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350 Years of NJ History

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New Jersey is a diversity of people, of places, of products and of talents. By virtue of its location and diversity, New Jersey is in many ways a microcosm of the U.S., with numerous national themes playing out within the state’s boundaries over the past 350 years.

To find a site from our collection of Sites noted for Diversity: 

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Elizabeth Cady Stanton House, 1868

T. Thomas Fortune House, 1901

Abbott Farm


Diversity: Elizabeth Cady Stanton House, 1868

New Jersey—350 Years of Diversity
Diversity blue graphic
Elizabeth Cady Stanton House Photograph

Elizabeth Cady Stanton House, 1868

Bergen County, Tenafly Borough
Private Residence
National Historical Landmark

Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) with contemporary Susan B. Anthony pioneered the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. Entering the national spotlight in 1848 at the Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, Stanton remained a vocal and influential advocate for women’s voting rights in a career spanning more than six decades. Many historians believe her most active and productive years as a reformer were spent in the two-story home she and husband Henry Brewster Stanton built in Tenafly in 1868. Here she began writing in collaboration with Anthony her most important work, the multi-volume History of Woman Suffrage, starting in 1876. Stanton lived in Tenafly until her husband’s death in 1887. Originally built in the Second Empire style with a mansard roof, it has been altered with Colonial Revival features, and remains in private ownership.

Stanton House photograph Portraits of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony photograph

Elizabeth Cady Stanton House. 
Courtesy Borough of Tenafly

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.  Courtesy Library of Congress


For more information on this site and subject, search the following terms:  “Elizabeth
Cady Stanton”  “Elizabeth Cady Stanton House Tenafly”  “Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women’s Suffage”



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Diversity T. Thomas Fortune House, 1901

New Jersey - 350 years of Diversity
Diversity Blue Graphic
Thomas Fortune Residence house photograph T. Thomas Fortune House

Monmouth County, Redbank Borough
Private Residence
National Historical Landmark, HABS

Timothy Thomas Fortune (1856-1928) achieved national prominence as a black journalist, newspaper publisher, gifted orator and strident advocate for civil rights in the late-19th and early-20th centuries.  Born into slavery in Marianna, Florida, Fortune acquired an interest in politics and journalism after the Civil War from his father, Reconstruction politician Emanuel Fortune.  Educated in Freedmen's Bureau schools in Florida and briefly at Howard University, Fortune launched a journalistic, editorial and publishing career spanning a quarter-century, principally in New York City.  His newspapers, the New York Globe, New York Freeman, and New York Age, became national forums for social and political discourse on black civil rights issues.  A sometimes uneasy collaborator with his famous contemporary, Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), Fortune acquired a reputation as a more militant, activist force, using his fame and influence to organize two early forerunners of the NAACP:  the National Afro-American League (1889) and National Afro-American Council (1898). 

Although remaining a newspaper editor and columnist, Fortune retreated from public life in 1901 due to illness.  In that year he purchased a home in Redbank at 94 West Bergen Place, an eclectic Victorian-era residence constructed in stages from 1860 to 1885, with 20th-century additions.
He resided there until 1915.

T. Thomas Fortune Portrait Engraving
T. Thomas Fortune's House Photograph

T. Thomas Fortune.
Courtesy New York Public Library

T. Thomas Fortune House.
Courtesy Historic American Buildings Survey,
Library of Congress

For more information on this site and subject, search the following terms:
"T. Thomas Fortune" "T. Thomas Fortune House Redbank" "T. Thomas Fortune Civil Rights"

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Diversity: Abbott Farm

New Jersey - 350 years of Diversity
Diversity Blue Box Mr. Charles Abbot circa 1904 Abbott Farm

Union County, Murray Hill
Holmdel Township, Monmouth
County National Historic Landmark

The Abbott Farm National Historic Landmark is located near Trenton on the terraces overlooking the Delaware River and tidal marshes comprising a rich diversity of environmental and cultural resources. The Abbott Farm was named after its owner, Charles Conrad Abbott (1843-1919), a noted scientist, naturalist, and American archaeologist, who authored numerous publications beginning in 1872 on the Native American artifacts he uncovered on his farm. These discoveries sparked a forty-year international debate and controversy regarding the antiquity of humans in the New World, and played a significant role in the developmental stages of American archaeology and geology. Many of American’s most distinguished geologists, paleontologists, and archaeologists and several leading European scholars participated in the debate. The controversy made Abbott Farm one of the best known eastern North American archaeological sites to European and American scientists and to the American public.

Building on the works of Charles Abbott and Ernest Volk, State Archaeologist Dorothy Cross conducted large-scale excavations at the Abbott Farm (1936-1940), through assistance of the Works Progress Administration, identifying the expansive remains of Native American Archaic through Woodland period (6,000-1,500 B.P.) settlements, burying grounds, and resource processing locations. While less visible, evidence was also identified for all periods of Native American occupation of North American including Paleo-Indian (12,000 B.P.) through European Contact.

The Abbott Farm is one of the most significant prehistoric archaeological sites in the eastern United States with archaeological studies continuing to the present day.

(Note: Before Present (B.P.) is a time scale used in scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use January 1, 1950 as commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the fact that radiocarbon dating became practicable in the 1950s.)

(Top Photograph) Charles Conrad Abbott circa 1904. Courtesey findagrave.com

1980s Archeaological Excavations Abbott Farm Painting of Native American circa 1590    
1980s Archaeological excavations of Area D.
Courtesy New Jersey State Museum
John White painting of an Algonquian tribal member circa 1590.  Courtesy The British Museum(Above right)
For more information on this site and subject, search the following terms:  “Abbott Farm”  “Charles Conrad Abbott”  “Native American Archaeology Abbott Farm”



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Last Updated: April 4, 2019