METADATA DOCUMENT FOR THE NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (NJDEP) GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

ENVIRONMENTAL DATABASE

 

The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ DEP) contracted Environmental Research Systems Institute (ESRI), with Aerial Information Systems (AIS) as subcontractor, to create a state-wide environmental database for the NJDEP Geographic Information System (GIS). The Integrated Terrain Unit Mapping (ITUM) concept, pioneered by AIS, was chosen to compile and input the various thematic layers into the GIS database. The metadata document contained herein describes for the user the methodologies and mapping criteria used by AIS during the course of the ITUM project.

 

The metadata document is divided into four sections. Section I describes the general concept and methodology of Integrated Terrain Unit Mapping, Section II lists the various collateral sources used during the project, Section III describes the mapping criteria established specifically for the NJ ITUM project and Section IV details the project chronology and any changes to the mapping criteria or classification that occurred during the compilation process.

 

I. INTEGRATED TERRAIN UNIT MAPPING GENERAL CONCEPT AND METHODOLOGY

 

The following section describes the general concept and methodology of integrated terrain unit mapping. The methods of compilation described below were used in the NJ DEP ITUM project. Specific mapping criteria relating to the NJDEP ITUM is described in Section III.

 

INTEGRATED TERRAIN UNIT MAPPING CONCEPT

 

The concept of integrated terrain unit mapping was first developed as a way to handle natural resource information for input into a GIS. The recognition that environmental factors act upon one another in such a way that a change in the distribution of any one phenomenon will tend to alter the distribution of other phenomena is the key to the development of the ITUM concept. Remotely sensed imagery is used together with existing collateral geographic information to detect units on the face of the land which are homogeneous throughout--with respect to major ecological variables such as landforms, vegetation, soils, geology, and cultural influences. These units exist because each factor influences the others, tending to cause a visibly discernible ecological response zone.

 

These major mapped ecological variables are used to construct correlation matrices which in turn allow the mapping of predicted distributions of the variables at a very specific level. They are also used to produce models which will provide capability ratings for an area or otherwise project the expected responses of an area to actions planned for the future.

 

INTEGRATED TERRAIN UNIT MAPPING METHODOLOGY

 

An integrated terrain unit map is a systematic compilation of thematic overlays referenced to a common basemap and imagery source. A process of data evaluation, data rectification and data standardization is employed in order to eliminate redundancy and clarify cartographic discrepancies among the various types of geographic data essential to good planning. The ITUM process creates consistency among data layers and reduces automation costs by decreasing the number of input maps to one.

 

Data items are reduced to their most primitive and, therefore, most interpretable elements. These elements consist of a spatial component represented as polygons, lines, points or surfaces; and their descriptive attributes.

The basic steps of the ITUM process are as follows:

 

1.        Creation of primary thematic overlays

2.        Integration of thematic overlays

3.        Creation of an ITUM manuscript

4.        Map automation

5.        Attribute input

6.        Edit of automated ITUM

 

Primary Thematic Overlays

 

The first step in an ITUM project is to create a series of independent thematic overlays rectified to a common basemap and imagery source. Existing maps are enlarged or reduced to the scale of the basemap and are redrafted on a mylar overlay which has been pin-registered to the basemap. Delineations are re-registered to topographic features; they may be generalized or given enhanced detail; they may be subdivided or aggregated; and they are assigned the appropriate codes based on the classification and the criteria established. Data layers lacking a data source are created by interpretation of the basemap and imagery. The interpretation effort is supplemented by referring to additional collateral sources. Each overlay is reviewed by knowledgeable quality control personnel and is edgematched to adjoining overlays.

 

Integration

 

In a non-integrated approach, each primary thematic overlay would be automated one at a time. However, in addition to the high cost of automating several overlays, the GIS user would have to contend with innumerable sliver polygons created when two or more layers are superimposed. The slivers are caused by minor cartographic or interpretational discrepancies among the overlays. They would create a jumble of misinformation in computer overlays or models and would require a vast amount of valuable computer memory to store and manipulate.  The alternative is the integrated approach, in which each overlay is cross-compared with the others prior to automation and meaningless sliver polygons are eliminated. The primary overlays are evaluated to determine the relative level of confidence placed in each. The overlay judged to be least in need of revision is first to be standardized by referencing it to the image and basemap, and evaluating it against two primary overlays ranking next in confidence. The first overlay is entirely redrafted, lines and codes, onto a clean sheet of mylar pin-registered to the basemap and other overlays. The integrator reconsiders the placement of each polygon boundary on the first overlay, adjusting them where necessary to better fit the pattern of the land as seen on the image and basemap, to standardize them with the other overlays, and to achieve the desired level of detail. Integration is also an opportunity to perform an extra quality control check on each overlay for code and boundary accuracy, as each delineation is reviewed in conjunction with information found on the other thematic overlays.

After the first data layer has been standardized, its primary overlay is set aside, no longer to be used in the integration process. Then, the primary overlay ranked second in confidence is standardized against the basemap, image, the standardized overlay just completed, and the third-ranked primary overlay.  The same logic is applied in standardizing this second overlay.  The integrator may make more refinements to the first standardized overlay based on his closer examination of the second overlay. The procedure for the third overlay is much the same, except integration now proceeds in reference to two standardized overlays, the basemap, and the image. Additional refinements can be made to the first two standardized overlays at this point. The integration process is iterated until each of the primary overlays has been standardized. A quality control and edgematch check is performed once integration is complete.

If the standardized overlays were automated individually, the resultant database would have far fewer slivers than a database created from the primary overlays. However, sliver polygons would still occur due to slightly different renderings of polygon boundaries meant to be identical. Furthermore, the costs associated with automating several maps would still be incurred.  To avoid both of these situations, a single manuscript map containing all of the polygon boundaries from each layer is drafted for automation.

 

ITUM Manuscript Map Compilation

 

A clean sheet of mylar and the first standardized overlay are pin-registered to the basemap, which in turn is registered to the image. Registration tics (from the locational grid on the basemap) and a map border are drafted onto the mylar sheet, which will become the manuscript map. All of the polygon boundaries on the standardized overlays, but none of the codes, are transferred to the manuscript map in black. Refinements may be made to the delineations in this last comparison of the overlays to the basemap and image. When the transfer of delineations is complete, the first standardized overlay is replaced with the second. Boundaries that were not represented on the first overlay are added to the manuscript; boundaries occurring on both overlays are represented only once on the manuscript. The process is repeated with each standardized overlay until the manuscript contains all of the polygon boundaries from all of the data layers. Drafting quality is important for the automation process.  Polygon boundaries should be of consistent line width and darkness, and no underdrafts or overdrafts should occur. The completed manuscript map is reviewed for these problems and to ensure that all polygon boundaries have been transferred.

 

Map Automation

 

The ITUM manuscript is scanned to convert the map features to digital form. The automated spatial features are processed to fix scanning errors and to associate unique sequence numbers with each polygon. The spatial coverage is then linked with an automated matrix of attributes to form the complete set of ITUM information.

 

Attribute Input

 

Attribute data for the ITUM polygons are captured by assigning a unique sequential number to each ITUM polygon, then creating a matrix of codes for each ITUM polygon from the standardized overlays. Sequence numbers are manually assigned to ITUM polygons, starting in one corner and proceeding through the map to end in the opposite corner. These sequence numbers form the first column of the attribute matrix. Subsequent columns are reserved for codes from each of the data layers. Each standardized overlay is registered in turn to the numbered ITUM manuscript, and the codes for each ITUM polygon are entered in the appropriate row (for the ITUM polygon number) and column (for the data layer). The completed matrix is automated and associated with the ITUM to link attributes with each polygon.

 

Edit Plots

 

Before the database can be considered complete, an edit is necessary to ensure that polygons and their codes have been automated correctly. Computer plots corresponding to each data layer are generated. Each plot is compared against the appropriate standardized overlay. Discrepancies between the two are corrected on the plot and on a printout of the attribute matrix. Edges between adjoining maps are checked to ensure that codes and boundaries are consistent across the map borders.  After the computer files are updated with the edit changes, the ITUM is ready to be used in computer modeling.

 

NEW JERSEY DEP INTEGRATED TERRAIN MAPPING PROGRAM

 

The NJ DEP ITUM project began in 1986 with the Camden County pilot and was completed in 1995 with the compilation of Hunterdon, Sussex and Passaic Counties. Larry Thornton of NJ DEP was the technical consultant and project liaison throughout the multi-phase project. He was involved in all decisions regarding technical aspects, including methodology and mapping criteria development. Mapping was conducted county by county, for a total of seven phases. The counties and their compilation dates are listed below:

 

Phase I, 1986-1987

 

Camden County, pilot project

 

Phase II, 1988-1989

 

Mercer County

Ocean County

 

Phase III, 1989-1990

 

Hudson County

Burlington County

 

Phase IV, 1991-1992

 

Bergen County

Cape May County

Essex County

Middlesex County

Monmouth County

Gloucester County

Union County

 

Phase V, 1992-1993

 

Atlantic County

Morris County

Somerset County

Warren County

 

Phase VI, 1993-1995

 

Cumberland County

Salem County

 

Phase VII, 1994-1995

 

Hunterdon County

Passaic County

Sussex County

 

 

 

II. COLLATERAL SOURCES

 

The NJ DEP database is composed of four thematic layers: Land Use/Land Cover, Soils, Geology and Flood Prone data. A variety of collateral sources was used to compile the primary thematic overlays. Listed below are the major forms of collateral used for each thematic layer.

 

-          Aerial Photography:

 

Color Infrared (CIR) stereo-paired imagery dated March 1986, were used to compile the land use/land cover primary thematic overlay and was used as the source for adjusting line delineations during the ITUM mapping effort. The 1986 CIR photography was very useful in identifying signature differences between various land cover types. The stereo-paired imagery allowed the interpreter to see height distinctions between vegetation classes and to identify topographic features on the landscape.

One limitation of the photography that the user needs to be aware of is the date of the photography relative to the date of data compilation for the GIS. Camden County was compiled in 1987, one year after the photography was flown. This meant that the interpretations were contemporary with the existing land use/land cover conditions. In contrast, the delineations for Hunterdon County represent land use/land cover conditions that existed almost ten years ago.

 

-          Basemap:

 

In order to create a consistent baseline database for the state, a single basemap set was used for all phases of the project. The 1:24,000 scale orthophoto quads, dated March 1986, were chosen by NJ DEP as the project basemap set. All data layers mapped for each project phase were rectified and standardized to this basemap.  One significant limitation of the orthophoto basemap, in addition to the date of photography, was the grey tone definition, or lack of it, in certain areas. Sometimes the CIR imagery showed clear signature differences between land cover types, but the signatures were indiscernible on the orthophoto.  Under these circumstances, the photointerpreters used their best judgement, referencing other features on the orthophoto to help delineate the polygons in the proper location.

 

-          Land Use/Land Cover: Ancillary Collateral  

 

The Land Use/Land Cover layer was compiled using the Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) based classification provided by USGS Land Use and Land Cover Classification System, Professional Paper 964, 1976 as modified for New Jersey by the OEA (see Attachment A). Most land use/land cover classes were mapped using the Level II categories, although some Level III classes were added for further clarification. The collateral sources listed below were of varying utility during the compilation of the land use/land cover primary thematic overlays.

 

The collateral maps were used as a secondary source of information to identify land use/land cover types. Features or land cover types on the collateral maps were compared against the CIR and orthophoto imagery. If the photography did not support the information shown on the maps or if the features identified were smaller than the minimum mapping unit, they were not delineated onto the thematic overlay.

 

-          USGS 7.5 minute Topographic Series, paper and mylar sheets:

 

These maps were very useful and were available for the entire state. They helped verify land use, urban built-up and topographic features, and to a lesser extent vegetation cover type The biggest limitation was that they were often out of date and schematic.

 

-          Hagstrom and Patton County Street Maps:

 

These maps were of limited use although they were generally available for the entire state. They were not as detailed as the USGS 7.5 minute topographic maps and were more diagrammatic in their feature depictions. In addition to major roads, the street maps usually had the locations of golf courses, parks and regional shopping malls.

 

-          Pineland Commission Maps:

 

The Pineland maps were used to assist in identifying Pitch-Pine lowland forest, cedar swamp, and coniferous wooded wetland areas.  The maps were quad based, at a scale of 1:24,000. They were only compiled for the southern portions of the state which is where the Pinelands vegetation is generally found. During Phase IV of the project the Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest class was eliminated, relegating the Pineland maps to a secondary source of collateral.

 

-          National Wetlands Inventory Maps (NWI):

 

The NWI maps were used to help identify wetland vegetation types. The maps were quad based, at a scale of 1:24,000. They were generally available throughout the state, although some quads did not have NWI information compiled. During Phase IV, NJDEP was able to provide state Freshwater Wetland (FWW) plots for selected areas. These plots, when available, replaced the NWI maps as a wetlands collateral source.

 

-          Freshwater Wetland Plots:

 

Concurrent with the ITUM project, NJ DEP conducted a mapping project that delineated the freshwater wetlands resources of the entire state in response to the Freshwater Wetlands Act (1988).  These wetlands were mapped using the Cowardin classification system instead of the OEA based classification used for the ITUM. The CIR imagery used in the ITUM project was utilized for the FWW photointerpretations and the polygons were delineated onto 1:12,000 scale orthophoto quarter-quad basemaps. The maps were entered into their GIS as a separate FWW coverage. During Phase IV of the ITUM project, FWW plots became available for selected quad sheets. The FWW plots were a much better source of wetlands collateral than either the NWI or Pinelands maps and were used in place of those sources when available.  NJ DEP converted the original FWW data into a form suitable for the ITUM project. They crosswalked the Cowardin classification to the project classification codes, eliminated polygons below the minimum mapping unit and plotted the data at the 1:24,000 ITUM mapping scale. The FWW plots also included the Upper Wetlands Boundary (UWB). The UWB separated tidal from non-tidal areas and was used accordingly during the ITUM mapping.

 

-          Tideland Maps:

 

These maps, where available, were utilized during Phases I-II, to help delineate the boundaries between tidal and non-tidal areas. When FWW data became available, the tideland maps were no longer used as a collateral source.

 

-          Soils

 

Soil collateral, where available, was provided in three different forms. All primary thematic overlays mapped by AIS were recompiled from the soil surveys mapped for each county by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS now the NRCS). The soil surveys contained soil class descriptions, suitability analysis, and soil maps. The soil maps depicted soil polygons and codes mapped onto a photo base with roads and hydrologic features delineated. The date of the soil survey compilation affected the match between the soil survey maps and the orthophoto basemap.  Each county had its own classification scheme, mapping criteria and mapping scale. Because the SCS classification was not standardized across the state, soil units often ended abruptly at the county line; delineations and codes changing significantly from one county to another. Due to the varying scales of the soil survey, virtually all of the map sheets had to be rescaled for recompilation into the ITUM. Concurrent with, but separate from, the ITUM mapping effort, the NRCS (formerly the SCS) implemented a statewide remapping project. Their goal was to create a GIS database containing soil information mapped to a standardized statewide classification.  NJ DEP negotiated with SCS to use the updated information for the ITUM project.  The NRCS provided either hand-drawn hardcopy mylars recompiled to the orthophoto basemap or digital files of the recompiled data.  When digital files were available, plots were created at 1:24,000 scale. The hand-drawn mylars and digital plots were used as the recompiled soil layer for the ITUM project. They contained only soil polygons and codes, no other landscape features that might assist in local registration were delineated.  A listing of the soil codes and names, but no further descriptions, were provided for each county. Where available, the Soil Surveys were used for further soil class definitions.  The new soil data became available for select counties during Phase IV and was used whenever possible for the remainder of the ITUM project. The method of recompilation used for each county can be found in Section IV under the appropriate county heading.

