientists agree, the earth’s climate is changing due to human influences. The science linking human activities to climate change is analogous to the science linking smoking to lung and cardiovascular diseases. Over 97% of climate scientists understand that humans are causing climate change. Below is a sampling of US and International scientific experts confirming this consensus, and the need for action to mitigate and adapt to the coming impacts. This is not an exhaustive list, and those with an interest for more information are encouraged to visit the sites provided.
American Scientific Societies
“The scientific evidence is clear: Global Climate Change caused by human activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society.” AAAS Board Statement on Climate Change (2006) (pdf)
“Global climate change will not reverse itself without serious, sustained leadership from every nation in the world community. Its impacts on human health, world hunger, international conflicts, and macroeconomics will steadily grow unless meaningful action is taken to lessen its profound effects. The United States is a major contributor to worldwide carbon dioxide emissions and today’s announcement is a significant blow to efforts to stem the tide of climate change.” AAG Statement on U.S. Withdrawal from the Paris Agreement (2017)
“Human-induced climate change requires urgent action. Humanity is the major influence on the global climate change observed over the past 50 years. Rapid societal responses can significantly lessen negative outcomes”. Human-Induced Climate Change Requires Urgent Action (2013) (pdf)
“It is clear from extensive scientific evidence that the dominant cause of the rapid change in climate of the past half century is human-induced increases in the amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and nitrous oxide.” Climate Change: An Information Statement of the American Meteorological Society (2012) (pdf)
“The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.” Understanding and Responding to Climate Change (2005)
“Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers (2014) (pdf)
U.S. Interagency Climate Change Research
The U.S. Global Change Research Program is comprised of 14 federal agencies working together to conduct research on global change and the impact posed on society “[t]o build a knowledge base that informs human responses to climate and global change through coordinated and integrated Federal programs of research, education, communication, and decision support.” Global Change Vision, Mission, & Strategic Plan
“The global warming of the past 50 years is due primarily to human-induced increases in heat-trapping gases. Human ‘fingerprints’ also have been identified in many other aspects of the climate system, including changes in ocean heat content, precipitation, atmospheric moisture, and Arctic sea ice.” Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2009) (pdf)
U.S. Global Change Research Program High Impact Reports
Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2014)
“Climate change is one of a number of global changes affecting society, the environment, and the economy; others include population growth, land use change, air and water pollution, and rising consumption of resources by growing and wealthier global population”
“Because environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic systems are tightly coupled, climate change impacts can either be amplified or reduced by cultural and socioeconomic decisions.”
“While some climate changes will occur slowly, and relatively gradually, others could be rapid and dramatic, leading to unexpected breaking point in natural and social systems.”
“In the Northeast, communities are affected by heat waves, more extreme precipitation events, and coastal flooding due to sea level rise and storm surge.”
“Coastal Lifelines, such as water supply infrastructure and evacuation routes are increasingly vulnerable to higher sea levels and storm surges, inland flooding and other climate-related changes.”
“The oceans are currently absorbing about a quarter of human-caused carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and over 90% of the heat associated with global warming, leading to ocean acidification and the alteration of marine ecosystem.”
Northeast Regional Water, Energy, and Land Use, with Projected Climate Change Impacts.
Source: Melillo, Jerry M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and Gary W. Yohe, Eds., 2014: Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. doi:10.7930/J0Z31WJ2.
Full Report (pdf)
Climate Change Global Food Security and the U.S. Food System (2015)
“The Potential of climate change to affect global food security is important for food producers and consumers in the United States.”
“Climate change risks extend beyond agricultural production to other elements of global food systems that are critical for food security including the processing, storage, transportation, and consumption of food.”
Executive Summary (pdf)
The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States (2016)
“Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the American people. Rising greenhouse has concentrations result in increases in temperature, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency and intensity of some extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These climate change impacts endanger our health by affecting our food and water sources, the air we breathe, the weather we experience, and our interactions with the built and natural environments. As climate continues to change, the risks to human health continue to grow.”
Climate Change and Health
“Conceptual diagram illustrating the exposure pathways by which climate change affects human health. Here, the center boxes list some selected examples of the kinds of changes in climate drivers, exposure, and health outcomes explored in this report. Exposure pathways exist within the context of other factors that positively or negatively influence health outcomes (gray side boxes). Some of the key factors that influence vulnerability for individuals are shown in the right box, and include social determinants of health and behavioral choices. Some key factors that influence vulnerability at larger scales, such as natural and built environments, governance and management, and institutions, are shown in the left box. All of these influencing factors can affect an individual’s or a community’s vulnerability through changes in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity and may also be affected by climate change.”
“The diagram shows specific examples of how climate change can affect human health, now and in the future. These effects could occur at local, regional, or national scales. The examples listed in the first column are those described in each underlying chapter’s exposure pathway diagram. Moving from left to right along one health impact row, the three middle columns show how climate drivers affect an individual’s or a community’s exposure to a health threat and the resulting change in health outcome. The overall climate impact is summarized in the final gray column. For a more comprehensive look at how climate change affects health, and to see the environmental, institutional, social, and behavioral factors that play an interactive role in determining health outcomes, see the exposure pathway diagrams in chapters 2-8 in the full report.”
Vector Borne Diseases
“Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These vectors can carry infective pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa, which can be transferred from one host to another. The seasonality, distribution are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. Climate change is likely to have both short and long-term effects on vector borne disease transmission and infection patterns.”
