Nearly 500,000 people live in the Pinelands National Reserve. Population densities range from less than 10 persons per square mile in the interior sections to more than 4,000 persons per square mile in more developed communities at the edge of the region.
Agriculture, including blueberries and cranberries, as well as row and field crops, is extremely important to the region's economy. New Jersey is among the top states in the nation in the production of blueberries and cranberries, and virtually all of these are grown in the Pinelands. Other major industries are recreation, resource related industries, construction (on the periphery), and shell fishing.