 

-          Flood Prone

 

Flood prone information was derived from the 1:24,000 scale USGS map of flood prone areas. These maps are not Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) maps. The maps were very simplistic, showing the boundaries between flood prone and non-flood prone areas as open-ended polygons superimposed on a USGS topographic base. During the integration step the open-ended polygons were closed off and additional flood prone areas were photointerpreted; the interpreted delineations were coded separately from the data contained on the flood prone collateral maps.

 

-          Geology

 

The 1:63,360 scale, statewide geologic map series sheets were used to map geologic units across the entire state. The map sheets were very diagrammatic and contained only geologic units, codes and some water bodies. No other landscape features were depicted, making proper registration of the geologic units to the basemap difficult. Rescaling of the map sheets was necessary before they could be recompiled to the orthophoto basemap. During phase IV, 1:63,360 scale Atlas sheet topographic bases corresponding to the geology map sheets were made available. These maps showed the locations of roads, towns and topographic features. When overlain onto the geology sheets, they facilitated the registration of the geologic units to the basemap.

 

 

III. NEW JERSEY ITUM MAPPING CRITERIA

 

The following section describes the specific mapping criteria established for the NJ ITUM project. The first part details the compilation of each of the primary thematic overlays. The second part describes the procedures for standardizing the thematic overlays through the integration process. For the description of the general ITUM procedures, refer to Section I, ITUM Methodology.

 

PRIMARY THEMATIC OVERLAY COMPILATION

 

Land Use/Land Cover (lu/lc)

 

A. Photointerpretation

 

All lu/lc features have a photo signature. These signatures are defined by color, texture, pattern, and tone on the aerial photography. By observing the context and extent of the photo signatures associated with specific lu/lc types, the photointerpreter is able to identify and delineate the boundaries of lu/lc features.  Additional collateral sources are of great utility to the photo interpreter. They help identify specific lu/lc features and provide a background context against which the photo signatures can be compared. Understanding the relationship between lu/lc types is very useful in the interpretation process. The context in which a lu/lc unit occurs is as important as the signature of the feature on the photograph in determining the lu/lc category assignment for the unit. For example, knowing that railroad tracks often run nearby or through industrial areas, or that commercial shopping areas are usually found on major roads can help the photo interpreter make the correct interpretation.  Familiarity with regional differences helps interpretation by establishing a context for a specific area.

 

The NJ ITUM primary thematic overlay for the lu/lc layer was created by AIS, through photointerpretation of the CIR stereo imagery. Multiple collateral sources were used in conjunction with the CIR imagery to help identify lu/lc features.  These collateral sources were only used as guides, they were not interpreted literally. The CIR imagery was used to confirm the existence of the lu/lc types observed on the collateral maps.  All lu/lc units were mapped according to the classification definitions (see Attachment A). Exceptions are noted in Section IV, under the appropriate county heading. Prior to Phase V, the AIS photo interpreters visited New Jersey for one week and travelled the state to establish a new key verification for the photo signatures. This also familiarized the delineators with the New Jersey landscape, prior to the last three Phases. The delineations and codes representing the lu/lc categories were annotated directly onto a mylar overlay pin-registered to the orthophoto basemap. The lu/lc units were spatially registered to the basemap by locally registering recognizable features, such as ridges, stream courses, and roads, resulting in a spatially and thematically correct primary overlay. Any uncertain lu/lc interpretations were flagged directly onto the mylar overlay.  Following the initial round of interpretations, the interpreted overlays were given to senior interpreters for review and comment. The senior interpreters reviewed the interpreted overlays for completeness, consistency, and adherence to the mapping criteria and guidelines. For those polygons flagged by the photo interpreter, the reviewer either assigned the appropriate lu/lc code or left the polygon flagged for field verification.

 

B. Minimum Mapping Unit

 

The resolution of the CIR imagery allowed for the recognition of minute features on the aerial photography. To have mapped every feature identifiable to the photo interpreters would have required much more time and money than the original scope of work entailed. To meet the project schedule and budget, a minimum mapping unit of 2.5 acres was established during the Camden County pilot. All lu/lc units smaller than 2.5 acres were mapped according to the following guidelines:

 

-          Built-up land uses took precedence over non-built up categories. For example, if a below mmu residential land use was next to a below mmu forest land cover, the forested area was aggregated with the built-up land use and coded as a residentialland use class.

-          In general, residential land use took precedence over other built-up land uses. If a below mmu residential land use was next to a below mmu commercial land use, the commercial area was aggregated with the residential land use and coded as a residential land use class.

-          Wetland vegetation took precedence over non-wetland vegetation classes. If a below mmu wetlands vegetation type was next to a below mmu upland vegetation class, the upland vegetation was aggregated with the wetlands area and coded for the appropriate wetlands category.

-          Isolated below resolution polygons completely surrounded by a single lu/lc polygon were absorbed into the surrounding lu/lc class. Examples of this would be housing surrounded by forest, commercial land use surrounded by industrial, wetlands vegetation surrounded by uplands vegetation, etc.

-          If a below resolution polygon was surrounded by a number of other above resolution polygons, then the below resolution polygon would be joined with the polygon that most closely represented its class. For example, if a below mmu residential class was next to above mmu commercial, industrial, and forested polygons, the residential land use was aggregated into the commercial polygon. Although the mmu was 2.5 acres, many of the lu/lc classes were mapped down to 1.5 acres. For example, there are a significant number of residential land uses in rural areas that are often below 2.5 acres in size; if the mmu was not adjusted to 1.5 acres these units would never be delineated. Another exception was wetlands vegetation. Because of their importance relative to many types of analysis, wetlands vegetation was also routinely mapped below the mmu. If the 2.5 acre mmu had been strictly observed, these units would not have been captured in the database. By mapping certain lu/lc classes smaller than the 2.5 acre mmu, the user is given a more accurate depiction of lu/lc conditions in these areas. Below mmu lu/lc features were also created/mapped along county boundaries. The county line is clipped into the ITUM database often cutting across lu/lc features and thereby creating below mmu polygons.  These below mmu units are artificial and should not be considered as sliver polygons, since by removing the county boundary the original lu/lc delineations are restored.  In addition, a minimum width unit of 85 feet was employed for all polygons. If a class was less than 85 feet in width it was collapsed into the adjacent polygons. So, for example, many Interstate roadways are delineated as transportation polygons but when the width of these roads becomes less than 85 feet, the roadway is collapsed. Therefore, a separate roads coverage is required to get complete contiguity of roads features. ,The 85 foot measurement derives from the stated accuracy of the maps at 1:24000 which is =/- 60 feet. For a feature to be delineated with linework of =/-20 feet, the feature has to be at least greater than 60 ft plus 20 feet to be a real feature based on the quality of the base map and width of the line delineating the feature.

 

C. Land Use/Land Cover Drafting Conventions

 

There are significant differences between built-up and natural land use categories that required different drafting techniques for each type. Built-up land uses usually follow man-made features like fence lines, roads, and property boundaries and contain straight edges and right angle corners. To properly represent these classes in the database, the photointerpreters used a straight edge to delineated crisp, straight boundaries and sharp angles.  By contrast, natural vegetation boundaries tended to be transitional, the line separating different classes was less distinct. The polygons seldom contained straight edges or angles unless the vegetation unit was bounded by a man-made feature such as a road or fence line. Therefore, vegetation categories were usually drafted freehand to more accurately capture the flowing, curvilinear nature of the polygons.

 

The general drafting criteria is listed below:

 

-          If a polygon boundary followed a road, the line was drafted down the middle of the road. It was not angled along the road.

-          Where roads and features on the orthophoto differed from those represented on other collateral sources, the location on the orthophoto was used to depict the feature.

-          Smooth curves were drafted appropriately, not wavy or jagged.

 

D. Field Verification

 

A field verification task is usually performed in conjunction with the photointerpretation to ensure that the data layer produced is as error free as possible. The photos and interpreted mylar overlays are taken into the field by the photo interpreters. On-site verification is performed for each polygon flagged during the photointerpretation process. All polygons flagged during the photointerpretation task are reviewed in the field and resolved. Changes and corrections resulting from the field verification process are made directly onto the photo overlays.  However, due to financial constraints, NJ DEP decided during the Camden County pilot that they would conduct a field verification of the data at another time, possibly through their own office.  To facilitate any future field verification effort, the photointerpreters flagged uncertain interpretations by placing a "9" in the fourth digit of the lu/lc code. These "9" codes were input into the database until such time as the polygons could be verified. As a note to users: The lu/lc layer for Phases I-III may still contain uncertain lu/lc codes in the database.  Beginning with Phase IV and continuing through Phases V-VII, NJDEP authorized a field verification effort in conjunction with the ITUM mapping. A New Jersey based consultant, Vince Attardi, was subcontracted by ESRI to conduct the lu/lc field verification effort for the ITUM project.  The photointerpreters continued to flag uncertain code interpretations with a "9" in the fourth digit and these codes were still entered into the database. However, before delivery to NJ DEP, field verification plots were created by ESRI and sent to Mr. Attardi. When he had completed the on-site verifications for each county, his observations were input into the database and then delivered to NJ DEP.

 

Soils

 

The primary thematic overlay for soils, when not provided by the SCS, was recompiled from the county Soil Surveys. The soil sheets were rescaled to 1:24,000 and registered to the orthophoto basemap. Soil polygons and codes were recompiled onto a mylar overlay pin-registered to the basemap. When all of the soil data had been transferred, a quality assurance check was performed to verify the data recompilation against the original soil collateral.  Beginning with Phase I and continuing into Phase IV, an additional quality assurance review was performed by the SCS.  The recompiled primary thematic overlays were sent to the appropriate SCS county office. A SCS reviewer compared the soil recompilations against the original collateral, making corrections as needed. At this time the reviewer also answered questions raised during the mapping process. The reviewed, recompiled soil mylars were then sent back to AIS for the integration task. During the Phase IV mapping effort, the SCS discontinued their practice of reviewing the recompiled soil mylars. They did, however, continue to answer questions raised during the recompilation process.

 

Flood Prone

 

The flood prone information was recompiled onto a mylar overlay pin-registered to the basemap. The USGS collateral map contained open polygons delineated with a very thick line. The interpreters drafted down the middle of the collateral line delineations, leaving the polygons open-ended. Since the USGS collateral did not represent the full extent of the flood prone areas, further interpretations were performed during the integration step. In order to distinguish between interpreted and documented flood prone areas, different codes were assigned to each type. The open-ended polygons were also closed off during the integration process.  In some instances, the flood prone units did not edgematch across the collateral map sheets. When this occurred, the documented flood prone unit stopped at the quad boundary, creating a straight line in the database.

 

Geology

 

The geology information was recompiled onto a mylar overlay pin-registered to the basemap. The collateral maps were at a scale of 1:63,360 and had to be rescaled. The resulting maps were very "cartoonish" due to the enlargement of the linework and the relative lack of detail in the original collateral maps. The only registration features contained on the maps were large water bodies. Using the water bodies and correlations between topography and geologic units, the collateral was recompiled to the mylar overlay. The availability of Atlas sheets during Phase IV helped increase the accuracy of the registration, although it did not improve the original collateral data. Other than the addition of Atlas sheets, there were no changes made to the mapping criteria for geology throughout the project.  Questions raised during the recompilation process were addressed to the New Jersey Geological Survey (NJGS). Gail Carter and Greg Herman answered all questions raised during the recompilation process.  There were situations where geologic units did not edgematch across collateral map sheets. If the NJGS could not provide a solution, a straight line was drafted between the polygons in question.

 

Water

 

Throughout the course of the ITUM project, water features were coded into the database a number of different ways. During the Camden County pilot, water was not photointerpreted onto the lu/lc overlay, it was "clipped" into the ITUM coverage from a preexisting NJ DEP hydrology coverage (derived from USGS topoquads). The clipped in water polygons were coded by the photointerpreters with the appropriate lu/lc category and mapped onto the other thematic overlays. For Phases II and III, the USGS digital hydrology data was not available. Therefore, water bodies greater than 1.5 acres were photo-interpreted onto the lu/lc overlay using the CIR imagery and the classification descriptions. These interpretations were also mapped onto the other thematic overlays.  During Phase IV of the ITUM project, the USGS digital hydrology coverages had been completed, statewide. Using a methodology similar to the one developed in the Camden County pilot, both the water features and codes were "clipped" into the ITUM from the updated hydrology coverage. Water was not mapped on any ITUM thematic layer. To ensure full coverage of the ITUM data, all lu/lc, soils, flood prone, and geology polygons ending at a water body were drafted down the middle of the water body instead of along the edges. This also helped minimize the number of sliver polygons created during the merging of the hydrology and ITUM coverages. Phases V of the ITUM project also used this methodology. For Phases VI and VII, digital coverages from the detailed freshwater wetlands (FWW) mapping project became available statewide. The hydro (lakes) delineations from this data layer proved to be much more accurate than the USGS hydro delineations from the topoquads. The FWW delineations were photo-interpreted from 1986 CIR imagery to 1986 quarterquad orthophoto basemaps which met National Map Accuracy at 1:12000. Therefore it was decided that the FWW hydro would replace the USGS data during the "clip" phase of ITUM development for these Phases. For Hunterdon and Sussex Counties, the FWW hydro coverages replaced the USGS delineations countywide. For Passaic, Cumberland, and Salem Counties, only those FWW hydro features above the Upper Wetlands Boundary were used. Below the UWB, the USGS topoquad hydro delineations were used. The UWB defines those areas within the county which are tidal. Those areas which are tidal were not delineated by the FWW mapping program by law. Therefore, the only hydro delineations which existed for areas below the UWB were the USGS topoquad derived hydro delineations. A hybrid hydro layer was created from the FWW delineations above the UWB and the USGS topoquad delineations below the UWB. In Passaic, Cumberland and Salem Counties, the hybrid hydro data layer was used to "clip" the water features into the final ITUM.

 

Coastline Delineations

 

Coastline boundaries for all ITUM phases were derived from a preexisting NJ DEP coastline file derived from the NJDEP 1986 orthophotoquads. The coastline was clipped into the ITUM coverage after the data had been automated.

 

County Boundaries

 

The County boundaries were derived from a preexisting NJ DEP county boundary file. The county line was clipped into the ITUM coverage after the data had been automated. Each county was given a county code; this was input into the ITUM coverage.

 

Edgematching

 

Edgematching of all layers for each quad sheet was performed to ensure the continuity of spatial and attribute characteristics of features across quad boundaries. All features on each layer were  edgematched to the corresponding features on adjacent quad sheets.  Edgematching was also performed along county boundaries. Lu/lc, flood prone and geologic units are often continuous across county lines. Because the ITUM mapping project was conducted county by county it was necessary to stop some continuing features at the county boundary, resulting in a temporary partial delineation of the unit. The delineation was completed when the adjacent county was mapped.  The mapping criteria established for county edgematching is listed below:

 

-          If adjacent counties were part of the same mapping effort, the lu/lc, flood prone and geologic units were mapped through the county boundary, as if it were invisible. The county line was clipped in after the ITUM data had been automated.