“Maps show the reported cases of Lyme disease in 2001 and 2014 for the areas of the country where Lyme disease is most common (the Northeast and Upper Midwest). Both the distribution and the numbers of cases have increased (see Ch. 5: Vector Borne Diseases). (Figure source: adapted from CDC 2015)”
Climate Change Research In New Jersey
Montclair State University Clean Energy and Sustainability Analytics Center
“The Clean Energy and Sustainability Analytics Center is a public research and technical assistance center for the State of New Jersey to identify, quantify, and interpret the ramifications for the state of clean energy development and to facilitate energy planning. The Center provides support for clean energy policies, technology, and practices through research and education programs. The Center seeks to develop an approach for clean energy analysis and provide long-term environmental and economic solutions for New Jersey, in order to build a sustainable energy economy.”
Monmouth University Urban Coastal Institute
“UCI and the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium jointly employ a community resilience and climate change adaptation specialist who assists coastal communities in assessing their vulnerability to climate change, learning how sea level rise may impact their waterfront areas, and seeking access to technical expertise, grant funding and more.”
Princeton University Cooperative Institute for Climate Science
“The Cooperative Institute for Climate Science (CICS) is a collaboration between Princeton University and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to carry out basic research in the climate sciences.”
Princeton University Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment
“The mission of the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment is to develop solutions to ensure our energy and environmental future. To this end, the center supports a vibrant and expanding program of research and teaching in the areas of sustainable energy-technology development, energy efficiency, and environmental protection and remediation. A chief goal of the center is to translate fundamental knowledge into practical solutions that enable sustainable energy production and the protection of the environment and global climate from energy-related anthropogenic change.”
Princeton University Carbon Mitigation Institute
“The mission of the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (CMI) is to lead the way to a compelling and sustainable solution of the carbon and climate change problem.”
Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist
The Office of the New Jersey State Climatologist gathers and archives data on climate conditions in New Jersey, conducts and fosters research concerning the climate of New Jersey and educates and informs the citizens of New Jersey on matters related to climate.“ Examples of basic research range from developing a thunderstorm climatology to investigating past and potential future climate change across New Jersey.”
Rutgers Climate Institute
“The Rutgers Climate Institute is a University-wide effort to address one of the most important issues of our time through research, education and outreach. The Institute draws upon strengths in many departments at Rutgers by facilitating collaboration across a broad range of disciplines in the natural, social and policy sciences.”
Rutgers New Jersey Climate Adaptation Alliance
“The New Jersey Climate Adaptation Alliance was formed in response to a diverse group of stakeholders who came together on November 29, 2011 at Rutgers University to participate in the conference "Preparing New Jersey for Climate Change: A Workshop for Decision-Makers."
“A changing climate and rising sea levels will have a devastating impact on New Jersey’s economy, the health of our residents, the State’s natural resources, and the extensive infrastructure system that delivers transportation services, energy and clean water to millions of New Jerseyans.”
Rutgers Coastal Climate Risk and Resilience
“C2R2 focuses on four grand challenges that link together physical, ecological, socio-economic and engineered coastal systems:
- Past & Present Dynamics of Coastal Hazards, Vulnerabilities and Risk
- Future Changes to Coastal Hazards, Vulnerability, and Risks:
- Strategies for Resilient Coastal Systems:
- Knowledge to Increase Coastal Resilience: “ (Abbreviated)
Stockton University Coastal Research Center
“Stockton University Coastal Research Center (CRC) originated in 1981 to assist local municipalities with coastal environmental issues related to recurring storm damage and shoreline retreat. Since then the CRC has been working on shoreline monitoring and assessment programs with the State of New Jersey and several municipalities in New Jersey. The CRC has also been a resource for geotechnical data working on numerous projects with Federal, State and municipal governments. With over 20 years of experience the CRC has grown into an exemplary organization known for coastal zone management. The CRC’s continuing mission is to monitor and assess New Jersey’s coastal zone resources.”
Projects: New Jersey Beach Profile Network, Municipal Coastal Management, Delaware Bay Restoration, Environmental Monitoring, GIS Wetland Analysis, Habitat Mapping and several other.
- Cook, et al, "Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming," Environmental Research Letters Vol. 11 No. 4, (13 April 2016); DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/048002
- Department of Energy
- US Climate Alliance
- U.S. Global Change Research Program
- National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Climate Change Adaptation Resource Center (ARC-X)
- Fact Sheet About the ARC-X (pdf)
New Jersey and Northeast
- Fourth National Climate Assessment Report Northeast Impacts (2018)
- NJDEP - Climate Change Trends Report (2018) (pdf)
- NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information - New Jersey Climate Summary (2017)
- EPA - New Jersey Climate Change Summary (2016)
- EPA - Adapting to Climate Change Northeast (2016) (pdf)
- USDA Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Summary (2015)
- Northeast Climate Assessment (2014)
- State of the Climate: 2013 New Jersey (2013)
- New Jersey Climate Report Card (2010)
- Union of Concerned Scientists Confronting Climate Change in the US Northeast (2007) (pdf)
- New Jersey Climate Adaptation Alliance
- NJADAPT Directory of Climate Research
- Rutgers Climate Institute
Flood Hazards and Sea Level Rise Resources
- USGS - Potential for Shoreline Changes Due to Sea-Level Rise Along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region (2007)
- Vulnerability of New Jersey's Coastal Habitats to Sea Level Rise
- NJDEP - Coastal Vulnerability Index Mapping Tool
- Rutgers - New Jersey Flood Mapper
- US Climate Resilience Toolkit
- United Nations - Climate Change Resources
- United Nations - Paris Agreement
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change