-          If an adjacent county had been compiled during a previous ITUM mapping effort, the lu/lc, flood prone, and geologic units were edgematched to the existing features. This was done by matching the current delineations to the standardized thematic overlays from the previously mapped counties.  Soil units were not edgematched across county lines in the same way as the lu/lc, flood prone and geology layers. Because each county had its own classification for soils, the delineations and codes often stopped at the county boundary. An effort was made during the compilation of the primary thematic overlays to match the delineations across the county line where appropriate.  This was done by comparing the code descriptions for each unit to one another to determine if they were essentially the same unit, or fundamentally different from one another. For the most part, the soil delineations do not edgematch across the county boundaries.

 

STANDARDIZED THEMATIC OVERLAY COMPILATION/INTEGRATION

 

Order of Integration

 

One of the first steps of the integration process is to set the order of integration. This is accomplished by assigning a "confidence rating" to each primary thematic overlay. Primary thematic overlays assigned a high confidence level usually need little or no revision during the integration step, therefore they are standardized first to set the baseline for subsequent layers.  A high confidence rating is given to primary thematic overlays compiled using photo-verifiable, detailed collateral sources at the mapping scale.  For the NJ ITUM project, the lu/lc layer was assessed as having the highest confidence rating with soils rated second, then flood prone and geology. The order of integration for the entire ITUM project was set accordingly with the lu/lc layer standardized first, followed by soils, flood prone and geology. Specific mapping criteria for each layer is listed below.

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The lu/lc standardized overlay was created by comparing the lu/lc primary overlay to the soils primary overlay. The delineations were verified with the CIR imagery and redrafted onto a sheet of mylar pin-registered to the basemap. Built-up land use delineations were seldom changed from their original depiction on the primary thematic overlay. Vegetation delineations, because of their transitional nature, were often revised after comparison to the soils layer. One example of this is adjustment of wetland vegetation to match a wet soil.  Once compiled, the lu/lc standardized overlay became the foundation for the rest of the integration process.

 

Soils

 

The soil standardized overlay was created by comparing the primary soil overlay against the standardized lu/lc overlay.  Delineations were verified with the CIR imagery and redrafted onto a sheet of mylar pin-registered to the basemap. The soil delineations were often revised after comparison to the lu/lc data and topographic features.  The mapping criteria regarding soil delineation revisions during the integration process are listed below.

 

-          Soils were correlated to topographic features; drainage soils were adjusted to fit stream drainages, steep soils were adjusted to fit side slopes, etc.

-          Wet soils were correlated to wetland vegetation, where appropriate.

-          Urban soils were correlated to built-up areas on the lu/lc layer. If a built-up area had expanded beyond the original soil boundary, the soil unit was adjusted to fit the lu/lc delineation.

-          Urban Complex soils were adjusted to fit built-up areas, but not as much as a pure urban soil. If a built-up area had expanded beyond the original soil boundary, the soils were not adjusted to fit the lu/lc delineation.

-          Pit, Quarry and other excavated soil types were correlated to excavations identified on the lu/lc layer. If an excavation had expanded beyond the original soil boundary, the soil was adjusted to match the lu/lc delineation.

-          Areas designated in the soil surveys as excavation soils which appeared to be urban land or overgrown with natural vegetation were left as excavation soils on the soil layer.

 

Starting with Phase IV and continuing through subsequent mapping phases, NJ DEP requested that all soil delineations moved during the integration process more than 200' (1/10" at the 1:24,000 mapping scale) from the original collateral line placement be documented. Movements of 200' or less were not documented. Based on the established mapping criteria, four standard categories of boundary adjustments were characterized. Codes representing each category were placed in the appropriate location on the standardized soil mylar overlay. The annotations were not automated into the ITUM database with the exception of the Soil Inclusion/Resolution category. A "Soil Inclusion" item had been added to the database during Phase II of the ITUM project.

 

The four categories of soil line movement are described below:

 

1 = Soil Inclusion/Resolution

This category includes any soil units on the original collateral that were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping considerations.

 

2 = Urban Soils/Urban Land Uses

Urban soil boundaries were adjusted to correlate to built-up land uses delineated on the lu/lc overlay.

 

3 = Photo Signature

This category includes soil lines that were adjusted due to the correlation of wet soils to wetland vegetation on the lu/lc overlay and the adjustment of soil units to match photo signatures on the orthophoto basemap.

 

4 = Topography

This category describes soil lines that were adjusted due to the correlation of soil units to topographic features on the orthophoto basemap.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During Phase II, a minimum mapping unit (mmu) of one acre was established for the primary soil layer. Any soil polygon smaller than the mmu was not mapped, but its location was marked on the soil overlay with an "X". All polygons containing an "X" were coded as soil inclusions, to indicate which polygons would contain more information if that area were compared to the original soil collateral. A "Soil Inclusion" item was added to the ITUM coverage.  The use of an "X" to identify the location of soil inclusions was discontinued after the Phase III mapping effort. Following the methodology developed during the Phase IV mapping effort, the soil inclusions were documented directly onto the standardized soil overlay using a code of 1. The criteria established to identify soil inclusions remained the same throughout the ITUM project.  During the integration process there were soil polygons below the mmu that were dropped but not coded as a soil inclusion.  Examples are listed below:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded excavation soil or urban soil were not coded as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

-          Water polygons dropped because they did not exist on new imagery were not marked as dropped polygons. This criteria was used only when water was mapped as part of the ITUM project.(Phases II and III).

 

Flood Prone

 

The flood prone standardized overlay was created by comparing the primary flood prone overlay against the standardized soil and lu/lc overlays. Delineations were verified with the CIR imagery and redrafted onto a sheet of mylar pin-registered to the basemap. Additional flood prone information was interpreted and drafted onto the standardized overlay. Wetland areas from the lu/lc layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbols and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quad, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas.  To differentiate between the documented and interpreted flood prone data, a code of "1" was assigned to all documented flood prone areas and a code of "2" to interpreted flood prone polygons. Non-flood prone areas were given a code of "9".  During integration, the documented flood prone delineations were correlated to topographic features, wetland vegetation and wet soil types. Open-ended polygons on the primary overlay were closed off. In areas where the documented flood prone did not represent the full extent of the flood prone area, interpreted flood prone delineations were added to the standardized overlay. Guidelines were established to help the interpreters determine whether an area should be mapped as interpreted flood prone. They are listed below:

 

-          Wetland vegetation on the lu/lc overlay is always considered a flood prone area and should be mapped as either a documented or interpreted flood prone type.

-          Wet soil types are often flood prone areas. The soil data was a very important source of collateral for mapping interpreted flood prone. Counties that did not contain a soil layer usually had less interpreted flood prone than counties with soil information.

-          Drainages are often flood prone areas. Only the major drainages were mapped as flood prone.

 

Geology

 

The geology standardized overlay was created by comparing the primary geology overlay against the standardized soil, lu/lc, and flood prone overlays. Delineations were verified with the CIR imagery and redrafted onto a sheet of mylar pin-registered to the basemap. Because the geology primary overlay received a very low confidence rating, the geology delineations were revised extensively during the integration process. In general, the geologic units were most often revised to fit landscape features on the orthophoto basemap. Surficial geology was correlated to flood plain soils and wetland marshes where appropriate.

 

IV. PROJECT CHRONOLOGY

 

This section is organized according to the order of compilation, county by county. Listed under the general county heading is the year of compilation, whether a field verification task was performed and the AIS project manager. The specific land use/land cover classes used for each county can be found under the appropriate attachment. Agencies and people contacted during the project are also listed.  Each county is broken out by thematic layer; land use/land cover, soils, geology and flood prone. The collateral sources, classification, methodologies and mapping criteria used to compile the thematic layers are described in Sections I, II, and III. Any changes in project mapping criteria and/or the classification are described under the appropriate heading below.  These changes are valid for all subsequent ITUM mapping phases unless stated otherwise.

 

PHASE I: CAMDEN COUNTY (Pilot Project)

 

Year Mapped: 1987

Field Verification: None

AIS Project Manager: Janet Reyes

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment B. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1210 = Military Reservations.

This code corresponds to the 1211 Level IV code in the classification.

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

This code usually represents older, inner-city areas of row housing mixed with commercial and industrial land uses. Fieldverification is especially desirable in these areas.

1804 = Athletic Field (Schools)

This category was created to identify playgrounds and athletic fields associated with schools.

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

Some inactive agricultural fields may be mapped as 1700 or 4400.

2400 = Other Agriculture

That portion of farms that include a residence will be coded as "residential". Agriculture buildings that do not include a residence are coded as "other agriculture".

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

This land cover category was mapped based on the 1:24,000 Pinelands Commission vegetation maps. Units were interpreted as 4310 or 4200 in areas lacking Commission map coverage.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

This category corresponds to the 433 and 434 categories in the OEA classification. Crown closure was not considered in the Camden County pilot.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

This category corresponds to the 431 and 432 categories in the OEA classification. Crown closure was not considered in the Camden County pilot.

5100-5400 = Water Bodies

Delineations for the above water categories were extracted from the USGS DLG hydrology file. Minimum resolution in the DLG file was well below the ITUM resolution of 2 1/2 acres. These water bodies appear in all of the other ITUM layers.

5500 = Cranberry Bog

This category was created to address situations in which cranberry bogs identified on the USGS topographic quadrangle appeared as bodies of standing water in the March 1986 photography. Since cranberry bogs are covered by water on an intermittent basis, it was decided to utilize this agricultural code, and to disregard the code of 5500 which was created during the Camden County pilot project. Polygons coded as 5500 in Camden, Mercer, and Ocean Counties were changed to the code of 2260.

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

These wetlands were mostly cedar swamps, but sometimes consisted of pitch pine, based on information from the Pinelands Commission maps.

6221 = Cedar Swamps

This category was created to differentiate between cedar swamps and other coniferous wetlands. Cedar swamps were identified on the Pinelands Commission vegetation maps.

7500 = Transitional Areas

If the interpreters were certain of the land use associated with the structures being built or about to be built on transitional land, the code pertaining to the future land use was assigned to the polygon. If the interpreters had little or no certainty regarding the future land use, the 7500 code was applied.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Camden County Soil Survey (1966). The soil data was recompiled to the 1:24,000 scale USGS topographic mylar maps, not the orthophoto basemaps. (This was a miscommunication between the parties involved and was not subsequently repeated. All soils in the remaining counties were recompiled to the orthophoto basemaps.) SCS conducted a formal review of the soil recompilations.  Areas of made land, sand and gravel pits, and dumps were expanded or were added to the soil information to reflect conditions seen in the 1986 imagery. Areas designated as gravel pits in the 1966 Soil Survey but which were clearly a different land use in the 1986 photography were coded as Made Land in the ITUM.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

PHASE II: MERCER COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1988

Field Verification: None

AIS Project Manager: Ginger May

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment C. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

In Mercer and Ocean counties, much of the brushland is composed of deciduous scrub oak woodland less than 20 feet tall. These areas were mapped following the classification definitions.

5100-5500 = Water Bodies

Water bodies were photo interpreted and those greater than 1 1/2 acres were mapped. The delineated water bodies appear in all of the ITUM layers.

5410 = Bay, Estuary

This category is an expansion of the Bay, Estuary (5400) class and was created to include enclosed brackish water bodies within the saline marshes along the protected coast in Ocean County.

5420 = Dredged Lagoons

This category was created to represent man-made canals in harbor, residential, and marina areas.

5500 = Cranberry Bog

This category had been created to address situations in which cranberry bogs identified on the USGS topographic quadrangle were observed on the March 1986 photography. In Ocean county, cranberry bogs not containing water in the imagery were labeled as "cranberry bogs" in the land use layer but were not coded as "water" in the other ITUM layers. Since cranberry bogs are covered by water on an intermittent basis, it was decided to utilize this agricultural code, and to disregard the code of 5500 which was created during the Camden County pilot project.  Polygons coded as 5500 in Camden, Mercer, and Ocean Counties were changed to the code of 2260.

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

In module 87 of Mercer county, tideland maps from the source entitled LANDS SUBJECT TO INVESTIGATION FOR AREAS NOW OR FORMERLY BELOW MEAN HIGH WATER were used to delineate areas in this category. Individual tideland maps used include 476-1986, 483-1986, 483-1992, 490-1986, and 490-1992.

7000 = Barren Land

This broad definition was used in some cases where extractive mining had taken place but now appear to be inactive. Natural revegetation had not occurred nor had these sites been further developed.

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Mercer County Soil Survey (January 1972) and recompiled to the orthophotoquads SCS conducted a formal review of the soil recompilations. A code of "UNK" for "Unknown" was used where:

 

1. A code had been omitted from the original soil survey.

2. Conflicting codes appeared on the survey, or

3. A water body no longer exists.

 

Water bodies or portions of water bodies greater than 1 acre on the soil collateral that no longer exist on the orthophoto are marked with an asterisk to indicate "no code". The SCS will need to determine the soil code for these polygons.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. In Mercer County, Sheet 27 shows a hanging line between the Magothy Formation (KM) and the Raritan Formation (KR). Under instructions from the client, the line was deleted and the areas was mapped as the Magothy and Raritan Formations (KMR). Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped form the database due to minimum mapping criteria. In order to inform the user of the existence of these inclusions of soil types in a background of a dominant soil type, a one-digit item was added to the ITUM coverage. Listed below are examples of dropped polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

 

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

-          Water polygons dropped because they did not exist on new imagery were not marked as dropped polygons.

 

PHASE II: OCEAN COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1988

Field Verification: None

AIS Project Manager: Ginger May

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment C. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

In Ocean county, much of the brushland is composed of deciduous scrub oak woodland less than 20 feet tall. These areas were mapped following the classification definitions.

5100-5500 = Water Bodies

Water bodies were photo interpreted and those greater than 1 1/2 acres were mapped. Most of the delineated water bodies appear in all of the ITUM layers. There are occurrences in modules 100 and 101 of Ocean County where areas under tidal waters were coded as "water" on the land use layer only.

5410 = Bay, Estuary

This category is an expansion of the Bay, Estuary (5400) class and was created to include enclosed brackish water bodies within the saline marshes along the protected coast in Ocean County.

5420 = Dredged Lagoons

This category was created to represent man-made canals in harbor, residential, and marina areas.

5500 = Cranberry Bog

This category had been created to address situations in which cranberry bogs identified on the USGS topographic quadrangle were observed on the March 1986 photography. In Ocean county, cranberry bogs not containing water in the imagery were labeled as "cranberry bogs" in the land use layer but were not coded as "water" in the other ITUM layers. Since cranberry bogs are covered by water on an intermittent basis, it was decided to utilize this agricultural code, and to disregard the code of 5500 which was created during the Camden County pilot project.  Polygons coded as 5500 in Camden, Mercer, and Ocean Counties were changed to the code of 2260.

7000 = Barren Land

 

This broad definition was used in some cases where extractive mining had taken place but now appear to be inactive. Natural revegetation had not occurred nor had these sites been further developed.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Ocean County Soil Survey (April 1980) and recompiled to the orthophotoquads. SCS conducted a formal review of the soil recompilations. A code of "UNK" for "Unknown" was used where:

1. A code had been omitted from the original soil survey.

2. Conflicting codes appeared on the survey, or

3. A water body no longer exists.

 

Water bodies or portions of water bodies greater than 1 acre on the soil collateral that no longer exist on the orthophoto are marked with an asterisk to indicate "no code". The SCS will need to determine the soil code for these polygons.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped form the database due to minimum mapping criteria. In order to inform the user of the existence of these inclusions of soil types in a background of a dominant soil type, a one-digit item was added to the ITUM coverage. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

-          Water polygons dropped because they did not exist on new imagery were not marked as dropped polygons.

 

PHASE III: BURLINGTON COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1989-1990

Field Verification: None

AIS Project Manager: Ginger May

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment D. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

2260 = Cranberry Bog

Since cranberry bogs are covered by water on an intermittent basis, it was decided to utilize this agricultural code, and to disregard the code of 5500 which was created during the Camden County pilot project. Polygons coded as 5500 in Camden, Mercer, and Ocean Counties were changed to the code of 2260.

5500 = previously Cranberry Bog.

Not used in this project, see code 2260.

7600 = Undifferentiated Barren Land

This code was created to encompass cleared areas that do not fit into other Level II barren land categories. (This class negates the need for the Level I class 7000).

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Burlington County Soil Survey (October 1971) and recompiled to the orthophotoquads. SCS conducted a formal review of the soil recompilations. A code of "UNK" for "Unknown" was used where:

 

1. A code had been omitted from the original soil survey.

2. Conflicting codes appeared on the survey, or

3. A water body no longer exists.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch between sheets a straight line was drafted indicating the point of collateral mismatch. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped form the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

-          Water polygons dropped because they did not exist on new imagery were not marked as dropped polygons. There were relatively few soil polygons below the mapping resolution of 2.5 acres in Burlington County. Therefore, most of the small polygons were mapped in the usual way and were not made part of an inclusive soil polygon.

 

PHASE III: HUDSON COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1989-1990

Field Verification: None

AIS Project Manager: Ginger May

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment D. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

2260 = Cranberry Bog

Since cranberry bogs are covered by water on an intermittent basis, it was decided to utilize this agricultural code, and to disregard the code of 5500 which was created during the Camden County pilot project. Polygons coded as 5500 in Camden, Mercer, and Ocean Counties should be changed to the code of 2260.

5500 = previously Cranberry Bog.

Not used in this project, see code 2260.

7600 = Undifferentiated Barren Land

This code was created to encompass cleared areas that do not fit into other Level II barren land categories. (This class negates the need for the Level I class 7000). Polygons coded as "7000" in Ocean and Mercer Counties should be changed to "7609". The ending digit of "9" indicates that the polygons should be field verified to determine the accurate lu/lc designation.

 

Soils

 

Soils were not mapped for the Hudson County ITUM. A county SoilSurvey was never compiled by the SCS as the county is heavily urbanized.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer and the marsh symbols and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped form the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

-          Water polygons dropped because they did not exist on new imagery were not marked as dropped polygons.

 

PHASE IV: MIDDLESEX COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Middlesex County Soil Survey (April 1987) and recompiled to the orthophotoquads. SCS conducted a formal review of the soil recompilations. This was the last county to be reviewed by SCS.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped form the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were notlisted as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

PHASE IV: MONMOUTH COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Monmouth County Soil Survey (April 1989).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE IV: BERGEN COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Bergen County Interim Soil Survey (January 1989).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE IV: CAPE MAY COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Cape May Soil Survey (February 1977).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE IV: GLOUCESTER COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Gloucester County Soil Survey (June 1962).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also. 

 

PHASE IV: ESSEX COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class. Polygons coded as 4210 in previous ITUM projects will be reviewed by NJ DEP and recoded.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

Soils were not mapped for the Essex County ITUM. A soil survey was never compiled by the SCS as the county is heavily urbanized.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

Soil Inclusions were not mapped for Essex County.

 

PHASE IV: UNION COUNTY

Year Mapped: 1992-1993

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

The land use/land cover classes described below represent changes in criteria and/or the classification implemented during this mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1211 = Military Reservations

NJ DEP decided to use this Level IV code to map Military Reservations. All polygons mapped as 1210 in previous ITUM projects should be converted to 1211. The mapping criteria for Military Reservations remained unchanged.

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

Beginning with Phase IV, Pitch Pine Lowland Forests will no longer be mapped as a separate land cover class.

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4310 used to correspond to codes 433 and 434 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4311 and 4312 to the classification. These codes separate the 4310 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4311 and 4312 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

NJ DEP added this category to the USGS/OEA classification.  Code 4320 used to correspond to codes 431 and 432 in the OEA; those codes will be eliminated. NJ DEP also added the Level IV codes 4321 and 4322 to the classification: these separate the 4320 category on the basis of crown closure. Codes 4321 and 4322 were not mapped for this ITUM effort.

5000 = Water

Water was not mapped in the ITUM. Water features, delineations and codes, will be clipped into the ITUM from the NJ DEP/USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled soil data on digital files from which 1:24,000 scale mylar plots were created. These plots were used as the primary thematic soil overlay for Union County.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. Gail Carter of NJGS was the contact person for all geology questions.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE V: MORRIS COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1994

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled soil data on 1:24,000 hand-drawn mylar maps. These maps were used as the primary thematic soil overlay for Morris County.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

PHASE V: WARREN COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1994

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Warren County Soil Survey (April 1979).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

 

PHASE V: ATLANTIC COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1994

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Atlantic County Soil Survey (April 1978).

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE V: SOMERSET COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1994

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

NJ DEP used Somerset County as a pilot project to test different methods of recompiling the lu/lc layer. The classification was expanded to include Level III and some Level IV categories for most vegetated land cover classes. The FWW mylar plots were used as the primary thematic overlay; the FWW plot mylar was pin-registered to the orthophoto basemap and non-wetland lu/lc classes were delineated directly onto the plot mylar. The wetland vegetation classes were not photointerpreted by AIS, the FWW delineations and codes were used instead. Listed below are changes made to the lu/lc classification for the Somerset County mapping effort. For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment F. For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

1461 = Wetland Rights of Way

2140 = Agricultural Wetlands

4110 = Deciduous Forest, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4120 = Deciduous Forest, >50% Crown Closure

4210 = Coniferous Forest, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4220 = Coniferous Forest, >50% Crown Closure

4230 = Plantation

4311 = Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4312 = Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent, >50% Crown Closure

4321 = Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4322 = Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent, >50% Crown Closure

4410 = Old Field, < 25% Brush Covered

4420 = Deciduous Brush/Shrubland

4430 = Coniferous Brush/Shrubland

4440 = Mixed Deciduous/Coniferous

6231 = Deciduous Brush and Bog Wetlands

6232 = Coniferous Brush and Bog Wetlands

6233 = Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands, Deciduous Prevalent

6234 = Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands, Coniferous Prevalent

6251 = Mixed Wooded Wetlands with Deciduous Prevalent

6252 = Mixed Wooded Wetlands with Coniferous Prevalent

7210 = Rock Faces, Rock Slides, Cliffs

7220 = Exposed Rock

7430 = Altered Land Wet

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled soil data on 1:24,000 hand-drawn mylar maps. These maps were used as the primary thematic soil overlay for Somerset County.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Water Features

 

Water features were clipped into the ITUM using the USGS hydrology coverage.

 

Flood Prone

 

In previous mapping efforts, all lu/lc wetland vegetation classes were coded as either a documented or interpreted flood prone area on the flood prone overlay. However, during the Somerset County mapping effort all lu/lc wetland vegetation delineations were taken directly from the FWW plots and not photointerpreted by AIS. As a result, a new interpreted flood prone mapping criteria was developed for Somerset County. Any wetland vegetation polygons on the lu/lc overlay that were outside of the documented flood prone area were assessed as to whether it met the AIS criteria for wetland vegetation. If the wetland vegetation polygon met the AIS wetland mapping criteria, the area was coded as an interpreted flood prone area; if it did not meet the criteria, and other factors such as soils and topographic features did not support a flood prone interpretation, the area was coded as non-flood prone.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information. 

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were not marked also.

 

PHASE VI: CUMBERLAND COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1995

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The Cumberland County soil survey was being remapped into digital form during the Phase VI ITUM project. NJ DEP based on advice from the SCS, decided to wait until the digitized data was available, therefore no soils were mapped for Cumberland County during the Phase VI ITUM mapping effort. As of the data of publication of this CD, the digital Cumberland soils data are not yet available from the NRCS.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

Not mapped for Cumberland County.

 

Water Features

 

A hybrid source was used consisting of the hydro delineations from the FWW above the Upper Wetlands Boundary and the USGS topoquad derived delineations below the UWB.

 

PHASE VI: SALEM COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1993-1995

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled interim soil data on 1:24,000 hand-drawn mylar maps. The interim maps were used as the primary thematic soil overlays for Salem County. The interim data was compiled during the SCS' statewide remapping project.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Water Features

 

A hybrid source was used consisting of the hydro delineations from the FWW above the Upper Wetlands Boundary and the USGS topoquad derived delineations below the UWB.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

PHASE VII: SUSSEX COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1994-1995

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The soil codes and their meanings were taken from the Sussex County Soil Survey (August 1975) and recompiled to orthophotoquads.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Water Features

 

The Freshwater Wetlands delineations of water features were used for the hydro coverage for Sussex County. USGS topoquad delineations of water features were not used.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

PHASE VII: PASSAIC COUNTY

 

Year Mapped: 1994-1995

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled soil data on digital files from which 1:24,000 scale mylar plots were created. These plots were used as the primary soil overlay for Passaic County.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Water Features

 

A hybrid source was used consisting of the hydro delineations from the FWW above the Upper Wetlands Boundary and the USGS topoquad derived delineations below the UWB.

 

Soil Inclusion During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

PHASE VII: HUNTERDON COUNTY

Year Mapped: 1994-1995

Field Verification: Conducted by Vince Attardi

AIS Project Manager: Lisa Cotterman

 

Land Use/Land Cover

 

There were no changes made to the land use/land cover classification or mapping criteria during this mapping effort.  For a complete list of the project lu/lc codes, see Attachment E.  For further descriptions of the land use/land cover categories, see Attachment A.

 

Soils

 

The SCS provided recompiled soil data on digital files from which 1:24,000 scale mylar plots were created. These plots were used as the primary soil overlay for Hunterdon County.

 

Geology

 

Primary bedrock, secondary bedrock and surficial geologic units were mapped from the 1:63,360 statewide geologic map series.  Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Flood Prone

 

Wetland areas from the land use/land cover layer, floodplain soils, as well as the marsh symbol and contour lines on the 1:24,000 topographic quadrangle, were used to assist in the interpretation of flood prone areas. Where the collateral did not edgematch, a straight line was drafted to indicate the point of conflicting information.

 

Water Features

 

The Freshwater Wetlands delineations of water features were used for the hydro coverage for Hunterdon County. USGS topoquad delineations of water features were not used.

 

Soil Inclusion

 

During the preliminary ITUM soil layer compilation and final integration process, soil polygons less than one acre in size were dropped from the database due to minimum mapping criteria. Listed below are examples of dropped soil polygons that were not listed as soil inclusions:

 

-          Soil polygons on the soil survey that were incorporated into an expanded gravel pit soil or made land soil were not marked as a soil inclusion.

-          End portions of polygons that were not included due to integration were not marked as a soil inclusion. Narrow portions of polygons that were not included due to resolution or integration were also not marked.

 

ATTACHMENT A: New Jersey DEP ITUM Project Classification

 

LAND USE LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

(Derived from: A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 1976; edited by NJDEP,  OIRM, BGIA) (Note: For more detailed information on Freshwater Wetlands, consult the digital FWW coverages; for more detailed geology, consult the Cogeomap project, NJGS).

 

1000 URBAN OR BUILT-UP LAND

The Level 1 Urban or Built-up Land category is characterized by intensive land use where the landscape has been altered by human activities. Although structures are usually present, this category is not restricted to traditional urban areas. Urban or Built-up Land Level II categories include Residential; Commercial and Service; Industrial; Transportation, Communication and Utilities; Industrial and Commercial Complexes; Mixed Urban or Built-up; Other Urban or Build-up and Recreational. Included with each of the above land uses are associated lands, buildings, parking lots, access roads, and other appurtenances, unless these are specifically excluded. Urban or Built-up Land takes precedence over other categories when the criteria for more than one category are met.  For example, recreational areas that have enough tree cover to meet Forest category criteria are placed in the Recreational category.

 

1100 RESIDENTIAL

The residential category includes a single-family residences, multiple-unit dwellings and mobile homes. Also included is the mixed residential group, which is comprised of two or more of the above groups. Residential areas are easily identified on aerial photographs by the shapes and patterns of individual houses, housing developments and multiple dwelling (apartment or condominium) complexes. They can also be identified by their proximity to urban centers or roadways. Residential areas which are integral parts of other land uses and located on the site of that land use are included in that land use category. For example, residential units may be found on military bases or on college campuses in the form of barracks, apartments or dormitories. These residences would be mapped as their associated land use. Residential area categories are based on density in terms of dwelling units per acre (DUPA). In order to determine density at Level III mapping scale, an acre grid is placed over residential areas on the photoquad base map and the number of residential structures or portions of a structure is counted. An average number of dwelling units per acre is determined and the area is mapped accordingly. Multiple unit structures, such as 2 or 3- family homes, may be included within single-unit residential areas since they are not extensive enough to be mapped individually. Also, commercial areas too small to be mapped separately may be found within residential areas.

 

1110 RURAL, SINGLE UNIT (<0.5 DUPA)

This Level III category contains single unit residential areas with a density of less than or equal to 0.5 dwelling units per acre. This type is found in sparsely populated regions surrounded by or adjacent to forested or agricultural lands. Also included are estates or modern sub-divisions with large lot sizes providing a density of less than or equal to 1 dwelling unit per 2 acres. These areas may have sufficient tree cover to qualify for the Forestland category, but they are included in the Residential category since the land is almost totally committed to residential use.

 

1120 Single Unit, Low Density (>0.5-2 DUPA)

This category contains single unit residential areas with between 0.5 and 2 dwelling units per acre as found in some modern subdivisions

.

1130 Single Unit, Medium Density (>2-5 DUPA)

This category is comprised of single unit residential areas of between 2 and 5 dwelling units per acre as commonly found in many suburban residential areas

.

1140 Single Unit, High Density (>5 DUPA)

This category contains single unit residential areas of more than 5 dwelling units per acre. These areas are found in the densely populated urban zones.

 

1150 Multiple Dwelling, Low Rise (3 stories or less)

This category contains residential areas of 2 and 3 family homes, row houses and garden apartments of up to 3 stories.  These are generally found in the urban or urban fringe areas of cities.

 

1160 Multiple Dwelling, High Rise (4 stories or more)

This category includes residential areas comprised of condominiums, apartment complexes and towers of 4 stories or more, generally found in or near urban areas. Multiple dwelling residences can be identified on aerial photography by their size, height, construction pattern and the location of driveways and parking lots.

 

1170 Mobile Home, Low Density (<6 DUPA)

This category includes residential areas comprised of mobile homes with a density of less than 6 dwelling units per acre.  This includes both stationary mobile homes on foundations and mobile homes (and house trailers) on wheels that are capable of being moved. Mobile homes can be identified on aerial photography by their conspicuous size, shape, and pattern.

 

1180 Mobile Homes, High Density (>6 DUPA)

This category includes residential areas comprised of mobile homes with a density of 6 or more dwelling units per acre.  These areas are known as "mobile home parks" and can be identified on aerial photographs by the characteristic arrangements of structures. 1190 Mixed Residential The mixed residential category is used for an area where various residential uses occur and the individual uses cannot be separated at mapping scale. Where more than 1/3 intermixture of another residential use or uses occurs in a specific area. It is classified as Mixed Residential.  Where the intermixture of other residential land use or uses total less than 1/3 of the specific area, the dominant land use category is applied.

 

1200 COMMERCIAL & SERVICES

Areas which contain structures predominantly used for the sale of products and services are classified as Commercial and Services. The main building, secondary structures and supporting areas such as parking lots, driveways and landscaped areas are also placed under this category. Sometimes non-commercial uses such as residential or industrial intermix with commercial uses making it difficult to identify the predominant land use. These categories are not separated out; but, if they exceed 1/3 of the total commercial area, the Mixed Urban category (16) is used.  Often, specific uses of some commercial and services buildings cannot be easily identified from photography alone. Some supplemental information is required.

 

1201 Central Business District (CBD)

These are the "downtown" banking and commercial centers of cities or towns where land use is largely undifferentiated.  Retail stores, banks, office buildings, post offices, libraries, firehouses and courthouses are examples of structures that may comprise a CBD. Some public land uses such as schools and cemeteries are separated out into other categories if they are of a mappable size. CBDs can exist in any size city or town. Metropolitan CBDs can be easily identified by their large number of high-rise buildings surrounded by parking lots. They are usually easily accessed by interstate bypass routes. Medium-size CBDs contain 3 and 4 story buildings fronted by parking spaces. They are away from the main traffic intersections of cities and often expand outward from railroad lines.  Small town CBDs contain 2 or 3 story buildings that line the streets and are in close proximity to residential structures. They usually parallel main traffic arteries.

 

1202 Commercial Strip Development

This is the commercial activity developed along major highway and access roads to cities and towns in a more or less single strip. Motel accommodations, car dealers, fast food services, gas stations and other similar goods and services establishments are examples that may comprise a Commercial strip. Location of these building along a main vehicular transportation route is the key criterion.  Frequently, especially in suburban areas, residential and industrial land uses intermix with Commercial Strip Development. When these uses exceed 1/3 of the total contiguous length of the Commercial Strip, the Mixed Urban category is used.

 

1203 Isolated Commercial Establishments for Goods and/or Services

This category pertains to commercial establishments providing goods and services for direct consumer use.  Isolated single commercial buildings or isolated cluster of commercial buildings that are not part of a Commercial Strip Development or a well defined CBD are included in this category. These buildings are distinguished from Isolated Commercial Office Buildings (1204) because they provide goods and services for direct consumer use while 1204 does not. Some examples are fast food services, dry cleaners, gas stations and banks. Professional buildings that house medical offices, real estate brokers, law firms and travel agents are included in this category as well.

 

1204 Isolated Commercial Office Buildings

This category pertains to scattered commercial development, specifically commercial office buildings (not providing goods and services for direct consumer use). Isolated single commercial buildings or isolated clusters of commercial buildings that are not part of a Commercial Strip Development or well defined CBD are included in this category. These buildings are distinguished from the Isolated Establishments for Goods and Services because they do not provide products and services directly to the consumer. Buildings can house administrative and support staffs for large corporations or staffs for several smaller businesses. These buildings can range in size from 2 to 3 stories to high-rise structures. When several Commercial Office Buildings exist together and share common driveways, parking lots and lawns they are placed in the industrial and Commercial Park category (151).

 

1205 Shopping Centers

A Shopping Center is a group of retail stores and other commercial establishments planned, developed, owned and managed as a unit, with off-street parking provided on the property. Shopping centers range in size from those of just a few thousand square feet to plazas covering acres. Key identification features are large and often interconnecting buildings surrounded by well-paved parking lots located near interchanges and highways. Retention ponds located on the property, if of a mappable size are included in the Artificial Lake category (531).

 

1206 Resorts, Hotels, Motels & Related facilities

These facilities usually associated with leisure time activities contain over-night accommodations, dining facilities, services and recreational activities. They range in size from converted farm houses to luxury resort hotels. Features which help define them such as tennis courts, pools, golf courses, ski slopes and well kept lawns and gardens are all included in the category. (These features are included with the resort since they are private and not accessible to non-paying guests). Hotels within urban areas are generally not mapped separately because they are difficult to distinguish from other commercial buildings.

 

1207 Educational Institutions

This category includes all levels of public and private schools, colleges, universities and training centers. All buildings, campus open space, dormitories and parking areas are included. Not included are recreational facilities such as ball fields, tennis courts, stadiums and swimming pools.  These recreational facilities are included in Recreation (18) if they are of a mappable size. Universities can often be identified by a maze of walk-ways linking various buildings. Elementary and secondary schools are usually 1 or 2 story buildings surrounded by recreational fields and located in residential areas away from high traffic volumes.  Any educational activity associated with religious institutions involving parish schools, seminaries, orphanages and novitiates, if of a mappable size, are included in this category.

 

1208 Health Institutions

Any facility providing direct health care to the public such as hospitals, mental health institutions, sanitariums, special care centers, major clinics and nursing homes are included in this category. Some identifiable features may include circular drives, covered main entrances, multi-story buildings with wings, large parking lots and spacious grounds.

 

1209 Correctional Institutions

Prisons and rehabilitation centers make up this category.  They can be identified by high walls and controlled access points. Topographic maps should be consulted to make sure minimum security prisons are not over-looked. Land uses, such as farmland or quarries associated with prisons are mapped separately according to their appropriate lane cover/land use category.

 

1210 Government Centers

This category includes any state, regional, county or municipal office buildings. They can range in size from 1 or 2 story buildings to high-rise complexes. Any government office located in the CBD (1201) or along a Commercial Strip(1202) is included in those categories unless it is of a mappable size.

 

1211 Military Installations

Military bases and camps, armories, ordinance depots, missile sites, National Guard and Reserve armories are included in this category. Boundaries of major military installations are shown on the USGS Topographic Maps and they are easily identified by fence lines and roads along their perimeter. Military facilities have a wide variety of conditions including training camps, missile sites, etc. Auxiliary land uses, particularly residential, commercial and other supporting uses located on a military base should be included in this category.

 

1212 Other Institutional

This category includes any other institutions not included in the other categories. Some examples are churches, synagogues, convents, special research facilities, medical research facilities not open to the public, and social clubs associated with established organizations.

 

1213 Mixed Commercial & Services

This category is used when a mix of various commercial uses and services exist and no one category predominates. When more than 1/3 of one commercial use is mixed with another use this Mixed category is used. Where the intermixture total less than 1/3 then the dominant use is mapped.

 

1300 INDUSTRIAL

This category encompasses a great variety of structure types and land uses. Light and heavy industry are comprised of land uses where manufacturing, assembly or processing of products takes place. Power generation is included here because of its similarity to heavy industry.

 

1310 Light Industrial

Light industry deals with design, assembly, finishing, packaging, and storing of products or materials which have usually been processed at least once. These activities are characterized as "clean", since they produce a relatively small amount of smoke and other effluents, noise, and dust. Light industries include facilities for administration, research, assembly, storage, warehousing, and shipping.  Examples are electronics firms, trucking companies, small textile mills, and auto assembly plants. Characteristic features may include the nature of the buildings, parking and shipping arrangements, the presence of outdoor storage facilities, trailer trucks, loading docks, rail lines, power sources and smokestacks.

 

1320 Heavy Industrial

Heavy industry involves the processing of raw materials such as iron ore, timber, petroleum or coal, or the fabrication and assemblage of parts which are bulky and heavy. It is considered relatively "dirty" since wastes such as smoke, slag, dust, and liquid effluent, as well as noise, are often generated. Examples of heavy industry are steel, pulp, and lumber mills, oil refineries and tank farms, chemical plants, and grain mills. Recognizable features include blast furnaces, kilns, chemical processing towers, large chimneys or stacks, fuel tanks, boiler house, transformer yards, silos, bins and piles and ponds of water. Also included in this category are surface structures associated with mining operations:  loading devices, trucks, access roads processing facilities, stock piles, and storage sheds.

 

1330 Power Generation

There are three main types of power generators: thermal, nuclear and hydroelectric. Features common to all three types are the presence of transmission lines and transformer yards, and often, proximity to water. Both thermal and nuclear plants usually have cooling towers for used water. Thermal plants often have associated coal piles and conveyor belts leading to the main plants.  Nuclear plants have a characteristic nuclear reactor building. Hydroelectric plants are usually at the dams of large reservoirs or impounded streams, or at an elevation break on a watercourse. Typical features include a dam and trailraces.

 

1400 TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION & UTILITIES

The transportation, communication, and utilities land uses are mainly associated with the other Urban or Build-up categories, but are often found in other categories. However, they often do not meet minimum mappable size and are considered an integral part of the land use in which they occur. The presence of major transportation routes, utilities such as sewage treatment plants and power lines, and communications facilities greatly influence both the present and potential uses of an area.

 

1410 Limited Access Highways

Limited access highway typically contain at least two lanes in each direction, separated by a concrete barrier or median strip. There are usually no cross streets or traffic lights, and access is limited to ramps. Included in this category are right-of-ways, interchanges, maintained hillsides, and service and terminal facilities. Examples are interstates, U.S. highways and freeways. Limited access highways are characterized by "diamond" and "clover-leaf" patterns of ramps, crossroads intersecting via underpasses or overpasses, and the lack of adjacent residential, commercial or industrial development with direct connections to the highway. The limited access highway right-of-way is often bounded by fences or drainage paths.

 

1420 Railroad Facilities

Railway facilities include railroads and spurs as well as stations, parking lots, roundhouses, power generators, and repair and switching yards. Spurs which connect industrial or extractive pick-up points with main rail lines are included in the appropriate industrial or extractive category.

 

1430 Bus and Truck Terminals

Bus and truck terminals are characterized by long buildings with truck trailers or buses adjacent to them. There are large paved areas surrounding the garages, which are used for maneuvering and parking. Terminals are often located in close proximity to major transportation routes.

 

1440 Airports

Airports are characterized by areas cleared of vegetation and other obstructions, and the presence of long, linear runway surfaces. They vary from rural grass landing strips to vast urban complexes. Typical moderate to large-sized airports contain parallel primary runways, smaller parallel taxi strips, intervening land, aircraft parking aprons, hangars, terminals, service buildings, navigation aids, fuel storage areas, parking lots, and limited buffer zones. This category also include heliports and land associated with seaplane bases. It does not include small airports on rotated farmland.

 

1450 Port Facilities

Seaports are isolated areas of high utilization with no well-defined intervening connections. Included in this category are docks, piers, shipyards, drydocks, locks, waterway control structures, buildings, parking lots and adjacent water utilized by ships in the loading or unloading of cargo or passengers.

 

1460 Power Facilities

Power facilities include power substations and transmission line right-of-ways where the right-of-way is clearly visible on aerial photography and not used for any other purpose.  For example, transmission line right-of-ways are clearly discernible where they traverse forest: there are no trees, and vegetation growth is controlled through mowing or herbicides.  Right-of-ways in agricultural land are difficult or impossible to see because there is usually no demarcation from the surrounding land. Additionally, the surrounding agricultural activity also occurs in the right-of-way most of the time. thus a right-of-way would be mapped as a power facility when traversing forest, but would be mapped as a Level III agricultural category when traversing agricultural land. On aerial photography, power substations appear as geometric configuration with associated transformers and transmission lines. Those associated with an industrial, commercial, or extractive land use are included in that category.

 

1461 Wetland Rights-of-Way

Included in this category are rights-of-way that exist in  former wetland areas, and which still exhibit evidence of  soil saturation on the photography. Because of alterations

associated with creating the rights-of-way, these areas may  not support the typical natural wetland vegetation found in  adjacent unaltered natural areas. They do, however, exist  in areas shown on the US Soil Conservation Service soil  surveys to have hydric soils, and exhibit the darker tonal  signatures associated with saturated soils on the photography. Colors of these areas will vary generally from blue-grey to black on winter CIR film and dark grey to black on panchromatic film. Textures will generally be smooth to slightly rough depending on whether the dominant vegetation is low herbaceous species or taller shrubs.

 

1470 Water Treatment Facilities

Water treatment facilities consist of buildings with adjacent circular or rectangular tanks. They are usually restricted to moderately-sized towns and cities, rather than rural areas. Water treatment facilities and sewage treatment facilities are often similar in appearance on aerial photography. However, many water treatment facilities are upstream from the community served, whereas the sewage treatment facilities are often downstream.

 

1480 Sewage Treatment Facilities

Sewage treatment plants are often adjacent to streams or rivers. Identifiable features include an array of rectangular or circular tanks for initial processing, settling and aeration, and associated low buildings. Like water treatment facilities, they are usually restricted to moderately-sized towns and cities rather than rural areas, where individual septic systems are prevalent. Also included in this category are pumping stations, sewage mains, and tertiary treatment fields.

 

1490 Other Transportation, Communication and Utilities

This category consists of related facilities not included in any of the previous Level III categories. Included are radio, radar, and television antennas, microwave stations, water towers, and lighthouses. Towers include the land enclosed by guide wires. Fence-lines, trimmed or mowed grounds, and access roads are associated with many of these facilities.

 

1500 INDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL COMPLEXES

The Industrial and Commercial Complexes category includes those industrial and commercial land uses that typically occur together or in close proximity. These areas are commonly referred to as "Industrial or Commercial Parks." The major types of business establishments located in these planned industrial and commercial parks are light manufacturing, administration offices, research and development facilities, and computer systems companies. Also found here are facilities for warehousing, wholesaling, retailing and distributing. Industrial and Commercial Complexes are usually located in suburban or rural areas. The key identifying feature is the planned layout of buildings exhibiting the same or very similar construction. Other identifying features include well kept lawns and landscaped areas, ample parking areas and common roadways connecting buildings which also provide access to major highways.  The lack of smokestacks, storage tanks, raw materials or finished products, and waste signifies that no heavy industries are present.

 

1510 Industrial and Commercial Parks

See category 15 for description. Clusters of commercial office buildings that happen to exist side by side but do not share common roadways and landscaped areas are included in the Isolated Commercial Office building category (1204).

 

1600 MIXED URBAN OR BUILT-UP

This category includes those urban or built-up areas for which uses cannot be separated into individual categories at the mapping scale employed. Areas are identified under the mixed urban category when more than one-third intermixture of another use or uses is evident.  Uses considered in mixed urban include primarily residential, commercial/service, industrial and transportation/communication/utility. Not included in the category are areas considered part of a definable commercial strip as described under 1202. In addition, open land which could be classified for any agricultural uses would not be included in the mixed urban category.  Level 3 divisions of the Mixed Urban category involve separating the mixed areas based on the predominant use in the intermixture, if one is evident.

 

1610 - Predominantly Residential - (>50%, but <66% of the usecan be identified as Residential).

 

1620 - Predominantly Commercial/Service - (>50%, but <66% of the use can be identified as Commercial/Service).

 

1630 - Predominantly Industrial - (>50%, but <66% of the use can be identified as Industrial).

 

1640 - Predominantly Transportation/Communication/Utilities - (>50%, but <66% of the use can be identified as Transportation/Communication/Utilities).

 

1650 - Heterogeneous Mixture - (No single use in the intermixture comprises more than 50%).

 

1700 OTHER URBAN OR BUILT-UP

Undeveloped, open lands within urban areas that are not associated with active commercial, industrial, service, transportation, communications or utility facilities are included. Some structures may be visible, as in the case of abandoned residential or commercial sites that have not yet been redeveloped. Other areas may be only brush-covered. In addition, areas that have been partially developed or redeveloped but remain unfinished are included. Also appearing in this category are cemeteries.

 

1710 Cemeteries

These areas represent large tracts of primarily open land within urban areas. Large cemeteries can be identified by layout of driveways, lots, mausoleums and marking stones.  Cemeteries associated with small towns, individual churches or family estates may not be easily identifiable.  Supplemental information is often needed to identify these smaller cemeteries.

 

1720 Undeveloped Land Within Urban Areas

Within this category are those areas generally considered vacant lots. These areas may never have been developed, or may represent formerly built-up that have been entirely or partially cleared, but not redeveloped. Included would be abandoned manufacturing or commercial sites that could be redeveloped. Areas within this category are generally brush or grass-covered and may or may not be maintained.  Buildings may be present, interspersed with brush areas and concrete or black top.

 

1730 Inactive Land With Street Patterns

This category represents areas for which development or redevelopment was started, but which has been abandoned after some street construction has been completed. No active development is visible. These areas typically would support residential developments if completed, but some industrial or commercial development may be found here.  These areas generally have low vegetative cover, possibly with sporadic trees and may or may not be maintained.

 

1740 Open Space Areas

Included in this category are miscellaneous open areas within urban settings that do not fall into any of the other categories. Many areas identified as 174 have planned and maintained feature, such as a central lawn area within a suburban development, that provide "open space" for the community. Some areas which are not maintained may be included here. These latter areas may exhibit a variety of cover types and may have under-gone some minor alterations or development. None of the separate uses, however, meet the minimum polygon size. Together, if these uses occur side by side, they constitute a definable open urban area.

 

1800 RECREATIONAL LAND

Under this category are included those areas which have been specifically developed for recreational activities, if these areas are open to the general public. Any facilities that are part of a resort complex and open only to patrons of the hotel or motel are not mapped under category 18, but under Commercial and Services category. Facilities mapped as recreational land may charge user fees to the public, such as public golf courses; or, they may be free to the public, such as ball fields on public school grounds. Level III divisions of this category involve identifying the predominant recreational uses of the areas.

 

1801 Golf Courses

All Par 3 courses and above are included, both public and private, unless associated with a resort hotel/motel.  Courses can be identified by greens, fairways, sand traps, water hazards, club houses, and parking areas. Additional facilities often associated with golf courses, such as tennis courts, pools, parking, etc. are not identified separately but included in the 1801 category. Ponds and other water bodies are, however, identified separately under the appropriate water category if they meet minimum polygon size.

 

1802 Picnic and Camping Parks

This category includes areas which are set aside for picnicking and camping specifically and associated activities (hiking, etc.). Commercial and private tent and trailer campgrounds are included, unless they are part of a resort complex. Any open areas associated with either picnicking or camping areas that exceed one acre are mapped out under category 1809. Supplemental information may be needed to identify picnic or camping areas in forested regions.

 

1803 Marina and Boat Launches

Public and private facilities consisting of docks, storage buildings, boat ramps, jetties, piers, and parking areas are included in this category. Boats may or may not be visible because of photo scale. Small, primarily state-owned launching sites will generally not be visible on the small scale air photos.

 

1804 Community Recreation Areas

Included in this category are a variety of recreational facilities which are not part of established parks, such as baseball fields, tennis courts, basketball courts, and playgrounds. These may be associated with schools.  Industrial and commercial firms, or a community housing development.

 

1805 Parks

City, town, county and state parks which are maintained by a government agency are included in this category. What is actually mapped in this category are park headquarters, parking lots and accessory buildings. Open areas, swimming pools and beaches, golf courses, picnic and camping facilities, etc. are mapped separately under their appropriate category.

 

1806 Swimming Pools

Included are public and commercial facilities such as swim clubs and city-operated pools. Pools associated with country clubs, motels, resorts and private residences are not mapped. Support buildings and parking areas are mapped in this category, as are any tennis courts, etc. which may be associated with the pool.

 

1807 Swimming Beaches

These areas are specifically man-made beaches adjacent to lakes or ponds, which have been developed for recreational activities. Parking areas are included, but the water is identified under the appropriate water category.

 

1808 Formal Lawns, Arboretums and Landscaped Areas

Included are landscaped areas that are associated with facilities open to the public such as gardens. Similar areas associated with private estates are not included within this category. Public facilities are identifiable by general layout, associated roadways, parking areas, and support buildings, all of which are mapped as part of 1808.

 

1809 Open Areas in Parks

This category includes any open area within a city, town, county, or state park that meets minimum mapping polygon size and which is not developed for any specific recreation activity.

 

1810 Stadium, Theaters, Cultural Centers, and Zoos

Included in this category is any entertainment facility which is developed for public use. Stadiums, outdoor concert halls, race tracks (horse and car), drive-in theaters, amusement parks, and zoos are the primary facilities involved. Such facilities are primarily commercial, although some public recreation areas may be found. Not included are similar facilities on private property, such as horse tracks within private farms, that are open to the public. Parking areas, driveways, and support buildings are mapped in this category.

 

1811 Other Recreational

Included are rifle, skeet, and archery ranges, ski and winter sport areas, fairgrounds, etc. which do not fall into any of the above categories. These areas often have conspicuous signatures, such as ski runs, but form a small part of the land area of New Jersey.

 

2000 AGRICULTURAL LAND

This Level I category includes all lands used primarily for the production of food and fiber and some of the structures associated with this production. These areas are easily distinguished from the other categories and represent a significant land use in New Jersey. The Level II categories of Agricultural Land are; Cropland and Pastureland; Orchards; Vineyards; Nurseries and Horticultural Areas; Confined Feeding Operations; and Other environmental concern because of the non- point source pollution associated with confined feeding operations.

 

2100 CROPLAND AND PASTURELAND

This Level II category contains agricultural lands managed for the production of both row and field crops and for the grazing of cattle, sheep and horses. Also included in this category are croplands left fallow or planted with soul improvement grasses and legumes. Cropland and pastureland can easily be distinguish from other land uses with small scale imagery.

 

2110 Harvested Cropland

This category contains agricultural areas which are managed for the production of harvested row or field crops. These include row crops, such as corn, soybeans, cabbage, and potatoes; or field crops predominately used as forage, such as hay or alfalfa. Row crops are easily identified on imagery because of the striations and the regular patterns.  However, there are problems distinguishing between field crops, such as hay or winter wheat, from pastureland. Pastureland can be distinguished because of its close association with farm structures such as barns or feeding stations. Also, pastureland usually has a slightly more mottled or uneven tone than the photographic signature of field crops.

 

2120 Pastureland

This category contains agricultural areas which are managed as pasture areas for livestock grazing. These areas may be either permanent pastures or tillable cropland which is used as pasture at the time of photography. The identification problems using imagery alone are discussed in Section 2110.  Identification of pastureland, field cropland, and inactive cropland may require field verification or other supplemental information. Pasture may be covered by some brush but are included in 2120 if the predominant use is for pasture.

 

2130 Inactive Cropland

This category contains agricultural areas which have no physical indication of present agricultural use. These areas include both abandoned cropland and fields left fallow or planted in soil-improving grasses and legumes. An indication of inactive cropland is the presence of any woody stems in the field. The area is placed in the Brushland category if the woody stems cover is abundant and the field appears to be abandoned rather then left fallow for soil improvement. An area is placed in Brushland as either Old Field (4410) or Brush/Shrubland (4430,4440) depending on the percentage of brush cover.

 

2140 Agricultural Wetlands

Included in this category are cultivated lands which are  modified former wetland areas, and which still exhibit  evidence of soil saturation on the photography. These lands  will exhibit the textural signature characteristics  described for the other agricultural categories, but will  have darker color and tonal signatures. Colors will range from blue-grey to black on winter CIR film and dark grey to  black on panchromatic film. In addition, these agricultural  wetlands also exist in areas shown on soil surveys of the US Soil Conservation Service to have hydric soils.

 

2200 ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS, NURSERIES AND HORTICULTURAL AREAS

This Level II category contains agricultural areas which are intensively managed for production of fruits, trees, ornamental plants, and vegetable seedings. Wholesale greenhouse where plants are grown are also included in this category. Retail greenhouses are included with the appropriate Commercial and Services category. Orchards, nurseries, cranberry farms and blueberry farms can be identified on small scale photography.  However, the recognition of vineyards, sod and seed farms, and commercial greenhouses sometimes requires supplemental information.

 

2210 Orchards

This category contains agricultural areas which are intensively managed as commercial orchards. Established orchards are easily recognized on the imagery by the regular grid patterns of the planted trees. Newly planted orchards are more difficult to identify, but the signature can be distinguished from adjacent cropland.

 

2220 Vineyards

This category contains agricultural areas of intensively managed vineyards. These areas can be recognized by a "cross-hatched" pattern cause by the Vines trained on wires and the poles used for support which form perpendicular lines.

 

2230 Nurseries

This category is comprised of areas which are intensively managed for commercial or private nurseries. Nurseries can be recognized as narrow fields with very regular and definite rows. The colors are usually darker in tones than other cropland. Different shades and tones are present in adjacent fields due to the different stages of seedlings or saplings planted. These shades and tones in the narrow fields present a different signature from other agricultural areas. Christmas tree farms are included in this category.

 

2240 Floriculture

This category contains areas occupied by wholesale producers of flowers, nursery stock, produce, and vegetable seedlings.  These areas consist of large greenhouse operations and the associated land and buildings. Retail greenhouse should be included in a Commercial and Services category. Retail greenhouses can be distinguished from wholesale greenhouse operations by their size, amount of associated land, available customer parking and general location. Hobby greenhouse associated with private homes will not by mapped.

 

2250 Sod and Seed Farms

This category contains commercial sod and seed farms. These areas can be identified on the color infrared (CIR) imagery by an even-tone deep red signature. This signature is similar to a well maintained golf course, but is a deeper shade of red (Note: red on CIR represents green in true color). These operations are usually substantial in size, occupying more than 50 acres. When harvesting procedures are in progress, the signature may exhibit some strips of bare ground. These sod farms are often located near potential markets.

 

2260 Cranberry Farms

This category is comprised of intensively managed cranberry farms primarily located in southern New Jersey. These areas appear as very dense rows of brush occurring in rectangular or circular fields. These areas have irrigation systems present and are traversed by an extensive network of roads or lanes.

 

2270 Inactive

This one category is used to represent lands occupied by abandoned or inactive orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and cranberry and blueberry farms. For orchards, vineyards, and nurseries, the inactive signature appears similar to the active signature, except the patterns will be less regular.  Natural vegetation growing in the abandoned areas will cause irregular patterns and differing textures in the signature.  In some cases, the trees may be removed and earlier photography or supplemental information may be necessary to place the area in this category. Inactive cranberry and blueberry farms may be difficult to distinguish from the Wetlands Brushland/Bog areas.

 

2280 Blueberry Farms

This category is comprised of intensively managed blueberry farms primarily located in southern New Jersey. These areas appear as very dense rows of brush generally occurring in rectangular fields. Between the rows a bright sand signature is characteristic.

 

2300 CONFINED FEEDING OPERATIONS

This Level II category contains specialized livestock and poultry production enterprises and other specialty farms.  These operations have high populations in relatively small areas, resulting in a concentration of waste material.  Since this concentrated animal waste is a critical environmental concern, these areas warranted a specific Level II category. Normal structures [barns] associated with a farmstead are not mapped in this category.

 

2310 Cattle and Swine Feedlots

This category contains mainly beef cattle feedlots and hog farms. Structures and attached corrals will be mapped in this category, but any substantial acreage of associated pasture will be mapped as Pastureland.

 

2320 Poultry Farms

This category is comprised of chicken, turkey, and duck production enterprises. These farms may be for either egg or meat production.

 

2330 Specialty Farms

This category contains specialized farms, such as game farms [pheasant or quail], fish hatcheries, goat farms, pigeon-raising areas, and rabbit production farms.

 

2400 OTHER AGRICULTURE

This category contains other miscellaneous agricultural areas.

 

2410 Experimental Agriculture Fields

This category contains experimental crop areas associated with agriculture research stations, universities, or industries. These areas are for research purposes and contain many different crops in one field.

 

2420 Isolated Structures for Crop or Equipment Storage

This category contains storage buildings which are not adjacent to the farmsteads. These areas include isolatedgrain silos, crop storage sheds, and sheds for storage of farm machinery.

 

2430 Horse Farm

This category contains specialized farms for raising and training horses. This includes horse barns, corrals, and training race tracks. The oval training race tracks are easily recognized on aerial photography. Extensive acreage of pasture associated with a horse farm are mapped as Pastureland (2120).

 

3000 RANGELAND

Rangeland is not found in New Jersey, Consequently, it is omitted from the classification system. However, in order to remain numerically consistent with the USGS Classification Codes, Rangeland's numerical designation (#3) has also been omitted.

 

4000 FORESTLAND

This Level I category contains any lands covered by woody vegetation other than wetlands. These areas are capable of producing timber and other wood products, and of supporting many kinds of outdoor recreation. Forestland is an important category environmentally, because it affects air quality, water quality, wildlife habitat, climate, and many other aspects of the ecology of an area. The Level II categories under Forestland are Deciduous; Coniferous; Mixed Deciduous-Coniferous; and Brushland.

 

4100 DECIDUOUS

This Level II category includes forested lands that contain deciduous tree species. The average height of the stand is at least 20 feet. Areas with woody vegetation less than 20 feet high should be placed in the Brushland category. A forest stand must have at least 75% canopy coverage from deciduous tree species to be placed in this category. Deciduous trees are those species which lose their leaves at the end of the growing season. These trees remain leafless throughout the winter and sprout new leaves the following spring.

 

4110 Deciduous, 10-50% Crown Closure

This category contains deciduous forest stands that have crown closure greater than 10%, but less than 50%. Crown closure is the percentage of a forest area occupied by the vertical projections of tree crowns. Crown closure percentages provide a reasonable estimate of stand density. An ocular estimate of percent crown closure is made while viewing the area stereoscopically. The ocular judgement is a reliable estimate since the category levels for closure are relatively broad: 10-50% and > 50%. This procedure will also be followed to determine percent crown closure in the other categories.

 

4120 Deciduous > 50% Crown Closure

This category contains deciduous stands with crown closures greater than 50%. The majority of the deciduous forests in New Jersey will be in this category.

 

4200 CONIFEROUS

This Level II category includes forested lands which contain coniferous tree species. The stand must be 20 feet high and must be stocked by at least 75% conifers to be labeled as a coniferous stand. Coniferous species are those trees commonly known as evergreens.  They do not lose their leaves (needless) at the end of the growing season but retain them through the year. Conifers can easily be distinguished from deciduous trees on wintertime color infrared photography because of their high infrared reflectance due to their leaf retention.

 

4210 Coniferous, 10-50% Crown Closure

This category contains natural coniferous stands with crown closure> 10%, but less than 50%.

 

4220 Coniferous, > 50% Crown Closure

This category contains natural coniferous stands with crownclosure > 50%.

 

4230 Plantation

This category contains conifer stands which have been artificially planted. These include stands planted for timber harvesting or aesthetics. Crown closure estimates will not be determined for plantations. Plantations appear as uniform blocks (usually rectangular) of conifers. Other planted stands of conifers, such as Christmas tree farms, will not be included in this category but in the nursery category under Agriculture.

 

4300 MIXED DECIDUOUS/CONIFEROUS

This Level II category consists of forested areas where there is a mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees. If less than 75% of the forest is dominated by either type then the stand is placed in the mixed category. Only forest stands greater than 20 feet in height will be placed in this category.

 

4310 Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent (> 50% Coniferous)

This category contains stands of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees. The percentage of coniferous trees is higher than the deciduous (>50% of the stand) but the coniferous species do not dominate the stand ( <75%).

 

4311 Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent (10%-50% Crown Closure)

This category contains stands of mixed coniferous and  deciduous trees with the coniferous species > 50% and with  crown closures between 10% and 50%.

 

4312 Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent (> 50% Crown Closure)

This category contains stands of mixed coniferous and  deciduous trees with the coniferous species > 50% and with  crown closures > 50%.

 

4320 Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent (> 50% Deciduous)

This category contains stands of mixed deciduous and coniferous trees. The percentage of deciduous trees is higher than the coniferous (> 50%), but the deciduous species do not dominate the stand (< 75%). 

 

4321 Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent (10%-50% Crown Closure)

This category contains stands of mixed deciduous and coniferous trees with the deciduous species > 50% and crown closures between 10% and 50%.

 

4322 Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent (> 50% Crown Closure)

This category contains stands of mixed deciduous and  coniferous trees with the deciduous species > 50% and crown  closures > 50%.

 

4400 BRUSHLAND/SHRUBLAND (Height<20 feet)

This Level II category contains forest lands which are predominately between 0 and 20 feet in height. Vegetative communities in these areas may range from early successional species which are only a few years old, to climax or sub-climax communities which are many years old. Also included in this category are old fields which are covered primarily by grasses and some shrubs. Brushland areas represent critical habitat for many species of wildlife in New Jersey.

 

4410 Old Field (<25% Brush Covered)

This category includes open areas which have less than 25% brush cover. The predominate cover in these areas is grasses with many tree seedlings or saplings present. Old fields are distinguished from inactive farmland (2130) by the amount of brush cover. If a field contains few woody stems (<5%), it should be placed in the inactive farmland category. An area should be placed in the Old Field category if the amount of brush cover requires extensive brush removal before plowing.

 

4420 Deciduous Brush/Shrubland (>25% Brush Covered with Deciduous Species Predominant > 75%)

This category contains natural forested areas with deciduous species less than 20 feet in height. An area must have greater than 25% brush cover to be placed in this category.  This category also contains inactive agricultural areas which have been grown over with brush. There are photographic signature differences between brushland and the pole or saw-timber stage trees (Categories 4100, 4200, 4300). Besides the obvious height difference visible on stereo viewing, larger trees display much larger crown diameters than brushland areas.

 

4430 Coniferous Brush/Shrubland (>25% Brush Covered with Coniferous Species Predominant > 75%).

This category contains natural forested areas with coniferous species less than 20 feet high. This category is for natural areas; therefore, Christmas tree farms should be placed in the Nursery category (223).

 

4440 Mixed Deciduous/Coniferous Brush/Shrubland (>25% Brush Covered with a Mixture of Deciduous Coniferous Species; <75% of One Type)

This category contains natural forested areas less than 20 feet in height with a mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees. 

 

5000 WATER

All areas within the landmass of New Jersey periodically water covered are included in this category. All water bodies should be delineated as they exist at the time of data acquisition, except areas in an obvious state of flood. Level I includes four (4) Level II categories; Streams and Canals; Natural Lakes; Artificial Lakes; and Bays and Estuaries. Not included in this category are water treatment and sewage treatment facilities.

 

5100 STREAMS & CANALS

This category includes river, creeks, canals and other linear water bodies which have a minimum width of 80 feet.  For water courses (WC) interrupted by control structures, the impoundments are placed in other appropriate water categories (see below), and the impoundment structures are included in the Urban or Built-up category. Remote sensing of these features is not difficult. Colors on infrared photography range from light blue to black, and on the black & white photography the tones range from medium gray to black. The signature can be smooth or rippled depending on the conditions at the time of the photography. The greatest difficulty occurs when overhanging vegetation or shadows obscure the extent of the WC.

 

5110 Streams

This category includes streams which are no less than 80 feet wide. These features are easily recognized on aerial photography because of their meandering pattern and variable width due to natural fluvial processes. Short distances of WC constriction which fall under the minimum width standard may be included for the sake of continuity. The photographic characteristics of streams are much too numerous and obvious to list. Specific comments on signature and problems are discussed under category 5100.

 

5120 Canals

This feature may be no less than 80 feet wide and like streams is easily recognized on aerial photography. Canals are consistent in width, do not meander, are sometimes bordered by a tow-path and often utilize a lock system.  Along the length of the canal are found clusters of buildings which formerly serviced the canal track when it was a transportation entity. In New Jersey these clusters along with the canal and the tow-path often comprise either historic sites or parkland and should be included under those categories when such information is available.

 

5200 NATURAL LAKES

Water bodies larger than three acres that are non flowing and naturally enclosed, including regulated natural lakes but excluding reservoirs, are placed in this category. Islands less than three (3) acres are included in the water area. To identify this feature accurately, it is important to remember natural lakes are the results of ground water seepage and surface run-off of precipitation, whereas reservoirs are the result of man-made impoundments and are maintained primarily by linear WCs. Remote sensing of this feature, once again is simple. The signatures and attendant problems are discussed under category 5100.

 

5210 Small Lakes

These features have an areal range of one (1) to two (2) acres. confer with category 52.

 

5220 Medium Lakes

These features have an areal range of two (2) to ten (10) acres. Confer with category 5200.

 

5230 Large Lakes

These features will be greater than ten (10) acres in area.  Confer with category 5200.

 

5300 ARTIFICIAL LAKES & RESERVOIRS

Artificial impoundments of water larger than three (3) acres used for irrigation, flood control, municipal water supplies, recreation, landscaping and hydro-electric power or the result of an active extractive operation are included in this category.  Dams, bulkheads, spillways and other water control structures should be evident and are critical for accurately identifying these features. Also important to remember is that artificial lakes and reservoirs are charged primarily through linear WCs.  Photo identification should key on the non-linear shapes of these features, the water control structures, and the signatures discussed in category 5100.

 

5310 Artificial Lakes

Water bodies one acre or larger are included in this category. Since the primary use for these artificial lakes is recreation, some recreational characteristics such as beaches, refreshment stands, parking lots, boat slips, etc. should be present. Frequently, residential development approaches the lake shoreline. Aerial interpretation is discussed under category 5300.

 

5320 Multiple Use Reservoirs

Water bodies of one acre or larger are included in this category. The two most common combinations are flood control/recreation and hydro-electric/recreation. As in category 5310, the recreational and water control characteristics should be present and obvious. In addition, if the water body is used for flood control, the water level should be well below the maximum capacity, and, if the water body is used for hydro-electric purposes, the generating station should be present. Confer with category 53 for more specific identification information.

 

5330 Restrictive Use Reservoirs

Once again the minimum size of this feature is one acre.  Most restricted use reservoirs are municipal water supplies.  Thus, they are located in more remote, less trafficked areas of the state. They are characterized by limited road access and dense surrounding vegetation. No recreational characteristics should be present. Confer with category 5300 for more specific identification information.

 

5400 BAYS, ESTUARIES & OTHER TIDAL WATERS

This category is comprised of salt water inlets and arms of the sea that extend inland and fall within the land mass of New Jersey. All U.S.G.S. conventions delineating the open sea and bay/estuary interface shall be followed.

 

5410 Bays & Estuaries

Like all Level III features this one also must be at least one acre. Bays and estuaries have many obvious characteristics which make identification simple. Most important is their close proximity to the open sea. Next the presence of barrier beaches, shallow water and marine vegetation assure the identification. In addition, the myriad of fishing and recreation industry characteristics confirm the identification.

 

5420 Dredged Lagoon, Artificial

Artificial dredged lagoons are networks of rectangular dredged areas, containing water, usually associated with residential development or mobile home development. Dredged lagoon are generally in sites of former wetlands and have characteristically bulkheaded shorelines. They usually feed into a central dredged waterway which gives access to open tidal water.

 

6000 WETLANDS

The wetlands are those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground waters at a frequency and duration sufficient to support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Included in this category are naturally vegetated swamps, marshes, bogs and savannas which are normally associated with topographically low elevations but may be located at any elevation where water perches over an aquiclude. Wetlands that have been modified for recreation, agriculture, or industry will not be included here but described under the specific use category. The wetlands of New Jersey are located around the numerous interior stream systems, and along our coastal rivers and bays.  New Jersey, by its numerous different physiographic regions, supports various wetland habitats dependent upon physiographic and geological variables. The Level II classification separates wetlands into two categories based on the location relative to a tidal water system.

 

6100 COASTAL WETLANDS

These areas are associated with the tidal portions of the Delaware River system and the tidal portions of the watercourses draining into the Atlantic Ocean. This cover type is predominantly vegetated by herbaceous plants adapted to the varied environmental conditions imposed by the tidal environment:  water level fluctuations, salinity and sediment deposition. Also included are those non-tidal areas closely associated with adjacent coastal wetlands such as saltmarsh transition zones and coastal vegetated dunes. 

 

6110 Saline Marshes

These are open graminoid dominated regions associated with waters with salinities >1 part per thousand (0/00). Saline marshes are generally dominated by two growth forms of Spartina alterniflora in regions with the highest salinities. Marshes flowed by water less than 10 0/00 are generally brackish and co-dominated by Spartina cynosuroides, S. alterniflora, Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia, and Scirpus pungens. Marshes exhibiting these characteristics are restricted to the Delaware Bay and associated tributaries downstream of Salem and all estuarine tributaries that empty into the Atlantic Ocean. The photographic signature for these areas are smooth and low, and range in color from red to pinks on summer infrared photographs.

 

6120 Freshwater Tidal Marshes

These marshes are co-dominated by annual and perennial herbaceous vegetation on substrates associated with tidal waters with salinities less than 1 0/00. Freshwater marsh species are characterized by Nuphar lutea, Peltandra virginica, Pontederia cordata, Zizania aquatica, Polygonum punctatum, Bidens laevis, and Typha latifolia. Marshes exhibiting this cover are found on the tidal Delaware River and tributaries downstream of Trenton to Salem and upstream of the saline marshes on the Atlantic drainage watercourses.  Non-tidal marshes are listed under interior wetlands. The photographic signatures for these areas are both smooth-and rough-textured with little elevation. The colors range from dark grey to pink on summer infrared photographs. 

 

6130 Vegetated Dune Communities

These are areas near the coast that are between saline marsh and open beach. The dominant vegetation can be Ammophila breviligulata, Prunus maritimus, Rhus radicans, Juniperus virginicus, and Acer rubrum. The areas have open to partly closed canopied signatures that are rough in texture and exhibit a red to red brown color on summer infrared photographs.

 

6200 INTERIOR WETLANDS

These are generally found in non-tidal lowlands associated with primary, secondary and tertiary watercourses, and isolated wetlands. Included under this heading are all forested wetland (regardless of tidal influences) dominated by deciduous and coniferous trees, and non-tidal herbaceous marshes and savannas. 

 

6210 Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

These wetlands are closed canopy swamps dominated by deciduous trees normally associated with watercourses, edges of marshes, and isolated wetlands. The important canopy species includes Acer rubrum, Nyssa sylvatica, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Salix nigra, Quercus bicolor, Q. phellos, Q. falcata, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Platanus occidentalis.  These species combine to form a series of mixed hardwood lowland habitats throughout the entire state. These species have photographic signatures that exhibit height, rough texture, and are dark blue-gray to dark gray or black on winter infrared, and gray to dark gray on panchromatic film.

 

6220 Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

These wetlands are closed canopy, dominated by coniferous tree species associated with watercourses, seeps, and low topographic land. The northern areas will support Tsuga canadensis, Larix laricina, and Picea mariana as monotypic stands or mixed communities. The southern portion of the State has Pinus rigida and P. taeda in monotypic communities or co-dominate with Acer rubrum. Other species such as Nyssa sylvatica and Chamaecyparis thyoides may also be present. These species have photographic signatures that are varied in texture and are red to dark red on winter infrared film and dark gray to black on winter panchromatic film.

 

6221 Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands

These wetlands are predominantly closed canopy, seasonally  flooded wetlands of southern New Jersey dominated by Atlantic White Cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides. Some other trees such as Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica, and shrubs such as Vaccinium corymbosum may also be present. The dense cedar cover, however, generally precludes a heavy herbaceous layer.

 

6230 Brush-Dominate and Bog Wetlands

These wetlands are dominated by woody species which are less than 20 feet tall. These areas may be an early successionary stage to wetland dominated by canopy species or a shrub dominate community associated with marshes, isolated wetlands or bogs. The brush category will include communities composed of young saplings such as Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, Liquidambar styraciflua, and areas dominated by shrub species such as Cornus amomum, C. stolonifera, C. racemosa, Spirea alba, S. tomentosa, Viburnum dentatum, and Alnus serrulata. Bogs are Ericaceae dominated and highly acidic, normally associated with glacial areas in the north and pingoes or river ox bows in the south. Some bogs may also contain herbaceous vegetation that is unique to these habitats yet classified by this system as 6240, non-tidal marsh. The photographic signature for those cover types vary. The brush-dominated areas will have a similar signature as 6210 with more space and smaller stature. The bog areas will be round to oval, low topographically and normally separated from major watercourses. The color seen on winter infrared photographs will be dark blue-gray to black and dark gray to black on the panchromatic films.

 

6231 Decidous Brush and Bog Wetlands

This brush category will include communities composed  primarily of young samplings of deciduous tree species such as Acer rubrum, A. negundo, Liquidamber stryaciflua, Alnus serrulata, Cornus stolonifer, and C. amomum; and woody shrubs such as Vaccinium corymbosum, V. macrocarpon, Spirea alba, Viburnum dentatum, Rosa palustris, Myrica pennsylvania, M. gale, Clethra alnifolia, Cephalanthus occidentalis and Rhododendron viscosum, among others.

 

6232 Coniferous Brush and Bog Wetlands

This brush category will include communities composed  primarily of young samplings of coniferous tree species such as Pinus rigida, Larix larcinia, Tusga canadensis, and Picea mariana, and shrubs such as Chamaedaphne calyculata, and  Kalmia angustifolia.

 

6233 Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands with Deciduous Dominant Included in this category are brush and bog wetlands with a  mixture of deciduous and coniferous species, with the  deciduous species > 50% but < 75%. Species will be similar  to those described under 6231 and 6232.

 

6234 Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands with Coniferous Dominant

Included in this category are brush and bog wetlands with a  mixture of deciduous and coniferous species, with the  coniferous species > 50% but < 75%. Species will be similar to those described under 6231 and 6232.

 

6240 Non-Tidal Marshes

These are wetlands dominated by various herbaceous species that are not connected or associated with tidal waters.  Lake edges, open flood plains and abandoned wetland agricultural fields are locations for this cover type.  Leersia oryzoides, Phalaris arundinacea, Nuphar lutea, Polygonum arifolium, P. sagittatum, Typha latifolia and Phragmites are species that may dominate this cover type.  Bog herbaceous vegetation will be covered by this section includes numerous Cyperaceae genera, Juncus sp. and the carnivorous genera of Drosera and Sarracenia. This cover type will have a similar photographic signature as 6120, varied textured, and light blue-gray or tan color on winter infrared and light gray on the panchromatic photograph.

 

6250 Mixed Wooded Wetlands

Included in this category are wetlands inhabited by mixtures of deciduous and coniferous species. Species of each type will be similar to those identified under 6210 and 6220.  The dominate type of vegetation will generally be greater than 50% but less than 75%.

 

6251 Mixed Wooded Wetland with Deciduous Prevalent

This category contains mixed wooded wetlands with the  deciduous tree species > 50 % but < 75%.

 

6252 Mixed Wooded Wetlands with Coniferous Prevalent

This category contains mixed wooded wetlands with the  coniferous tree species > 50% but < 75%.  

 

7000 BARREN LAND

Barren lands are characterized by thin soil, sand or rocks and a lack of vegetative cover in a non-urban setting.  Vegetation, if present, is widely spaced. Barren land such as beaches and rock faces are found in nature but also result as a product of man's activities. Extraction mining operations, landfills and other disposal sites compose the majority of man- altered barren lands. 

 

7100 BEACHES

Beaches are predominantly composed of sand and may occur at the land-water interface of oceans, bays and estuaries. Beaches are generally-relatively elongated non-vegetated buffering systems subject to the action of waves and tides.

 

7110 Open Beach

The open beach potentially includes the sandy area from mean low water (MLW) of the foreshore to the berm crest and the backshore. The open beach is characterized by sparse vegetative cover. Other substrate types may be intermixed with sand, including pebbles, stones, silts and shells.

 

7120 Unvegetated Dune Communities

Unvegetated dune communities are comprised of areas with sparse vegetative cover, with sand substrate and with notable changes in elevations. These areas have a wind- driven origin and vary in size and shape. Dunes are found in coastal areas near large sources of sand. Vegetated dune areas are included in the Wetland categories.

 

7130 Other Sandy Areas

This category includes natural areas which have been sandy for long periods of time and perturbed areas which have been sandy and for which no known land use is evident.

 

7200 BARE EXPOSED ROCK, ROCK SLIDES, ETC.

Areas lacking vegetation and composed of rock or rock faces are included in this category. Exposed rock from highway construction is not included in this category.

 

7210 Rock Faces, Rock Slides, Cliffs

This category includes rock faces on mountains, rock slides and cliffs which are sparsely vegetated. These exposed types have a large vertical component.

 

7220 Exposed Rock

Areas consisting of exposed bedrock or other accumulation of rocks lacking vegetative cover are included. These areas have a small vertical component compared to rock faces, etc.

 

7300 EXTRACTIVE MINING

Extractive operations include a wide variety of mining activities, both surface and subsurface. Included are stone quarries, gravel, sand and clay pits, and limestone quarries to mention a few. Extractive industries are characterized by disturbed ground usually with depth, extractive machinery, buildings and roads for and with heavy equipment. Open mining areas frequently contain water. Extractive mining areas may be large as stone quarries or small as borrow pits.

 

7310 Stone Quarries

Stone quarries are characterized by right-angled rock cleavage, flat terraces, and straight vertical walls. Drill stands, air compressors and similar extractive machinery and buildings may be visible.

 

7320 Sand and Gravel Pits (Borrow Pits)

Sand and gravel pits have curved borders and sloping walls.  They often lack the vertical relief of quarries and do not generally have exposed rock associated with them. Steam shovels, bulldozers, and mechanical loaders are associated with these tow types of extraction. Sand pits may have water and consequently, dredging equipment associated with them. Sand and gravel pits show wide variability in size.

 

7330 Other Mining

Other types of mining are characterized by disturbed ground with depth, slag heaps, shafts, buildings, and active transportation (trucks, roads for heavy machinery, railways).

 

7340 Abandoned Mining Sites

Abandoned operations are often partially vegetated and may be accompanied by machinery, roads and buildings in disrepair. When vegetation dominates the site, the parcel is characterized by cover type. In contrast, active operations show evidence of operational equipment and buildings, roads for heavy machinery, etc. Current mining activity is not always distinguishable, and inactive, unclaimed and active strip, mines, quarries barrens pits and gravel pits are included in this category, until other cover or use is established. 

 

7400 ALTERED LANDS

Altered lands are areas outside of an urban setting that have been changed due to man's activities other than for mining.

 

7410 Solid Waste Disposal Areas

Junkyards, open dumps, landfills and incinerators compose the majority of solid waste disposal sites. Junkyards are collection of old automobiles, machinery or other vehicles.  Larger junkyards are fenced and have regular stacking and placing of debris, with well-defined access roads. Older abandoned yards may be vegetated and difficult to detect. Open dumps and sanitary landfills are usually located in abandoned pits, low-lying areas or other areas of low economic importance. They are characterized by steep banks, white fringes of expose debris, rough texture and lack of vegetation. Larger dumps/landfills are fenced and generally have one heavily-used access road.

 

7420 Dredge Material Disposal Sites

Dredge material disposal sites are barren areas separated from other land forms by dikes. Inside the rectangular dike systems are fine grained sands and silts either deposited in piles but more likely forming a slurry with varying amounts of water within the dike system. Old dredge material site may appear as landfills with steep sides and rough texture but without exposed debris or signs of active management.

 

7430 Disturbed Wetlands

Included in this category are former natural wetlands  which have been altered by some form of clearing, leveling,  grading, filling and/or excavating, but which still exhibit  obvious signs of soil saturation on the imagery. Because of  the alterations, these areas do not generally support typical wetlands vegetation, and may in fact be unvegetated. They do, however, exist in areas shown on the US Soil Conservation Service soil surveys to have hydric soils, and exhibit the darker tonal signatures associated with saturated soils on the photography. Colors of these areas will vary from grey to blue-grey to black on winter CIR film and grey to black on panchromatic film.

 

7500 TRANSITIONAL AREAS

This category encompasses lands on which site preparation for a variety of development types has begun. However, the future land use has not been realized. Included are residential, commercial and industrial areas under construction. Also, areas which are under construction for unknown use and abandoned structures are included. These areas are usually sparsely vegetated. Transitional Areas

 

7510 Single Unit Residential Under Construction

 

7520 Multiple Unit Residential Under Construction

 

7530 Commercial/Service Under Construction

 

7540 Industrial Under Construction

 

7550 Transportation/Communication/Utilities Under Construction

 

7560 Industrial/Commercial Parks Under Construction

 

7570 Unknown Use Under Construction

 

7580 Abandoned Structures (Non-Urban)

 

7600 UNDIFFERENTIATED BARREN LAND

Undifferentiated barren lands encompass cleared lands that have no apparent site preparation nor any indication of past activities. Such areas vary in shape and size but generally possess little vegetation, exposing the soil or surface material only. Ancillary information also gives no indication of former uses.

 

ATTACHMENT B:  Phase I Land Use/Land Cover Classification, Camden County

 

The classification was based on one developed by the OEA/USGS for land use/land cover mapping of the Hightstown quadrangle along with modifications made during the Camden County pilot. The expanded classification mostly corresponds to Level II in the USGS land use/land cover classification scheme. Some Level III categories were added for clarity. Special considerations or deviations from the OEA definitions are noted under a separate heading.  A "9" in the fourth position of a code on the ITUM indicates the interpreter's uncertainty regarding the code. A field check at a later date would resolve the code question.

 

1100 = Residential

1200 = Commercial and Services

1211 = Military Reservations

1300 = Industrial

1400 = Transportation/Communication/Utilities

1500 = Industrial and Commercial Complexes

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

1700 = Other Urban or Built-Up Land

1800 = Recreational Land

1804 = Athletic Fields (Schools)

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

2200 = Orchards, Vineyards, Nurseries, Horticultural Areas

2260 = Cranberry Bogs

2300 = Confined Feeding Operations

2400 = Other Agriculture

4100 = Deciduous Forest

4200 = Coniferous Forest

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

5100 = River Channel

5200 = Lake or Pond

5300 = Reservoir

5400 = Bay, Estuary

6110 = Saline Marshes

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

6130 = Vegetated Dune Community

6210 = Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

6221 = Cedar Swamp

6230 = Brush Dominant and Bog Wetlands

6240 = Non-tidal Marshes

7100 = Beaches

7200 = Bare Exposed Rock, Rock slides, etc.

7300 = Extractive Mining

7400 = Altered Lands

7500 = Transitional Area

 

ATTACHMENT C: Phase II Land Use/Land Cover Classification, Mercer and Ocean Counties

 

The classification was based on one developed by the OEA/USGS for land use/land cover mapping of the Hightstown quadrangle along with modifications made during Phase I of the mapping project.  The expanded classification mostly corresponds to Level II in the USGS land use/land cover classification scheme. Some Level III categories were added for clarity.  A "9" in the fourth position of a code on the ITUM indicates the interpreter's uncertainty regarding the code. A field check at a later date would resolve the code question.

 

1100 = Residential

1200 = Commercial and Services

1211 = Military Reservations

1300 = Industrial

1400 = Transportation/Communication/Utilities

1500 = Industrial and Commercial Complexes

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

1700 = Other Urban or Built-Up Land

1800 = Recreational Land

1804 = Athletic Fields (Schools)

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

2200 = Orchards, Vineyards, Nurseries, Horticultural Areas

2260 = Cranberry Bogs

2300 = Confined Feeding Operations

2400 = Other Agriculture

4100 = Deciduous Forest

4200 = Coniferous Forest

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

5100 = River Channel

5200 = Lake or Pond

5300 = Reservoir

5410 = Bay, Estuary

5420 = Dredged Lagoons

5500 = Cranberry Bogs

6110 = Saline Marshes

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

6130 = Vegetated Dune Community

6210 = Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

6221 = Cedar Swamp

6230 = Brush Dominant and Bog Wetlands

6240 = Non-tidal Marshes

7000 = Barren Land

7100 = Beaches

7200 = Bare Exposed Rock, Rock slides, etc.

7300 = Extractive Mining

7400 = Altered Lands

7500 = Transitional Areas

 

ATTACHMENT D: Phase III Land Use/Land Cover Classification, Burlington and Hudson Counties

 

The classification was based on one developed by the OEA/USGS for land use/land cover mapping of the Hightstown quadrangle along with modifications made during Phases I and II of the ITUM project. The expanded classification mostly corresponds to Level II in the USGS land use/land cover classification scheme. Some Level III categories were added for clarity. A "9" in the fourth position of a code on the ITUM indicates the interpreter's uncertainty regarding the code. A field check at a later date would resolve the code question.

 

1100 = Residential

1200 = Commercial and Services

1211 = Military Reservations

1300 = Industrial

1400 = Transportation/Communication/Utilities

1500 = Industrial and Commercial Complexes

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

1700 = Other Urban or Built-Up Land

1800 = Recreational Land

1804 = Athletic Fields (Schools)

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

2200 = Orchards, Vineyards, Nurseries, Horticultural Areas

2260 = Cranberry Bogs

2300 = Confined Feeding Operations

2400 = Other Agriculture

4100 = Deciduous Forest

4200 = Coniferous Forest

4210 = Pitch-Pine Lowland Forest

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

5100 = River Channel

5200 = Lake or Pond

5300 = Reservoir

5410 = Bay, Estuary

5420 = Dredged Lagoons

6110 = Saline Marshes

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

6130 = Vegetated Dune Community

6210 = Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

6221 = Cedar Swamp

6230 = Brush Dominant and Bog Wetlands

6240 = Non-tidal Marshes

7100 = Beaches

7200 = Bare Exposed Rock, Rock slides, etc.

7300 = Extractive Mining

7400 = Altered Lands

7500 = Transitional Areas

7600 = Undifferentiated Barren Land

 

ATTACHMENT E: Phase IV-VII Land Use/Land Cover Classification

Phase IV: Bergen, Cape May, Essex, Gloucester, Middlesex, Monmouth, and Union Counties

Phase V: Atlantic, Morris and Warren Counties (excluding Somerset County)

Phase VI: Cumberland and Salem Counties

Phase VII: Hunterdon, Passaic and Sussex Counties

 

The classification was based on one developed by the OEA for land use/land cover mapping of the Hightstown quadrangle along with modifications made during Phases I-III of the ITUM project.  The expanded classification mostly corresponds to Level II in the USGS land use/land cover classification scheme. Some Level III categories were added for clarity.

 

1100 = Residential

1200 = Commercial and Services

1211 = Military Reservations

1300 = Industrial

1400 = Transportation/Communication/Utilities

1500 = Industrial and Commercial Complexes

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

1700 = Other Urban or Built-Up Land

1800 = Recreational Land

1804 = Athletic Fields (Schools)

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

2200 = Orchards, Vineyards, Nurseries, Horticultural Areas

2260 = Cranberry Bogs

2300 = Confined Feeding Operations

2400 = Other Agriculture

4100 = Deciduous Forest

4200 = Coniferous Forest

4310 = Coniferous/Deciduous Mixed Forest

4320 = Deciduous/Coniferous Mixed Forest

4400 = Brushland/Shrubland

6110 = Saline Marshes

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

6130 = Vegetated Dune Community

6210 = Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

6221 = Cedar Swamp

6230 = Brush Dominant and Bog Wetlands

6240 = Non-tidal Marshes

7100 = Beaches

7200 = Bare Exposed Rock, Rock slides, etc.

7300 = Extractive Mining

7400 = Altered Lands

7500 = Transitional Areas

7600 = Undifferentiated Barren Land

 

ATTACHMENT F: Phase V Land Use/Land Cover Classification: Somerset County

 

The classification was based on one developed by the OEA for land use/land cover mapping of the Hightstown quadrangle along with modifications made during the Camden County pilot, and previous ITUM projects. The expanded classification mostly corresponds to Level II in the USGS land use/land cover classification scheme.  Some Level III categories were added for clarity.  However, Somerset County was mapped to a more detailed level, serving as a pilot for future ITUM projects. Specific land use/land cover classes were mapped to Level III - Level IV detail.

 

1100 = Residential

1200 = Commercial and Services

1211 = Military Reservations

1300 = Industrial

1400 = Transportation/Communication/Utilities

1461 = Wetland Rights of Way

1500 = Industrial and Commercial Complexes

1600 = Mixed Urban or Built-Up Land

1700 = Other Urban or Built-Up Land

1800 = Recreational Land

1804 = Athletic Fields (Schools)

2100 = Cropland and Pastureland

2140 = Agricultural Wetlands

2200 = Orchards, Vineyards, Nurseries, Horticultural Areas

2260 = Cranberry Bogs

2300 = Confined Feeding Operations

2400 = Other Agriculture

4110 = Deciduous Forest, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4120 = Deciduous Forest, >50% Crown Closure

4210 = Coniferous Forest, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4220 = Coniferous Forest, >50% Crown Closure

4230 = Plantation

4311 = Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4312 = Mixed with Coniferous Prevalent, >50% Crown Closure

4321 = Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent, 10 - 50% Crown Closure

4322 = Mixed with Deciduous Prevalent, >50% Crown Closure

4410 = Old Field, < 25% Brush Covered

4420 = Deciduous Brush/Shrubland

4430 = Coniferous Brush/Shrubland

4440 = Mixed Deciduous/Coniferous

6110 = Saline Marshes

6120 = Freshwater Tidal Marsh

6130 = Vegetated Dune Community

6210 = Deciduous Wooded Wetlands

6220 = Coniferous Wooded Wetlands

6221 = Cedar Swamp

6231 = Deciduous Brush and Bog Wetlands

6232 = Coniferous Brush and Bog Wetlands

6233 = Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands, Deciduous Prevalent

6234 = Mixed Brush and Bog Wetlands, Coniferous Prevalent

6240 = Non-tidal Marshes

6251 = Mixed Wooded Wetlands with Deciduous Prevalent

6252 = Mixed Wooded Wetlands with Coniferous Prevalent

7100 = Beaches

7210 = Rock Faces, Rock Slides, Cliffs

7220 = Exposed Rock

7300 = Extractive Mining

7400 = Altered Lands

7430 = Altered Land Wet

7500 = Transitional Areas

7600 = Undifferentiated Barren Land